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Synchronous Machine


Working principle
Types of Synchronous Machine
Comparison between cylindrical
rotor type generator and Salient pole
rotor type generator

A synchronous machine is an AC machine whose

speed is proportional to the frequency of
armature current

A machine which rotates at a speed fixed by the

supply frequency and the number of rotor poles
is called synchronous machine

It always runs at synchronous or constant speed

and has no slip

Synchronous machine includes synchronous

generators and synchronous motors

2-Pole Salient Pole M/C

4-Pole Salient Pole M/C

4-Pole Cylindrical M/C

Cylindrical Rotor type

Synchronous Generator

Salient Pole Rotor type

Synchronous Generator

A Synch. Generator consists of two main

1) Stator and
2) Rotor

Stator: The

stator is the stationary parts part of the

Synch. Generator
It works as a armature in synchronous
The armature winding is housed in it


Rotor is the rotating part of the synchronous

It work as a field of the synchronous machine
Field system is rotating in the synchronous
Field winding is housed on it
Field winding is excited by DC supply through
brushes and slip ring

It works on the principle of Electromagnetic

In the synchronous generator field system is
rotating and armature winding is steady.
Its works on principle opposite to the DC
High voltage AC output coming from the
armature terminal

Generators:Hydro-generators (Salient Pole Type):

The Synchronous generators driven by water

turbines are known as hydro generators
or Water wheel generators
They have rating upto 750 MW and are
driven at speeds ranging from 100 to 1000 RPM


(Cylidrical Rotor Type

or Wound Rotor Type):

They are driven by steam turbines

The efficiency of steam turbine is high at large
speeds, the turbo-alternators are designed
for speed upto 3000 RPM. Turbo-alternators
have ratings upto 1000MW

Engine Driven Generators:

These generators are driven by different forms of

combustion engines at speed upto 1500 RPM and
rating upto 20 MW
These generators are driven by gas turbines have
higher speeds and also higher power ratings

Motors: Synchronous Motors:

Synchronous motors may be either plain synchronous

machines or synchronous induction machines
The plain Synchronous machine
with salient
pole is commonly used.
Synchronous motors have some define advantages
over induction motors and these include constant
speed operation, Power factor control and high
operating efficiency

Also Synchronous motors prove to be cheaper

than induction motors for high power low
speed applications
machines include
for compressors, blowers, low head


Synchronous compensators are used for

control of reactive power in power supply
They are designed for ratings upto 100
MVAr and speed upto 3000 RPM

Synchronous generators are classified in two

category according to its rotor construction:

Cylindrical Rotor Type

2) Salient pole Rotor Type

Rotor Type:-

This type machines are High speed machines

(1000 to 3000 RPM)
This type machine has Small diameter and is
large axial length
This type of machines are used in Thermal
power plant and gas turbine power plant
Where speed requires high

Field Pole

Field Winding


Field Winding
Damper Bars

Cylindrical rotor:

Cylindrical rotor does not have poles that are projecting out.

The air gap between the stator and rotor is uniform.

The smooth cylindrical rotor has small no of poles.

Cylindrical rotors are mechanically strong.

They have small diameters and large axial length.

The prime movers used are steam turbines and electric motors.

They are preferred for high speed alternators which range from
1000 to 3000 RPM

Salient Pole rotor:

Salient pole rotor does have poles that are projecting out from

The air gap between the stator and rotor is non-uniform.

The salient pole rotor has large no of poles.

Saline Pole rotors are mechanically weak.

They have large diameters and small axial length.

The prime movers used are IC engines and law speed turbine.

They are preferred for law speed alternators which range from
100 RPM to 500 RPM

Thank you !