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Social Change
! M.E Jones on social change
! Features: Temporal, continuous, Environmental, Rate of
change, Direction of change
! Causes of social change:
1. Strain and conflict
2. Social problems
3. Cultural change
4. Impact of natural factors (non-social environment)
! Sources of social change
1. Diffusionist
2. Inventionist
Cultural Change
! Changes/variations in any branch of culture including
art, science, technology, philosophy etc. ,as well as the
changes in the forms and rules of social organization
which indeed affect human relations.
! Social changes is only a part of cultural change.
! Examples:
Rise of organised labour in the capitalist society
Introduction of communism

Change in human relations

Changes in economic org, administration, ecn. policies

Social Evolutions
! Evolution of mans social relations
! Explanation for how our society evolved and how our
civilization come to be what it is today
! Factors involved: Accumulation, Invention Diffusion,
! How does it help in the sociological study?
1. Helps us to know what actually happens within the
society in its structure
2. To arrange a multitude of facts in a significant order
3. Classifying and characterising the social system
4. Helps us to know the direction of change
! Social evolution Vs organic evolution
August Comte: Law of three stages
! Evolution of the human mind has paralleled the evolution of the
individual mind.
1. Theological/Fictitious stage
! Suited to military/monarchial type of society

Fetishism Polytheism Monotheism

2. Metaphysical/Abstract stage
God is an abstract being
Suited to legal type of society
Doctrine of abstract or natural rights
3. Positive/Scientific stage
Intellectual way of thinking
Suits the needs of the industrial society
Transformation and production of materials
Herbert Spencer: Theory of

Indefinite Definite
Incoherent Coherent
Homogeneity Heterogeneity

! Social evolutions is also as rigid as organic evolutions

! Evolution is bound towards progress
! The process of equilibrium involved in evolution
General Evolution Theory

Law of persistence of energy

Law of indestructibility of matter
Basic laws
Law of continuity of motion

Uniformity of law
Law of transformation
Law of attraction
propositions Principle of alteration
Social Evolution Theory
! Change from simplicity to complexity.
Doubly Trebly
simple compound cmpd cmpd
Change from military society to industrial society.

Compulsory co-operation
Centralised government
Military Economic autonomy
Domination of state over all social organisations

Voluntary co-operation
Decentralised government
Industrial No Economic autonomy
Limited functions of the state
Spencers Theory of Organic
! Society is like a biological organism
1. Alimentary system = industries
2. Circulation = transportation lines
3. Regulating system = social control institutions
! Similarity in growth
! Increase in complexity of the structure
! Differentiation of structure leading to differentiation of
! Harmony between organs
! Loss of an organ doesnt result in the loss of an
Differences between Organism and
! Organs are organised but parts of the society are independent.
! Society doesnt form like an organism.
! Dependence of organs or parts.
! Functions are dynamic for the society.

Social Darwinism
The principle of survival of the fittest
The principle of Non-interference
Racial and colour overtones which shows that some races were
superior than the other.
Not applicable in nations with large no. of population
Cannot justify the status quo.
Criticism of H.Spencer
! Underrates the intellectual nature of primitive man.
! Attempt to equalize evolution with progress is totally
! No uniformity in the process of evolution
! Served the colonial interest of the Europeans

Criticism of A. Comte
! Failed to give a socialist view of evolution.
! Unlinear theories
! Ethnocentric
! Technologically advanced, morally backward
! Societies may or may not develop in sequence
! Wrongly equating change with progress
! Comte: Intellectual evolution is the most important
aspect in the human progress.
! Sociobiology is based on the idea that some behaviors
(both social and individual) are at least partly inherited
and can be affected by natural selection.
! Herbert Spencer was one of the pioneers of Socio-
biological studies.
! New theories such as Scientific racism, Multilineal
evolution has emerged.
! Old wine in a new bottle: An economic transition has
occurred from a manufacturing based economy to a
service based economy, a diffusion of national and global
capital, and mass privatization.