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Engines & Transmission Systems

Chapter 1 Thermodynamics

THERMODYNAMICS
Thermodynamics
is the study of
energy
relationships that
involve heat,
mechanical work,
and other aspects
of energy and
heat transfer.

Central Heating

Objectives: After finishing


this unit, you should be
to:
able
State and apply the first and
second laws of thermodynamics.

Demonstrate your understanding


of adiabatic, isochoric, isothermal,
and isobaric processes.
Write and apply a relationship for determining
the ideal efficiency of a heat engine.
Write and apply a relationship for determining
coefficient of performance for a refrigeratior.

A THERMODYNAMIC SYSTEM
A system is a closed environment in
which heat transfer can take place.
(For example, the gas, walls, and
cylinder of an automobile engine.)
Work done
on gas or
work done
by gas

INTERNAL ENERGY OF
SYSTEM
The internal energy U of a system is the
total of all kinds of energy possessed by
the particles that make up the system.

Usually the internal energy


consists of the sum of the
potential and kinetic energies
of the working gas molecules.

TWO WAYS TO INCREASE THE


INTERNAL ENERGY, U.

+ U
WORK DONE
ON A GAS
(Positive)

HEAT PUT INTO


A SYSTEM
(Positive)

TWO WAYS TO DECREASE THE


INTERNAL ENERGY, U.
Wout

ho
t

Qout
-U
Decreas
e

WORK DONE
BY EXPANDING
GAS: W is
positive

ho
t

HEAT LEAVES A
SYSTEM
Q is
negative

THERMODYNAMIC STATE
The STATE of a
thermodynamic system is
determined by four factors:
Absolute Pressure P in
Pascals
Temperature T in Kelvins
Volume V in cubic
meters
Number of moles, n, of working
gas

THERMODYNAMIC PROCESS
Increase in Internal Energy,
U.
Wout
Qin

Initial
State:
P1 V1 T1 n1

Heat input
Work by gas

Final State:
P2 V2 T2 n2

The Reverse Process


Decrease in Internal Energy,
U.
Win
Qout

Initial
State:
P1 V1 T1 n1

Work on gas
Loss of
heat

Final State:
P2 V2 T2 n2

THE FIRST LAW OF


THERMODYAMICS:
The net heat put into a system is
equal to the change in internal
energy of the system plus the work
done BY the system.

Q = U + W

final - initial)

Conversely, the work done ON a


system is equal to the change in
internal energy plus the heat lost in
the process.

SIGN
CONVENTIONS FOR
FIRST LAW
Heat Q input is
positive
Work BY a gas is
positive
Work ON a gas is
negative
Heat OUT is negative
Q = U + W

+Qin

+Wout
U

-Win

U
-Qout

final - initial)

APPLICATION OF FIRST
LAW OF
THERMODYNAMICS

Example 1: In the figure,


Wout =120
the gas absorbs 400 J of
heat and at the same time
J
does 120 J of work on the
piston. What is the
change in internal energy Qin
of the system?
400 J

Apply First Law:

Q = U + W

Example 1 (Cont.): Apply First


Law
Q is positive: +400 J (Heat IN)
W is positive: +120 J (Work
OUT)

Q = U + W
U = Q - W

U = Q - W
= (+400 J) - (+120 J)
= +280 J

Wout =120 J

Qin
400 J

U = +280 J

Example 1 (Cont.): Apply First


Law
Energy is
conserved:
The 400 J of input thermal
energy is used to perform
120 J of external work,
increasing the internal
energy of the system by
280 J

The increase in
internal energy
is:

Wout =120 J
Qin
400 J

U = +280 J

FOUR THERMODYNAMIC
PROCESSES:
Isochoric
Isochoric Process:
Process:

VV =
= 0,
0, W
W=
= 00

Isobaric
Isobaric Process:
Process:

PP =
= 00

Isothermal
Isothermal Process:
Process: TT =
= 0,
0, U
U=
= 00
Adiabatic
Adiabatic Process:
Process:

Q
Q=
= 00

Q = U + W

ISOCHORIC PROCESS:
CONSTANT VOLUME, V = 0, W =
0
0
Q = U + W

so that

Q = U

QIN
+U

QOUT

No Work
Done

-U

HEAT IN = INCREASE IN INTERNAL ENERGY


HEAT OUT = DECREASE IN INTERNAL
ENERGY

ISOCHORIC EXAMPLE:

No Change in
volume:

P1

PA
TA

PB
TB

V1= V2
400 J
Heat input
increases P
with const.
V

400 J heat input


increases internal
energy by 400 J and
zero work is done.

ISOBARIC PROCESS:
CONSTANT PRESSURE, P = 0
Q = U + W

But

W = P V

QIN
+U

QOUT

Work
Out

-U

Work
In

HEAT IN = Wout + INCREASE IN INTERNAL ENERGY


HEAT OUT = Wout + DECREASE IN INTERNAL ENERGY

ISOBARIC EXAMPLE (Constant


(
Pressure):
P

VA
TA

400 J

Heat input
increases V
with const.
P

V1

VB
TB

V2

400 J heat does 120 J


of work, increasing
the internal energy by
280 J.
J

ISOBARIC WORK
P

VA
TA

400 J

V1

V2

TB

PA = P B

Work = Area under PV curve

Work P V

VB

ISOTHERMAL PROCESS:
CONST. TEMPERATURE, T = 0, U
=0
Q = U + W
W
QIN

U =
0

Work
Out

ANDQ =
QOUT
U = 0

Work
In

NET HEAT INPUT = WORK OUTPUT


WORK INPUT = NET HEAT OUT

ISOTHERMAL EXAMPLE (Constant


T):
PA

A
B

PB

U = T =
0
PAVA =
PBVB

V2

V1

Slow compression at
constant
temperature: ----No change in U.
U

ISOTHERMAL EXPANSION (Constant


T):
PA

PB

U = T = 0

VA
VB

400 J of energy is
absorbed by gas as 400
J of work is done on gas.
T = U = 0

PAVA = PBVB
TA = TB

Isothermal
Work

VB
W nRT ln
VA

ADIABATIC PROCESS:

NO HEAT EXCHANGE, Q = 0

Q = U + W ; W = -U or U = -W
U = - W

W = -U
U

Work
Out
Q =

+U

Work
In

Work done at EXPENSE of internal energy


INPUT Work INCREASES internal energy

ADIABATIC EXAMPLE:
PA

A
B

PB
V1

Insulated
Walls: Q =
0

Expanding gas
does work with
zero heat loss.
Work = -U

V2

ADIABATIC EXPANSION:
PA

PB

PAVA
TA

PBVB
TB

Q = 0

VA
VB
400 J of WORK is done,
DECREASING the
internal energy by 400
J: Net heat exchange is
ZERO. Q = 0

A A

B B

PV PV

SPECIFIC HEAT CAPACITY


Remember the definition of specific
heat capacity as the heat per unit
mass required to change the
temperature?

Q
c
m t
For example, copper: c = 390 J/kgK

SPECIFIC HEAT CAPACITY


CONSTANT VOLUME
How much heat is required
to raise the temperature of 2
moles of O2 from 0oC to
100oC?

Q = nCv T
Q = (2 mol)(21.1 J/mol K)(373 K - 273 K)
Q = +4220 J

SPECIFIC HEAT CAPACITY


CONSTANT VOLUME (Cont.)

Since the volume has not


changed, no work is done.
The entire 4220 J goes to
increase the internal energy,
U .

Q = U = nCv T = 4220 J
U = mCv T

Thus, U is determined by the

change of temperature and the


specific heat at constant volume.

SPECIFIC HEAT CAPACITY


CONSTANT PRESSURE
We have just seen that 4220 J
of heat were needed at
constant volume. Suppose we
want to also do 1000 J of work
at constant pressure?

Q = U + W
Q = 4220 J + J
Q = 5220 J

Same
Cp >
Cv

HEAT CAPACITY (Cont.)


Heat to raise
temperature of an ideal
gas, U, is the same
for any process.

U = mCvT
For constant pressure

Q = U + W
nCpT = nCvT + P V

Cp > Cv

Cp
Cv

REMEMBER, FOR ANY


PROCESS INVOLVING AN
IDEAL GAS:
PV = nRT

Q = U + W

PAVA
TA

PBVB
TB

U = mCv T

ADIABATIC EXAMPLE:
Example 1: A diatomic gas at 300 K and
1 atm is compressed adiabatically, decreasing
its volume by 1/12. (VA = 12VB). What is the
new pressure and temperature? ( = 1.4)
PB

Q = 0

VB

PAVA

PBVB

PAVA = PBVB
A

PA

VA

TA

TB

ADIABATIC (Cont.): FIND PB


B

PB

Q = 0

PAVA = PBVB
300 K

1
atm

12VB
PB PA

VB

A
VB 12VB

Solve for
PB:
V
PB PA

V
B

1.4

PB (1 atm)(12)

1.4

PB = 32.4 atm
or 3284 kPa

ADIABATIC (Cont.): FIND TB


32.4
atm

Q = 0

1
atm

B TB=?
300 K

A
VB 12VB

PAVA PBVB

TA
TB

Solve for
TB

(1 atm)(12VB) (32.4 atm)(1 VB)


=
(300 K)
TB
TB = 810 K

ADIABATIC (Cont.): If VA= 96 cm3


and VA= 8 cm3, FIND W
B

32.4
atm

Q = 0

810 K
300 K

1
atm

A
8 cm3

96 cm3

W = - U = - nCV T &
K
Find n
from point
A

PV =
mRT

Since Q =
0,
W = - U

CV= 21.1 j/mol


m=

PV
RT

ADIABATIC (Cont.): If VA= 96 cm3


and VA= 8 cm3, FIND W
PV (101,300 Pa)(8 x10-6 m3)
=
m=
RT
(8.314 J/mol K)(300 K)
n = 0.000325 mol &

CV= 21.1 j/mol K

T = 810 - 300 = 510 K

W = - U = - nCV T
W = - 3.50 J

32.4
atm

810 K
300 K

1
atm

A
8 cm3

96 cm3

HEAT ENGINES
Hot Res. TH

Qhot
Engine

Qcold
Cold Res. TC

Wout

A heat engine is
any device which
through a cyclic
process:

Absorbs heat Qhot


Performs work Wout
Rejects heat Qcold

THE SECOND LAW OF


THERMODYNAMICS
Hot Res. TH

Qhot

Wout

Engine

Qcold
Cold Res. TC

It is impossible to
construct an engine that,
operating in a cycle,
produces no effect other
than the extraction of heat
from a reservoir and the
performance of an
equivalent amount of
work.

Not only can you not win (1st


law); you cant even break even
(2nd law)!

THE SECOND LAW OF


THERMODYNAMICS
Hot Res. TH

400 J

100 J

Engine

Hot Res. TH

400 J

400 J

Engine

300 J
Cold Res. TC

A possible engine.

Cold Res. TC

An IMPOSSIBLE
engine.

EFFICIENCY OF AN ENGINE
Hot Res. TH

QH

Engine

QC
Cold Res.
TC

The efficiency of a heat


engine is the ratio of the
net work done W to the
heat input QH.
QH- QC
W
e=
=
QH
QH
e=1-

QC
QH

EFFICIENCY EXAMPLE
Hot Res.
TH

800 J

Engin
e

600 J

Cold Res.
TC

An engine absorbs 800 J


and wastes 600 J every
cycle. What is the
efficiency?
QC
e=1QH
e=1-

600 J
800 J

e = 25%

Question: How many joules of work is done?

EFFICIENCY OF AN IDEAL
ENGINE (Carnot Engine)
Hot Res.
TH

QH

Engin
e

QC

Cold Res.
TC

For a perfect engine, the


quantities Q of heat
gained and lost are
proportional to the
absolute temperatures T.
TH- TC
e=
TH
e=1-

TC
TH

Summary
The First Law of Thermodynamics: The
net heat taken in by a system is equal
to the sum of the change in internal
energy and the work done by the
system.
Q = U + W
final - initial)
Isochoric Process:
0

V = 0, W =

Isobaric Process:

P = 0

Isothermal Process: T = 0, U =
0

Summary (Cont.)
Units
The Molar
Q
are:Joules per c =
Specific
n T
mole per
Heat
capacity, C: Kelvin degree
The following are true for ANY process:

Q = U + W

PAVA PBVB

TA
TB

U = nCv T

PV = nRT

Summary (Cont.)
Hot Res.
TH

Qhot

Engin
e

Wout

Qcold

Cold Res.
TC

The Second Law of Thermo: It


is impossible to construct an
engine that, operating in a
cycle, produces no effect other
than the extraction of heat
from a reservoir and the
performance of an equivalent
amount of work.

Not only can you not win (1st


law); you cant even break even
(2nd law)!

CONCLUSION: Chapter 20
Thermodynamics