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WCDMA Link Budget Analysis

Objectives
WCDMA Uplink Link Budget Analysis
WCDMA Downlink Link Budget Analysis
HSDPA Link Budget Analysis

Link budget Calculations


Link budget
Chip rate 3840.00
UL Data rate
12.20
UL Load
50%
Voice 12.2 kbit/s, 3 km/h, Macro
4

DL data rate
DL load

12.20
80%

RECEIVING END
Thermal Noise Density
Receiver Noise Figure
Receiver Noise Density
Noise Power at receiver [NoW]
Reguired Eb/No
Soft handover MDC gain
Processing gain
Interference margin
Required Ec/Io at receiver
Receiver Sensitivity
Cable loss
Benefit of using MHA
Body loss
Antenna gain RX
Soft handover gain
Fast fading margin
Isotropic power
TRANSMITTING END
Power per connection
Cable loss
Body loss
Antenna gain TX
Peak EIRP
Isotropic path loss

Uplink
Downlink
BS
MS
dBm/Hz
-174.0
-174.0
dB
3.0
8.0
dBm/Hz
-171.0
-166.0
-105.1
-100.1
dBm
dB
4.4
7.9
dB
0.0
1.0
dB
25.0
25.0
dB
3.0
7.0
-17.6
-11.1
dB
-122.7
-111.2
dBm
dB
3.0
0.0
dB
3.0
n/a
dB
n/a
3.0
dBi
18.0
0.0
dB
2.0
2.0
dB
0.0
0.0
-142.7
-110.2
dBm
MS
dBm
dB
dB
dBi
dBm
dB

BS
21.0
0.0
3.0
0.0
18.0
160.7

34.4
3.0
n/a
18.0
49.4
159.6 DL Limited!

The calculation is done for each


service (bit rate) separately
The link budget can be used the
estimate link balance (UL vs. DL)
Limiting direction in defined
conditions

WCDMA Link budget


Link budget
Chip rate 3840.00
UL Data rate
12.20
UL Load
50%
Voice 12.2 kbit/s, 3 km/h, Macro
4

RECEIVING END
Thermal Noise Density
Receiver Noise Figure
Receiver Noise Density
Noise Power at receiver [NoW]
Reguired Eb/No
Soft handover MDC gain
Processing gain
Interference margin
Required Ec/Io at receiver
Receiver Sensitivity
Cable loss
Benefit of using MHA
Body loss
Antenna gain RX
Soft handover gain
Fast fading margin
Isotropic power
TRANSMITTING END
Power per connection
Cable loss
Body loss
Antenna gain TX
Peak EIRP
Isotropic path loss

DL data rate
DL load

12.20
80%

Uplink
Downlink
BS
MS
dBm/Hz
-174.0
-174.0
dB
3.0
8.0
dBm/Hz
-171.0
-166.0
-105.1
-100.1
dBm
dB
4.4
7.9
dB
0.0
1.0
dB
25.0
25.0
dB
3.0
7.0
-17.6
-11.1
dB
-122.7
-111.2
dBm
dB
3.0
0.0
dB
3.0
n/a
dB
n/a
3.0
dBi
18.0
0.0
dB
2.0
2.0
dB
0.0
0.0
-142.7
-110.2
dBm
MS
dBm
dB
dB
dBi
dBm
dB

BS
21.0
0.0
3.0
0.0
18.0
160.7

34.4
3.0
n/a
18.0
49.4
159.6 DL Limited!

Data Rate in UL and DL


depends on service,
can be asymmetric

Maximum Load needs to be defin


for Dimensioning:

should not exceed 70%


should be at least 30% to avoid exc
excessive
cell breathing
cell breathing
typically higher in DL than in UL

WCDMA Link budget


Link budget
Chip rate 3840.00
UL Data rate
12.20
UL Load
50%
Voice 12.2 kbit/s, 3 km/h, Macro
4

RECEIVING END
Thermal Noise Density
Receiver Noise Figure
Receiver Noise Density
Noise Power at receiver [NoW]
Reguired Eb/No
Soft handover MDC gain
Processing gain
Interference margin
Required Ec/Io at receiver
Receiver Sensitivity
Cable loss
Benefit of using MHA
Body loss
Antenna gain RX
Soft handover gain
Fast fading margin
Isotropic power
TRANSMITTING END
Power per connection
Cable loss
Body loss
Antenna gain TX
Peak EIRP
Isotropic path loss

DL data rate
DL load

12.20
80%

Uplink
Downlink
BS
MS
dBm/Hz
-174.0
-174.0
dB
3.0
8.0
dBm/Hz
-171.0
-166.0
-105.1
-100.1
dBm
dB
4.4
7.9
dB
0.0
1.0
dB
25.0
25.0
dB
3.0
7.0
-17.6
-11.1
dB
-122.7
-111.2
dBm
dB
3.0
0.0
dB
3.0
n/a
dB
n/a
3.0
dBi
18.0
0.0
dB
2.0
2.0
dB
0.0
0.0
-142.7
-110.2
dBm
MS
dBm
dB
dB
dBi
dBm
dB

BS
21.0
0.0
3.0
0.0
18.0
160.7

34.4
3.0
n/a
18.0
49.4
159.6 DL Limited!

Thermal noise density:


Theoretical background noise
density
Depends on temperature
Thermal Noise density [dBm/Hz] is
defined as:

Thermal _ Noise _ Density 10 * Log (kT )


Where:
k is Boltzman's constant
T is the temperature in Kelvin
in normal +20 C0 conditions the
thermal noise density is -173.98
dBm/Hz
Receiver Noise Figure:
Receiver performance
measure; how much
receiver decreases the
signal C/I
Requirement from
specifications
for BTS and MS
performance

WCDMA Link budget


Link budget
Chip rate 3840.00
UL Data rate
12.20
UL Load
50%
Voice 12.2 kbit/s, 3 km/h, Macro
4

RECEIVING END
Thermal Noise Density
Receiver Noise Figure
Receiver Noise Density
Noise Power at receiver [NoW]
Reguired Eb/No
Soft handover MDC gain
Processing gain
Interference margin
Required Ec/Io at receiver
Receiver Sensitivity
Cable loss
Benefit of using MHA
Body loss
Antenna gain RX
Soft handover gain
Fast fading margin
Isotropic power
TRANSMITTING END
Power per connection
Cable loss
Body loss
Antenna gain TX
Peak EIRP
Isotropic path loss

DL data rate
DL load

12.20
80%

Uplink
Downlink
BS
MS
dBm/Hz
-174.0
-174.0
dB
3.0
8.0
dBm/Hz
-171.0
-166.0
-105.1
-100.1
dBm
dB
4.4
7.9
dB
0.0
1.0
dB
25.0
25.0
dB
3.0
7.0
-17.6
-11.1
dB
-122.7
-111.2
dBm
dB
3.0
0.0
dB
3.0
n/a
dB
n/a
3.0
dBi
18.0
0.0
dB
2.0
2.0
dB
0.0
0.0
-142.7
-110.2
dBm
MS
dBm
dB
dB
dBi
dBm
dB

BS
21.0
0.0
3.0
0.0
18.0
160.7

34.4
3.0
n/a
18.0
49.4
159.6 DL Limited!

Receiver Noise Density [dBm/Hz]


Receiver noise density is the sum of
the thermal noise density and the
receiver noise figure.
Thermal Noise density [dBm/Hz] +
Receiver noise figure [dB] = Receiver
Noise Density [dBm/Hz]
In order to calculate the thermal Noise
power of the receiver (the receiver
noise floor without external
interference) the receiver noise power
is calculated at the WCDMA carrier
bandwidth.
receiver noise power [dBm] =
=Receiver Noise Density [dBm/Hz] +
10log10(3.84*106)= =-170.98 + 65.84
= -105.14 dBm
Required Eb/N0
Soft handover MDC
gain
Interference
margin

Required Eb/N0

When Eb/N0 is selected, it has to be known in which conditions it is defined (select


closest Eb/N0 value to the prevailing conditions if available)
Service and bearer
Bit rate, BER requirement, channel coding
Radio channel
Doppler spread (Mobile speed, frequency)
Multipath, delay spread
Receiver/connection configuration
Handover situation
Fast power control status
Diversity configuration (antenna diversity, 2-port, 4-port)
Some corrections have to be done in the power budget in case the conditions do
not correspond the used Eb/N0
Soft handover MDC gain
Power control gain
Fast fading margin

Soft Handover MDC Gain UL

Macro Diversity Combining (MDC) gain gives the Eb/N0 improvement in soft
handover situation compared to single link connection
In UL the MDC gain is 0 dB
Significant amount of diversity already exist
2-port UL antenna diversity, multipath diversity (Rake)
The graph includes both Softer and Soft Handover (however it is not
possible to see those gains separately)
Soft Handover combining is done at RNC level by using just
selection combining (based on frame selection)
Softer Handover combining is done at the BTS by using maximal
ratio combining
In case of more than 2 connections - no more gain (compared to case of
two branches)

Soft Handover MDC Gain UL


Dynamic Simulator
Result for 2 branches
Tx power, uplink

Soft HO
Combining

SHO MDC gain (dB)

2
1.5

Softer HO
Combining

1
0.5
0
-0.5
0

10

Difference between the SHO links (dB)


MS speed 3km/h
MS speed 20km/h
MS speed 50km/h
MS speed 120km/h

(including softer
combining gain for the
other branch)

Soft Handover MDC Gain DL

In DL there is some combining gain (about 1dB) due to UE maximal ratio


combining
soft and softer handovers included
from MS point there is no difference between soft and softer handover
average is calculated over all the connections taking into account the
average difference of the received signal branches (and UE speed)
40% of the connections in soft handover or in softer handover and 60%
no soft handover
taking into account the effect multiple transmitters
combination of dynamic simulator results and static planning tool
in case more than 2 connections - no more gain (compared to case of two
branches)
In edge of the cell a 3 4 dB MDC gain can be seen on required DL Eb/N0 in
SHO situations compared to single link reception
Combination of 2 3 signals

Soft Handover MDC Gain DL


Dynamic Simulator
Result for 2 branches
SHO MDC gain (dB)

Total DL Tx power of all branches


2
1
0
-1
-2

Soft HO

-3
-4
0

10

Difference between the SHO links (dB)


MS speed 3km/h
MS speed 20km/h
MS speed 50km/h
MS speed 120km/h

Softer HO

Interference Margin

Interference margin is calculated from the UL/DL loading () values


From set maximum planned load
"sensitivity" is decreased due to the network load (subscribers in the network) & in
UL indicates the loss in Power budget due to load.

IMargin 10 Log10 1
=

dB

IMargin [dB]
20

10
6
3
1.25
25%

50%

75%

99%

Load factor

WCDMA Link budget


Link budget
Chip rate 3840.00
UL Data rate
12.20
UL Load
50%
Voice 12.2 kbit/s, 3 km/h, Macro
4

RECEIVING END
Thermal Noise Density
Receiver Noise Figure
Receiver Noise Density
Noise Power at receiver [NoW]
Reguired Eb/No
Soft handover MDC gain
Processing gain
Interference margin
Required Ec/Io at receiver
Receiver Sensitivity
Cable loss
Benefit of using MHA
Body loss
Antenna gain RX
Soft handover gain
Fast fading margin
Isotropic power
TRANSMITTING END
Power per connection
Cable loss
Body loss
Antenna gain TX
Peak EIRP
Isotropic path loss

DL data rate
DL load

12.20
80%

Uplink
Downlink
BS
MS
dBm/Hz
-174.0
-174.0
dB
3.0
8.0
dBm/Hz
-171.0
-166.0
-105.1
-100.1
dBm
dB
4.4
7.9
dB
0.0
1.0
dB
25.0
25.0
dB
3.0
7.0
-17.6
-11.1
dB
-122.7
-111.2
dBm
dB
3.0
0.0
dB
3.0
n/a
dB
n/a
3.0
dBi
18.0
0.0
dB
2.0
2.0
dB
0.0
0.0
-142.7
-110.2
dBm
MS
dBm
dB
dB
dBi
dBm
dB

BS
21.0
0.0
3.0
0.0
18.0
160.7

34.4
3.0
n/a
18.0
49.4
159.6 DL Limited!

Required Signal power is the

required lowest signal strength that is


needed for that particular service and
load.
Required signal power = Receiver Noise
power + required Ec/I0 - Interference Margin
+ MDC gain

Cable
Loss
Benefit of using
MHA

WCDMA Link budget


Link budget
Chip rate 3840.00
UL Data rate
12.20
UL Load
50%
Voice 12.2 kbit/s, 3 km/h, Macro
4

RECEIVING END
Thermal Noise Density
Receiver Noise Figure
Receiver Noise Density
Noise Power at receiver [NoW]
Reguired Eb/No
Soft handover MDC gain
Processing gain
Interference margin
Required Ec/Io at receiver
Receiver Sensitivity
Cable loss
Benefit of using MHA
Body loss
Antenna gain RX
Soft handover gain
Fast fading margin
Isotropic power
TRANSMITTING END
Power per connection
Cable loss
Body loss
Antenna gain TX
Peak EIRP
Isotropic path loss

DL data rate
DL load

12.20
80%

Uplink
Downlink
BS
MS
dBm/Hz
-174.0
-174.0
dB
3.0
8.0
dBm/Hz
-171.0
-166.0
-105.1
-100.1
dBm
dB
4.4
7.9
dB
0.0
1.0
dB
25.0
25.0
dB
3.0
7.0
-17.6
-11.1
dB
-122.7
-111.2
dBm
dB
3.0
0.0
dB
3.0
n/a
dB
n/a
3.0
dBi
18.0
0.0
dB
2.0
2.0
dB
0.0
0.0
-142.7
-110.2
dBm
MS
dBm
dB
dB
dBi
dBm
dB

BS
21.0
0.0
3.0
0.0
18.0
160.7

34.4
3.0
n/a
18.0
49.4
159.6 DL Limited!

Body loss: this parameter describes


the additional loss in power budget.
The loss is usually used for speech
services where the UEs antenna is
often shadowed by the user's head.
For data services the body loss can be
set to 0dB, because in this case the
UE is normally not close to the body.
Soft handover
gain
Fast fading
margin

WCDMA Link budget


Link budget
Chip rate 3840.00
UL Data rate
12.20
UL Load
50%
Voice 12.2 kbit/s, 3 km/h, Macro
4

RECEIVING END
Thermal Noise Density
Receiver Noise Figure
Receiver Noise Density
Noise Power at receiver [NoW]
Reguired Eb/No
Soft handover MDC gain
Processing gain
Interference margin
Required Ec/Io at receiver
Receiver Sensitivity
Cable loss
Benefit of using MHA
Body loss
Antenna gain RX
Soft handover gain
Fast fading margin
Isotropic power
TRANSMITTING END
Power per connection
Cable loss
Body loss
Antenna gain TX
Peak EIRP
Isotropic path loss

DL data rate
DL load

12.20
80%

Uplink
Downlink
BS
MS
dBm/Hz
-174.0
-174.0
dB
3.0
8.0
dBm/Hz
-171.0
-166.0
-105.1
-100.1
dBm
dB
4.4
7.9
dB
0.0
1.0
dB
25.0
25.0
dB
3.0
7.0
-17.6
-11.1
dB
-122.7
-111.2
dBm
dB
3.0
0.0
dB
3.0
n/a
dB
n/a
3.0
dBi
18.0
0.0
dB
2.0
2.0
dB
0.0
0.0
-142.7
-110.2
dBm
MS
dBm
dB
dB
dBi
dBm
dB

BS
21.0
0.0
3.0
0.0
18.0
160.7

34.4
3.0
n/a
18.0
49.4
159.6 DL Limited!

Isotropic power is the minimum


power needed for certain service in
order to fulfil the Eb/No requirement
for that service
Isotropic power = Receiver
sensitivity + cable loss - MHA benefit
+ body loss - antenna gain - soft
handover gain +
+ fast fading margin
Power per
connection

WCDMA Link budget


Link budget
Chip rate 3840.00
UL Data rate
12.20
UL Load
50%
Voice 12.2 kbit/s, 3 km/h, Macro
4

RECEIVING END
Thermal Noise Density
Receiver Noise Figure
Receiver Noise Density
Noise Power at receiver [NoW]
Reguired Eb/No
Soft handover MDC gain
Processing gain
Interference margin
Required Ec/Io at receiver
Receiver Sensitivity
Cable loss
Benefit of using MHA
Body loss
Antenna gain RX
Soft handover gain
Fast fading margin
Isotropic power
TRANSMITTING END
Power per connection
Cable loss
Body loss
Antenna gain TX
Peak EIRP
Isotropic path loss

DL data rate
DL load

12.20
80%

Uplink
Downlink
BS
MS
dBm/Hz
-174.0
-174.0
dB
3.0
8.0
dBm/Hz
-171.0
-166.0
-105.1
-100.1
dBm
dB
4.4
7.9
dB
0.0
1.0
dB
25.0
25.0
dB
3.0
7.0
-17.6
-11.1
dB
-122.7
-111.2
dBm
dB
3.0
0.0
dB
3.0
n/a
dB
n/a
3.0
dBi
18.0
0.0
dB
2.0
2.0
dB
0.0
0.0
-142.7
-110.2
dBm
MS
dBm
dB
dB
dBi
dBm
dB

BS
21.0
0.0
3.0
0.0
18.0
160.7

34.4
3.0
n/a
18.0
49.4
159.6 DL Limited!

Peak EIRP is the maximum


transmitted power after the antenna.
Peak EIRP = power per connection cable losses - body loss + antenna
gain
EIRP = Equivalent Isotropic Radiated Power

Isotropic path loss: Maximum path


loss between the transmitting and
receiving antenna is calculated for UL
and DL separately.
Isotropic path loss UL = Peak EIRP isotropic power

HSDPA Link Budget Analysis

HS-PDSCH LINK BUDGET

In HSDPA link budget, one of two approaches can be adopted


Target uplink bit rate can be specified and link budget completed from top to
bottom to determine the maximum allowed path loss
HS-PDSCH SINR should correspond to the targeted cell edge throughput
Existing maximum allowed path loss can be specified and link budget
completed from bottom to top to determine the achievable uplink bit rate at
cell edge

The total transmit power assigned to the HS-PDSCH and HS-SCCH depends on
RNC parameters and CCCH power and in shared carrier also on DCH traffic load

HS-PDSCH does not enter soft handover

An overhead for HS-DPCCH channel has to be taken into account in UL when


HSDPA is active

HS-PDSCH link budget


Cell edge throughput affects the
required SINR
Max Tx power is the allocated power
for HS-PDSCH which depends on the
CCCH and in shared carrier also on the
required DCH power
SINR Requirement depends on the
required cell edge throughput
Spreading gain is calculated from
the used spreading factor 16
Soft handover gain is 0 dB because
no SHO on HS-PDSCH