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The Elements

of Teaching and

The principal elements that make teaching and learning

possible and attainable are the teachers, the learners,
and a conducive learning environment. The teacher
serves as the prime mover of the educational wheel. The
learners are the key participants in the learning process.
The favourable environment provides essential features
and ingredients that could make headway in guiding the
processes and methodologies needed for a smooth
linkage among the three.

The Learner

The Nature of the Learner

The learner is an embodied spirit, a union
of a sentient body and a rational soul.
His body experiences sensations, and
feels pleasure and pain. His soul is the
principle of spiritual acts, the source of
intellectual abstraction, self reflection,
and free rational volition.

The Fundamental Equipment of the



Rational Will

Five (5) senses


All learners are equipped with cognitive as

well as appetitive faculties however, they
differ in the degree to which they are utilized
and expressed on the account of the learners
abilities, aptitudes, interests, values and
attitudes and home background.
1. Ability
The students native ability dictates the
prospects of success in any purposeful
activity. It determines their capacity to
understand and assimilate information for

2. Aptitude
It refers to the students innate talent or gift.
It indicates a natural capacity to learn certain
3. Interests
Learners vary in activities that are undertaken
due to a strong appeal or attraction. Lessons
that give the learners the chance to express
themselves will be more meaningful and
easily absorbed.

4. Family & Cultural background

Students who come from different
socioeconomic background manifest a wide
range of behaviour due to differences in
upbringing practices.
5. Attitudes
Attitude refers to an individual perspective
and disposition.
Some positive attitudes are curiosity,
responsibility, creativity & persistence.

Gardners Multiple Intelligence

1. Verbal-linguistic Intelligence
2. Logical-mathematical Intelligence
3. Spatial Intelligence
4. Bodily-kinaesthetic Intelligence
5. Musical Intelligence
6. Interpersonal Intelligence
7. Intrapersonal Intelligence
8. Naturalist Intelligence

Learning Styles
1. Sensing-thinking (Mastery Learner)
2. Intuitive thinking (Understanding
3. Intuitive-Feeling (Self-Expressive
4. Sensing-Feeling (Interpersonal

The Teacher

The Professional

The professional teacher is the licensed professional

who possesses dignity with high moral values as well
as technical and professional competence...he adheres
to, observes, and practices a set of ethical and moral
principles, standards, and values. (Code of Ethics of
Professional Teachers, 1997). The professional teacher
is the one who went through four to five year period of
rigorous academic preparation in teaching and one
who is given a license to teach by the Board of
Professional Teachers of the Professional Regulation
Commission after fulfilling requirements prescribed by

Professional Attributes
A professional teacher possesses the following attributes:
Control of the knowledge base of teaching and learning and use this
knowledge to guide the science and art of his/her teaching practice.
Repertoire of best teaching practice and can use these to instruct children in
classrooms and to work with adults in the school setting.
Disposition and skills to approach all aspects of his/her work in a reflective,
collegial, and problem-solving manner.
View of learning to teach as a lifelong process and dispositions and skills for
working towards improving his/her own teaching as well as improving

Personal Attributes
Personality is the sum of ones personal characteristics. It is ones
Teachers are judged more strictly than any other professionals. The
personality they project determines they make upon students and
Personalities may be described as authoritative, weak, dynamic, or
magnetic. Teachers personality must be natural and genuine,
devoid of pretences and artificiality. They must be consistent, true
and authentic.

1. Passion
Passion in teaching is a compelling force that emerges from
ones inborn love for children. Passionate teachers exude
spontaneity in ministering to the needs of the students
especially those experiencing learning difficulties.
2. Humor
Humor stands for anything funny, which elicits a smile, laughter
or amusing reaction. It is an essential quality of teachers that
serves a number of purposes.

3. Values and Attitudes

Teachers are model of values. Values connote standards, code of ethics
and strong beliefs.
a. Open-mindedness is basic in promoting respect and trust between
teachers and students
b. Fairness and impartiality eliminates discrimination. Teachers must
be unbiased and objective in judging their students work and
c. Professionalism is highly treasured in the teaching profession.
Teachers are adjudged professional if they are knowledgeable,
skilled and value-laden.

4. Patience
In teaching, patience refers to a teachers
uncomplaining nature, self-control and persistence.
Patient teachers can forego momentous frustrations
and disappointments. They calmly endure their
students limitations and difficulties. The teachers
capacity to adjust his methodologies could allay the
tension and save time and effort for appropriate

5. Enthusiasm
Enthusiasm is synonymous to eagerness and excitement. Enthusiastic
teachers are full of energy and dynamism. With enthusiastic
teachers, students look forward to any activity they can participate in
with them.
Commitment is a solemn promise to perform the duties and
responsibilities mandated by the laws and code of ethics of the
profession. It is an unwavering pledge to perform all teaching and
learning activities with consistency and selflessness to the best
interest of the students under their care.

The Learning
To heredity, the child owes his
However, to environment, he
owes the realization of these

The learning environment is the place where teaching and
learning can take place in the most effective and
productive manner. It consists of the classroom and all
the instructional features and the non-threatening
classroom climate needed in planning and
implementing all teaching and learning activities.

Arrangement of Furniture
The furniture, like the table for demonstration located in front of the room
and the chairs facing it are neatly arranged with sufficient spaces inbetween for ease in moving around. Display shelves for safekeeping
of projects, collections and outstanding work are located at the sides.
Attached to the wall is the bulletin board for hanging posters,
announcements and illustrations about the unit being undertaken.
During discussions, the board in front is used for clarifying step-bystep procedures and making clearer diagrams, illustrations and

Teaching devices like globes, maps and charts are kept in nearby
cabinets, together with simple tools and materials. A temporary
table is placed at the right side where supplies, materials and
handled instruments are arranged, ready for the days lesson.

Physical Condition of the

As soon as the students enter they are attracted by a clean
and orderly set-up. Natural light and flowing fresh air add to
their comfort and ease. Free from noise coming from the
surroundings, students concentration and interest are
easily sustained. The doors and windows could be opened
and closed with less difficulty and noise. The light fixtures
are located where needed.

A diverse situation may exist in the classroom at any given time.
Students differ in abilities and interests while teachers likely
employ different strategies. Teachers must be sensitive to
positive or negative interactions and must immediately
undertake an instant revision or adjustment in the methodology
when necessary. The primary goal is to be able to motivate
them to work harmoniously, thereafter, inculcate the values of
cooperation and congeniality.

A Facilitative Learning
Pine and Horn (1990) described the learning environment that facilitates
learning. It is an environment:
Which encourages people to be active;
Which promotes and facilitates the individuals discovery of the
personal meaning of idea;
Which emphasizes the uniquely personal and subjective nature of
learning in which difference is good and desirable;

Which consistently recognizes peoples right to make mistakes;

Which tolerates ambiguity;
In which evaluation is a cooperative process with emphasis on selfevaluation;
Which encourages openness of self rather than concealment of self;
In which people are encouraged to trust in themselves as well as in
external resources;
In which people feel they are respected;
In which people feel they are accepted;
Which permits confrontation.

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