9 views

Uploaded by Salman Muneer Ahmed

basic thermodynamic cycles

basic thermodynamic cycles

© All Rights Reserved

- Geo-biodynamics and Georgescu Roegen type economy
- Thermodynamics
- Thermodynamics
- Thermodynamics I Lecture 4
- Rp Tip Print New
- ChE 125 LE_04.pdf
- Engineering Thermodynamics-R.K Rajput
- Basic Thermodynamics lecture notes -04 nptel
- airworp66
- Thermodynamics
- Basics of Thermodynamics
- Basic Thermodynamics July 2013
- Entropy Generation at the Onset of Natural Convection
- PARADOXES OF THERMODYNAMICS AND STATISTICAL PHYSICS
- annex_03_guiding_principles.pdf
- Made Easy Online Test Series(Thermoal)
- Ahmad, Linnhoff, Smith - Design of Multipass Heat Exchangers - An Alternative Approach (ASME)
- Thermo, The Finale
- Chapter 2.2
- Tutorial 3 (ME 206)

You are on page 1of 48

Chapter 1 Thermodynamics

THERMODYNAMICS

Thermodynamics

is the study of

energy

relationships that

involve heat,

mechanical work,

and other aspects

of energy and

heat transfer.

Central Heating

this unit, you should be

to:

able

State and apply the first and

second laws of thermodynamics.

of adiabatic, isochoric, isothermal,

and isobaric processes.

Write and apply a relationship for determining

the ideal efficiency of a heat engine.

Write and apply a relationship for determining

coefficient of performance for a refrigeratior.

A THERMODYNAMIC SYSTEM

A system is a closed environment in

which heat transfer can take place.

(For example, the gas, walls, and

cylinder of an automobile engine.)

Work done

on gas or

work done

by gas

INTERNAL ENERGY OF

SYSTEM

The internal energy U of a system is the

total of all kinds of energy possessed by

the particles that make up the system.

consists of the sum of the

potential and kinetic energies

of the working gas molecules.

INTERNAL ENERGY, U.

+ U

WORK DONE

ON A GAS

(Positive)

A SYSTEM

(Positive)

INTERNAL ENERGY, U.

Wout

ho

t

Qout

-U

Decreas

e

WORK DONE

BY EXPANDING

GAS: W is

positive

ho

t

HEAT LEAVES A

SYSTEM

Q is

negative

THERMODYNAMIC STATE

The STATE of a

thermodynamic system is

determined by four factors:

Absolute Pressure P in

Pascals

Temperature T in Kelvins

Volume V in cubic

meters

Number of moles, n, of working

gas

THERMODYNAMIC PROCESS

Increase in Internal Energy,

U.

Wout

Qin

Initial

State:

P1 V1 T1 n1

Heat input

Work by gas

Final State:

P2 V2 T2 n2

Decrease in Internal Energy,

U.

Win

Qout

Initial

State:

P1 V1 T1 n1

Work on gas

Loss of

heat

Final State:

P2 V2 T2 n2

THERMODYAMICS:

The net heat put into a system is

equal to the change in internal

energy of the system plus the work

done BY the system.

Q = U + W

final - initial)

system is equal to the change in

internal energy plus the heat lost in

the process.

SIGN

CONVENTIONS FOR

FIRST LAW

Heat Q input is

positive

Work BY a gas is

positive

Work ON a gas is

negative

Heat OUT is negative

Q = U + W

+Qin

+Wout

U

-Win

U

-Qout

final - initial)

APPLICATION OF FIRST

LAW OF

THERMODYNAMICS

Wout =120

the gas absorbs 400 J of

heat and at the same time

J

does 120 J of work on the

piston. What is the

change in internal energy Qin

of the system?

400 J

Q = U + W

Law

Q is positive: +400 J (Heat IN)

W is positive: +120 J (Work

OUT)

Q = U + W

U = Q - W

U = Q - W

= (+400 J) - (+120 J)

= +280 J

Wout =120 J

Qin

400 J

U = +280 J

Law

Energy is

conserved:

The 400 J of input thermal

energy is used to perform

120 J of external work,

increasing the internal

energy of the system by

280 J

The increase in

internal energy

is:

Wout =120 J

Qin

400 J

U = +280 J

FOUR THERMODYNAMIC

PROCESSES:

Isochoric

Isochoric Process:

Process:

VV =

= 0,

0, W

W=

= 00

Isobaric

Isobaric Process:

Process:

PP =

= 00

Isothermal

Isothermal Process:

Process: TT =

= 0,

0, U

U=

= 00

Adiabatic

Adiabatic Process:

Process:

Q

Q=

= 00

Q = U + W

ISOCHORIC PROCESS:

CONSTANT VOLUME, V = 0, W =

0

0

Q = U + W

so that

Q = U

QIN

+U

QOUT

No Work

Done

-U

HEAT OUT = DECREASE IN INTERNAL

ENERGY

ISOCHORIC EXAMPLE:

No Change in

volume:

P1

PA

TA

PB

TB

V1= V2

400 J

Heat input

increases P

with const.

V

increases internal

energy by 400 J and

zero work is done.

ISOBARIC PROCESS:

CONSTANT PRESSURE, P = 0

Q = U + W

But

W = P V

QIN

+U

QOUT

Work

Out

-U

Work

In

HEAT OUT = Wout + DECREASE IN INTERNAL ENERGY

(

Pressure):

P

VA

TA

400 J

Heat input

increases V

with const.

P

V1

VB

TB

V2

of work, increasing

the internal energy by

280 J.

J

ISOBARIC WORK

P

VA

TA

400 J

V1

V2

TB

PA = P B

Work P V

VB

ISOTHERMAL PROCESS:

CONST. TEMPERATURE, T = 0, U

=0

Q = U + W

W

QIN

U =

0

Work

Out

ANDQ =

QOUT

U = 0

Work

In

WORK INPUT = NET HEAT OUT

T):

PA

A

B

PB

U = T =

0

PAVA =

PBVB

V2

V1

Slow compression at

constant

temperature: ----No change in U.

U

T):

PA

PB

U = T = 0

VA

VB

400 J of energy is

absorbed by gas as 400

J of work is done on gas.

T = U = 0

PAVA = PBVB

TA = TB

Isothermal

Work

VB

W nRT ln

VA

ADIABATIC PROCESS:

NO HEAT EXCHANGE, Q = 0

Q = U + W ; W = -U or U = -W

U = - W

W = -U

U

Work

Out

Q =

+U

Work

In

INPUT Work INCREASES internal energy

ADIABATIC EXAMPLE:

PA

A

B

PB

V1

Insulated

Walls: Q =

0

Expanding gas

does work with

zero heat loss.

Work = -U

V2

ADIABATIC EXPANSION:

PA

PB

PAVA

TA

PBVB

TB

Q = 0

VA

VB

400 J of WORK is done,

DECREASING the

internal energy by 400

J: Net heat exchange is

ZERO. Q = 0

A A

B B

PV PV

Remember the definition of specific

heat capacity as the heat per unit

mass required to change the

temperature?

Q

c

m t

For example, copper: c = 390 J/kgK

CONSTANT VOLUME

How much heat is required

to raise the temperature of 2

moles of O2 from 0oC to

100oC?

Q = nCv T

Q = (2 mol)(21.1 J/mol K)(373 K - 273 K)

Q = +4220 J

CONSTANT VOLUME (Cont.)

changed, no work is done.

The entire 4220 J goes to

increase the internal energy,

U .

Q = U = nCv T = 4220 J

U = mCv T

specific heat at constant volume.

CONSTANT PRESSURE

We have just seen that 4220 J

of heat were needed at

constant volume. Suppose we

want to also do 1000 J of work

at constant pressure?

Q = U + W

Q = 4220 J + J

Q = 5220 J

Same

Cp >

Cv

Heat to raise

temperature of an ideal

gas, U, is the same

for any process.

U = mCvT

For constant pressure

Q = U + W

nCpT = nCvT + P V

Cp > Cv

Cp

Cv

PROCESS INVOLVING AN

IDEAL GAS:

PV = nRT

Q = U + W

PAVA

TA

PBVB

TB

U = mCv T

ADIABATIC EXAMPLE:

Example 1: A diatomic gas at 300 K and

1 atm is compressed adiabatically, decreasing

its volume by 1/12. (VA = 12VB). What is the

new pressure and temperature? ( = 1.4)

PB

Q = 0

VB

PAVA

PBVB

PAVA = PBVB

A

PA

VA

TA

TB

B

PB

Q = 0

PAVA = PBVB

300 K

1

atm

12VB

PB PA

VB

A

VB 12VB

Solve for

PB:

V

PB PA

V

B

1.4

PB (1 atm)(12)

1.4

PB = 32.4 atm

or 3284 kPa

32.4

atm

Q = 0

1

atm

B TB=?

300 K

A

VB 12VB

PAVA PBVB

TA

TB

Solve for

TB

=

(300 K)

TB

TB = 810 K

and VA= 8 cm3, FIND W

B

32.4

atm

Q = 0

810 K

300 K

1

atm

A

8 cm3

96 cm3

W = - U = - nCV T &

K

Find n

from point

A

PV =

mRT

Since Q =

0,

W = - U

m=

PV

RT

and VA= 8 cm3, FIND W

PV (101,300 Pa)(8 x10-6 m3)

=

m=

RT

(8.314 J/mol K)(300 K)

n = 0.000325 mol &

W = - U = - nCV T

W = - 3.50 J

32.4

atm

810 K

300 K

1

atm

A

8 cm3

96 cm3

HEAT ENGINES

Hot Res. TH

Qhot

Engine

Qcold

Cold Res. TC

Wout

A heat engine is

any device which

through a cyclic

process:

Performs work Wout

Rejects heat Qcold

THERMODYNAMICS

Hot Res. TH

Qhot

Wout

Engine

Qcold

Cold Res. TC

It is impossible to

construct an engine that,

operating in a cycle,

produces no effect other

than the extraction of heat

from a reservoir and the

performance of an

equivalent amount of

work.

law); you cant even break even

(2nd law)!

THERMODYNAMICS

Hot Res. TH

400 J

100 J

Engine

Hot Res. TH

400 J

400 J

Engine

300 J

Cold Res. TC

A possible engine.

Cold Res. TC

An IMPOSSIBLE

engine.

EFFICIENCY OF AN ENGINE

Hot Res. TH

QH

Engine

QC

Cold Res.

TC

engine is the ratio of the

net work done W to the

heat input QH.

QH- QC

W

e=

=

QH

QH

e=1-

QC

QH

EFFICIENCY EXAMPLE

Hot Res.

TH

800 J

Engin

e

600 J

Cold Res.

TC

and wastes 600 J every

cycle. What is the

efficiency?

QC

e=1QH

e=1-

600 J

800 J

e = 25%

EFFICIENCY OF AN IDEAL

ENGINE (Carnot Engine)

Hot Res.

TH

QH

Engin

e

QC

Cold Res.

TC

quantities Q of heat

gained and lost are

proportional to the

absolute temperatures T.

TH- TC

e=

TH

e=1-

TC

TH

Summary

The First Law of Thermodynamics: The

net heat taken in by a system is equal

to the sum of the change in internal

energy and the work done by the

system.

Q = U + W

final - initial)

Isochoric Process:

0

V = 0, W =

Isobaric Process:

P = 0

Isothermal Process: T = 0, U =

0

Summary (Cont.)

Units

The Molar

Q

are:Joules per c =

Specific

n T

mole per

Heat

capacity, C: Kelvin degree

The following are true for ANY process:

Q = U + W

PAVA PBVB

TA

TB

U = nCv T

PV = nRT

Summary (Cont.)

Hot Res.

TH

Qhot

Engin

e

Wout

Qcold

Cold Res.

TC

is impossible to construct an

engine that, operating in a

cycle, produces no effect other

than the extraction of heat

from a reservoir and the

performance of an equivalent

amount of work.

law); you cant even break even

(2nd law)!

CONCLUSION: Chapter 20

Thermodynamics

- Geo-biodynamics and Georgescu Roegen type economyUploaded byfmunteanu_5
- ThermodynamicsUploaded bythakursingh143
- ThermodynamicsUploaded byjonathan2788
- Thermodynamics I Lecture 4Uploaded byPé Nấm Độc
- Rp Tip Print NewUploaded byAmit Kumar
- ChE 125 LE_04.pdfUploaded byJojie-Ann Alabarca
- Engineering Thermodynamics-R.K RajputUploaded byAnonymous V07qpt
- Basic Thermodynamics lecture notes -04 nptelUploaded byKart01
- airworp66Uploaded byAnandaMandal
- ThermodynamicsUploaded bySathya Narayanan
- Basics of ThermodynamicsUploaded byKaviArasu
- Basic Thermodynamics July 2013Uploaded byPrasad C M
- Entropy Generation at the Onset of Natural ConvectionUploaded byKarlowski Petrunov Shchijausen
- PARADOXES OF THERMODYNAMICS AND STATISTICAL PHYSICSUploaded byBR725
- annex_03_guiding_principles.pdfUploaded byGiovanni Fracastoro
- Made Easy Online Test Series(Thermoal)Uploaded byJitendra Yadav
- Ahmad, Linnhoff, Smith - Design of Multipass Heat Exchangers - An Alternative Approach (ASME)Uploaded byjdgh1986
- Thermo, The FinaleUploaded byJever Dave Latorre
- Chapter 2.2Uploaded byHaziq Yaw
- Tutorial 3 (ME 206)Uploaded bydeshraj
- Chapter 6. ThermodynamicsUploaded byhoney1002
- Laws of ThermodynamicsUploaded byAmiirah Muddhoo
- Jr Physics Thermodynamics EmUploaded bykrish
- Science Zine - Thermodynamics - 2009-06-15Uploaded bykrolithika199
- Murugappa GroupsUploaded byDeevita Dv
- Tema 2 EnergíaUploaded byJuan Esteban Bedoya
- Design of Embedded Temperature-sensor Heat Flux Gauges for Bodies with Initial Linear Temperature GradientsUploaded byDaanish Maqbool
- Plan-j Physics f4 2014Uploaded bynurulfalah
- Sensor BlanketUploaded bykishor khadka
- THERMODINAMYCSUploaded byGoblin Ikan

- is.14899.2000Uploaded bynkpatil
- CE_SET_1_GATE_2015.pdfUploaded bySandeep Joshi
- Chapter 19.pdfUploaded byStan
- Femtosecond x-ray science.pdfUploaded byAjit Upadhyay
- Friction ProblemsUploaded byDaniel Perez
- Aerodynamics for Professional PilotsUploaded byStefana Skliarenko
- Expert Answers Gassman Eq.pdfUploaded byMahmoud Eloribi
- PrinciplesRemoteSensing.pdfUploaded byMawicho Mjr
- Ppt on Holographic MemoryUploaded bySrinivas Av
- Metz 45 Cl1 Flash_enUploaded byDado Gaudi
- SHM and Waves Problem SetUploaded bybananacrunch
- Campos, On Phase-Space Representations of Quantum Mechanics Using Glauber Coherent StatesUploaded byJason Payne
- Basics of FiltersUploaded byneilstar
- Kinetic Theory of Gases_cpUploaded byMoni Kakati
- AP Chemistry Review QuestionsUploaded byKevin To
- 2012_The Chemical Composition of Brass in Nuremberg Trombones of the Sixteenth CenturyUploaded byMichael Rogers
- Planing Vessels 1Uploaded byZulhelmi Umar Baki
- Mil Std 810cUploaded byNicolasSuch
- 13MET KIN a Gas Purging System for Metallurgic 152995Uploaded byCarlos Ortega Jones
- Semiconductor LaserUploaded byRaniKhanna
- Single Bolt Embedment Design -Aci 349Uploaded byAkhtar Bahram
- Problems SetUploaded bySajith Kurian
- Carbon NanotubesUploaded byRajat Nigam
- Stationary Principle_AERSP497FUploaded byRobin James
- CFD of a Catalytic Micro-MonolithUploaded byUrsula Bologa
- Scanning and Skimming Exercises (1)Uploaded byHorasman P Simarmata
- n,l,ml,msUploaded byclassicalcat
- westinghouseUploaded byLuis Cordova
- Acetaldehyde Thermodynmic DataUploaded byAnoop
- Tutorial 1 EG501LUploaded byyehuoy11