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GVPT: Hồ Trung Mỹ
Môn học: Quang Điêên Tư

Chương 5

Sợi quang
(Optical Fiber)


Nô êi dung

Giới thiêêu
Nguyên tắc TIR (phản xạ toàn phần bên trong)
Các loại sợi quang
Mất mát trong sợi quang
Tán sắc trong sợi quang
Giới thiêêu các ứng dụng của sợi quang
Qui trình chế tạo sợi quang


Optical Fiber
Communication system with light as the carrier and
fiber as communication medium
Propagation of light in atmosphere impractical: water
vapor, oxygen, particles.
Optical fiber is used, glass or plastic, to contain and
guide light waves

Microwave at 10 GHz with 10% utilization ratio: 1 GHz BW
Light at 100 Tera Hz (1014 ) with 10% utilization ratio:
10 THz (10,000GHz)


16 dB/km 4 . Photo phone.History • 1880 Alexander G. Bell. • Few years later image through a single glass fiber • 1951: Flexible fiberscope: Medical applications • 1956:The term “fiber optics” used for the first time • 1958: Paper on Laser & Maser • 1960: Laser invented • 1967: New Communications medium: cladded fiber • 1960s: Extremely lossy fiber: more than 1000 dB /km • 1970. transmit sound waves over beam of light • 1930: TV image through uncoated fiber cables. Corning Glass Work NY. Fiber with loss of less than 2 dB/km • 70s & 80s : High quality sources and detectors • Late 80s : Loss as low as 0.

Optical Fiber: Advantages • Capacity: much wider bandwidth (10 GHz) • Crosstalk immunity • Immunity to static interference • Safety: Fiber is nonmetalic • Longer lasting (unproven) • Security: tapping is difficult • Economics: Fewer repeaters 5 .

Disadvantages • • • • • higher initial cost in installation Interfacing cost Strength: Lower tensile strength Remote electric power more expensive to repair/maintain – Tools: Specialized and sophisticated 6 .

Advantage of Optical Fiber Communication • • • • • • • • • Enormous potential bandwidth Small size and weight Electrical isolation Immunity to interference and crosstalk Signal security Low transmission Flexibility System reliability and ease of maintenance Potential low cost 7 .

Optical Fiber Link Input Signal Transmitter Coder or Light Converter Source Source-to-Fiber Interface Fiber-optic Cable Fiber-to-light Interface Light Detector Amplifier/Shaper Output Decoder Receiver 8 .

• Light source: LED or ILD (Injection Laser Diode): – • • amount of light emitted is proportional to the drive current Source –to-fiber-coupler (similar to a lens): A mechanical interface to couple the light emitted by the source into the optical fiber Light detector: PIN (p-type-intrinsic-n-type) or APD (avalanche photo diode) both convert light energy into current 9 .

(Thanh/phiến) (Dải [mỏng]) (Sợi) 10 .

2. 6. 3. 5. Giới thiêêu Nguyên tắc TIR (phản xạ toàn phần bên trong) Các loại sợi quang Mất mát trong sợi quang Tán sắc trong sợi quang Giới thiêêu các ứng dụng của sợi quang Qui trình chế tạo sợi quang 11 . 7. 4.Nô êi dung 1.

9º. θa = 11. with very low index contrast and large core size In multi-mode fibers. NA = 0.Optical fiber: a cylindrical waveguide made of glass.02  Common dopants for SiO2 fiber • Ge.209 2 2 NA  ncore  nclad  sin  a 1μm Single-mode fiber core Silicon waveguide 12 .44 & nclad = 1. dcore >> λ cladding core dcore Step-index fiber  Δn = ncore – nclad <<1. B. typical Δn = 0.46.001 ~ 0. Ti  Numerical Aperture (NA) • Light gathering power θa • For a silica fiber with ncore = 1.

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n2 sin  c  n1 [2-19] 16 . Critical angle 2 ki 1 Incident light Transmitted (refracted) light kt n2 kr n 1 > n2 Reflected light (a) n sin  c  2 n1  2  90  c Critical angle (b) Evanescent wave 1   c TIR 1 (c) Light wave travelling in a more dense medium strikes a less dense medium. the wave may be transmitted (refracted) or reflected. which is determined by the ratio of the refractive indices. (a) 1   c  (b)  1   c   (c)  1   c and total internal reflection (TIR).Total internal reflection. Depending on the incidence angle with respect to  c .

• We can calculate the value of the critical angle by assuming the angle of refraction to be 90° and transposing Snell’s law: n1sin(φ1)= n2sin(90°) 17 . the angle of refraction reaches 90° and the light is refracted along the boundary between the two aterials. The angle of incidence which results in this effect is called the critical angle.Critical Angle  critical (or  c) • As the angle of incidence in the first material is increased. there will come a time when. eventually.

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This type of ray is the simplest to describe and is generally used when illustrating the fundamental transmission properties of optical fibers. 20 .The transmission of a light ray in a perfect optical fiber The light ray shown in the above figure is known as a meridional ray as it passes through the axis of the fiber core.

Fiber Optics use Visible & Infrared 21 .

The infrared windows used in fiber optics 22 .

The Complete Optic Fiber 23 .

it travels in the cladding and so the optical clarity of the cladding is still important. • The buffer and the jacket are only for mechanical protection.Three points which are important to appreciate • The optic fiber is solid. 24 . • The light is transmitted through the core but to a small extent. there is no hole through the middle.

• To be refracted it must enter the cladding. the light ray is reflected back into the first material by the process of refraction (TIR). Light enter cladding during reflection 25 . • An opaque (unclear) cladding would prevent the ray from being propagated along the fiber since the light would not be able to pass through the cladding.Why does the light enter the cladding? • If the angle of incidence is greater than the critical angle.

and is often referred to as the acceptance angle for the fiber.Acceptance angle  a The acceptance angle θa when launching light into an optical fiber θa is the maximum angle to the axis at which light may enter the fiber in order to be propagated. 26 .

Numerical aperture (NA) The ray path for a meridional ray launched into an optical fiber in air at an input angle less than the acceptance angle for the fiber. where Chú ý: Ánh sáng tới từ chân không hay không khí có n0=1 27 .

1: Solution.Example 6. (a)The critical angle  c at the core–cladding interface (b)The NA (c)The  a 28 .

2: Solution.   29 .Example 6.

fibers are available for short-haul communications (e. within an automobile). rather than glass. 0. and so partially offset the high propagation losses and also enable alignment tolerance. These fibers are restricted to short lengths because of the relatively high attenuation in plastic materials.4 – 0.1 to 0.g. 30 . – Plastic optical fibers (POFs) are designed to have high numerical apertures (typically. – The low NA makes coupling efficiency tend to be poor. but turns out to improve the fiber’s bandwidth! • Plastic.Typical fiber NA • Silica fibers for long-haul transmission are designed to have numerical apertures from about 0.5) to improve coupling efficiency.3.

is a measure of the distance between successive reflections.Skip distance The skip distance. 31 . Ls.

Nô êi dung 1. 5. Giới thiêêu Nguyên tắc TIR (phản xạ toàn phần bên trong) Các loại sợi quang Mất mát trong sợi quang Tán sắc trong sợi quang Giới thiêêu các ứng dụng của sợi quang Qui trình chế tạo sợi quang 32 . 4. 6. 7. 2. 3.

Names of different rays The skew ray (tia lệch hay nghiêng) does not pass through the center . 33 . The meridional ray (tia kinh tuyến) passes through the center. The axial ray (tia [hướng] trục) stays in the center all the time.

Modes (cách/chế đô )ê • Discrete Set of Paths Allowed – Modes • Number of Modes Core Off Axis Modes – Wavelength of Light – Fiber Properties Axial (Fundamental Mode) 34 .

makes it more difficult to couple to light sources 35 .Modes • Since optical fiber is a waveguide. If a fiber is of large diameter. Its small size. which results in the spreading of pulses and limits the usable bandwidth • Single-mode fiber has much less dispersion but is more expensive to produce. light entering at different angles will excite different modes while narrow fiber may only excite one mode • Multimode propagation will cause dispersion. together with the fact that its numerical aperture is smaller than that of multimode fiber. light can propagate in a number of modes.

36 .Multimode fiber • Multimode fibers have larger cores (about 62.5 microns in diameter) and transmit infrared light (wavelength = 850 to 1300 nm). Used to transmit signals (used in computer networks. local area networks). • Multimode Step Index fiber (MMSI): In which the refractive index of the core is uniform throughout and undergoes an sudden (step) at the core -cladding boundary. It allows a multiple modes to propagate through this fiber. • Multimode Graded Index fiber (MMGI): The core refractive index is made to vary as a function of the radial distance from the center of the core of the fiber It allows a multiple modes to propagate along it.

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Types of Optical Fiber • Single Mode (đơn cách) – 5-10microns – Wide bandwidth Single Mode • Multimode (đa cách) Graded Index Muntimode – GI (chiết suất biến đổi đều) • LANs – Step (chiết suất bước) Step Index Multimode • Medical/Laser 42 .

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Single mode fiber • Single mode Step Index fiber (SMSI): Only a single path exists through the cable core through which light can travel. • Used to transmit one signal per fiber (used in telephones and cable TV). 44 . The SMSI fiber has small cores (2-10 μm in diameter) and transmit infrared laser light (wavelength = 1300 to 1550 nm).

Single mode step index fiber (c) Single mode step index fiber 45 .

facilitating easier coupling to optical sources  lower tolerance requirements on fiber connectors. as well as core diameters. whereas with multimode step index fiber considerable dispersion may occur due to the differing group velocities of the propagating modes. • For lower bandwidth applications multimode fibers have several advantages over single-mode fibers. MM • The single-mode step index fiber has advantage of low intermodal dispersion. 46 . These are:  The use of spatially incoherent optical sources  larger numerical apertures.SM vs. as only one mode is transmitted.

V  2   a  n1 ( 2 ) 1/ 2  2  1/ 2  a  NA . • The total number of guided modes or mode volume Ms for a step index fiber is related to the V value for the fiber by the approximate expression: 47 .The number of guided modes • The number of guided modes is dependent upon the physical parameters.e. NA  n1 ( 2 ) .  n1  n2 2n12 • There is a cutoff value of normalized frequency Vc for guided modes below which they cannot exist.  – Core radius a – The wavelengths of the transmitted light  which are included in the normalized frequency V for the fiber. i. – Relative refractive index difference.

Example 48 .

5 and with a core radius of 50µm operating at 1550 nm.53. n2 = 1. 1846 49 .Example: Calculate the cut off number ( normalized frequency ) and number of modes supported by the step index fiber with n1 = 1.

• This index variation may be represented as: where Δ is the relative refractive index difference and α is the profile parameter which gives the characteristic refractive index profile of the fiber core.Graded index fibers • Graded index fibers do not have a constant refractive index in the core but a decreasing core index n(r) with radial distance from a maximum value of n1 at the axis to a constant value n2 beyond the core radius a in the cladding. 50 .

a parabolic profile when α = 2 and a triangular profile when α = 1 The graded index profiles which at present produce the best results for multimode optical propagation have a near parabolic refractive index profile core with α ~2 51 . allows representation of the step index profile when α = ∞.Refractive index profile • The refractive index profile of the fiber core as a variation of α.

Ray diagram in graded index fiber An expanded ray diagram showing refraction at the various high to low index interfaces within a graded index fiber. giving an overall curved ray path 52 .

Ray transmission in a MMGI fiber 53 .

A helical skew ray path within a graded index fiber 54 .

• Graded index fibers. • Multimode graded index fibers exhibit far less intermodal dispersion • Multimode graded index fibers have the advantage of large core diameters (greater than 30 μm) coupled with bandwidths suitable for long distance communication. • The near axial rays are transmitted through a region of higher refractive index and therefore travel with a lower velocity than the more extreme rays. accept less light than corresponding step index fibers with the same relative refractive index difference. therefore. 55 .• The rays traveling close to the fiber axis have shorter paths when compared with rays which travel into the outer regions of the core.

Example NA  n1 (2) 1/ 2  n1  n2 2n12 For a parabolic refractive index profile core fiber (α = 2). which is half the number supported by a step index fiber (α = ∞) with the same V value. 56 . Mg = V2/4.

Single-mode fibers • The advantage of the propagation of a single mode within an optical fiber is that the signal dispersion caused by the delay differences between different modes in a multimode fiber may be avoided • for the transmission of a single mode the fiber must be designed to allow propagation of only one mode. while all other modes are attenuated by leakage or absorption • Single-mode propagation in step index fibers is possible over the range: 0 ≤ V < 2.405 57 .

92% If this fiber is operated at 1550 mm. how many modes will it have? Ans. n 1=1.45 and ∆=0. 508 . Normalized cut off frequency.Example Consider a fiber with diameter 8μm.

3μm. Omar Abu-Ella 59 .5. of modes propagation is 1100 and wavelength of operation is 1. No. core refractive index n1 = 1. Ans.Example Calculate the diameter of the fiber core of relative refractive index difference is 10%.

estimate The maximum core diameter for single-mode operation when the relative refractive index difference is reduced by a factor of 10. Solution: Considering the relationship given by (0 ≤ V < 2. Further.48) in order that it may be suitable for single-mode operation.405).Example Estimate the maximum core diameter for an optical fiber with the same relative refractive index difference (1.85 μm). Reducing the relative refractive index difference by a factor of 10 and again using (V = an1(2Δ)1/2) Hence the maximum core diameter for single-mode operation is now approximately 8 μm. from (V = an1(2Δ)1/2) the core radius a is: = 1.3 μm Therefore the maximum core diameter for single-mode operation is approximately 2. It may be assumed that the fiber is operating at the same wavelength (0. the maximum V value for a fiber which gives single-mode operation is 2.5%) and core refractive index (1.4. Hence.6 μm. 60 .

n2 O O' O'' 3 2 1 2 3 n1 n2 © 1999 S. n (b) Graded index fiber. Ray paths are different so that rays arrive at different times.O. Optoelectronics (Prentice Hall) 61 . Ray paths are different but so are the velocities along the paths so that all the rays arrive at the same time.Step and Graded Index Fibers n2 n1 3 2 1 O n (a) Multimode step index fiber. Kasap.

O. Optoelectronics (Prentice Hall) 62 . (b) TIR Continuous decrease in n gives a ray path changing continuously. (b) In a medium where n decreases continuously the path of the ray bends continuously. Kasap. (a) A ray in thinly stratifed medium becomes refracted as it passes from one layer to the next upper layer with lower  n and eventually its angle satisfies TIR. very thin layers. © 1999 S.Total Internal Reflection (a) TIR n decreases step by step from one layer to next upper layer.

 3 3 (a) A meridional ray always crosses the fiber axis. It zigzags around the fiber axis. Optoelectronics  (Prentice Hall) 63 .Skew Rays (các tia lê êch/nghiêng) meridional ray = tia kinh tuyến Along the fiber 1 1. Ray path projected on to a plane normal to fiber axis Illustration of the difference between a meridional ray and a skew ray. Numbers represent reflections of the ray. © 1999 S. Meridional ray Fiber axis 2 2 Skew rays circulate around the core and increase the dispersion 1 2 1 Skew ray Fiber axis 5 3 5 4 Ray path along the fiber 4 2 3 (b) A skew ray does not have to cross the fiber axis.O. Kasap.

Fiber Key Parameters 64 .

Fiber Key Parameters



Modes are possible route that light wave
follow down in an optical fiber. One to hundred 2
& even thousand of modes are transmitted N=V
Normalized Frequency (V)
The number of modes that can pass
through fibre core are dependant on normalized

V= 2πa x √N12 - N22


Numerical Aperture
This parameter describes the light gathering
ability of fibre. The amount of optical power
accepted by fibre.
The sine value of acceptance angle is called
Numerical Aperture
sinβ = √ n12 - n22




68 . The MFD for G655 fibre at 1550 nm is 8 to 11µm with deviation less than 10%.5 in both G652 and G655 fibres.6 to 9. The MFCE is used to reduce connector loss. It is a performance measure of fibre when coupled to light source.6µm. The MFCE value should not exceed . The connector loss is proportional to the square of the mode field concentricity error. The mode field diameter of G652 fibre at 1310 nm is 8. Mode Field Concentricity Error The distance between the core centre and cladding centre divided by core diameter of the interconnected fibre.Mode Field Diameter It describes the radial propagation of fundamental mode. A core diameter and a portion of cladding is called MFD.

Cut Off Wavelength The cutoff wavelength can guarantee single mode generation. e. 69 . for G655 the cut off wavelength < 1480 nm for 2 m cable length. for G652 fibre the cut off wavelength <1260 nm for 2m cable. In shortest cable to suppress the occurrence of higher order modes and to reduce power penalty.g.

same time to travel down the cable. Less attenuation. Interfacing modules are more expensive 70 .Single-mode step-index Fiber Advantages: • • • Minimum dispersion: all rays take same path. A pulse can be reproduced at the receiver very accurately. Larger bandwidth and higher information rate Disadvantages: • • • Difficult to couple light in and out of the tiny core Highly directive light source (laser) is required. can run over longer distance without repeaters.

Multi Mode • Multimode step-index Fibers: – inexpensive. easy to couple light into Fiber – result in higher signal distortion. lower TX rate • Multimode graded-index Fiber: – intermediate between the other two types of Fibers 71 .

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I constant Signal is delayed Power launching is easy LED can be used Splicing is easy gradually varies no delay core R.SI (1) Core dia 50µm 50µm 10µm (2) Used for short haul distance used for short haul distance used for long haul distance (3) Core R.GI SM.I constant no delay easy difficult LED Laser easy difficult (4) (5) (6) (7) 73 .No MM.Comparison Of Various Fibres S.SI MM.

Giới thiêêu Nguyên tắc TIR (phản xạ toàn phần bên trong) Các loại sợi quang Mất mát trong sợi quang Tán sắc trong sợi quang Giới thiêêu các ứng dụng của sợi quang Qui trình chế tạo sợi quang 74 .Nô êi dung 1. 7. 3. 6. 2. 4. 5.

Rayleigh scattering. 75 … .• • Intrinsic losses : absorption. defects. bending. connections. … Extrinsic losses : coupling.

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Attenuation and dispersion in optical fiber
• Attenuation:
reduction of light
• Dispersion:
deterioration of


Effects of Dispersion and Attenuation


Nô êi dung

Giới thiêêu
Nguyên tắc TIR (phản xạ toàn phần bên trong)
Các loại sợi quang
Mất mát trong sợi quang
Tán sắc trong sợi quang
Giới thiêêu các ứng dụng của sợi quang
Qui trình chế tạo sợi quang


Fiber dispersion


Pulse broadening limits fiber bandwidth (data rate) 89 .

90 .• For no overlapping of light pulses down on an optical fiber link the digital bit rate BT must be less than the reciprocal of the broadened (through dispersion) pulse duration (2τ). Hence: • Another more accurate estimate of the maximum bit rate for an optical channel with dispersion may be obtained by considering the light pulses at the output to have a Gaussian shape with an rms width of σ.

Multimode graded index fiber Schematic diagram showing a multimode step index fiber. multimode graded index fiber and single-mode step index fiber. and illustrating the pulse broadening due to intermodal dispersion in each fiber type 91 .

Example: 92 .

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  t t Schematic illustration of light propagation in a slab dielectric waveguide. At the end of the guide. exist only in multimodal conditions 94 .O. © 1999 S.Modal Dispersion High order mode Light pulse Low order mode Broadened light pulse Cladding Core Intensity Intensity Axial 0 Spread. Light pulse entering the waveguide breaks up into various modes which then propagate at different group velocities down the guide. O ptoelectronics (Prentice Hall) Modal Dispersion: Different modes travel at different velocities. Kasap. the modes combine to constitute the output light pulse which is broader than the input light pulse.

 (Highest order mode) /L  ­ 50 ns / km Depends on length!  95 .Intermode Dispersion (MMF) High order mode Broadened light pulse Cladding Light pulse Low order mode Core Intensity Intensity Axial Spread. (Fundamental) vgmax  c/n2.  t 0 t Group Delay  = L / vg   L vgmin   n1  n 2  L c L vgmax vgmin  c/n1.

 ²  Spread. ²  1 o 2  0 t t  Group Delay  = L / vg Group velocity vg  depends  on Refractive index = n( )   V­number= n( )   = (n1  n2)/n1 = ( )  Material Dispersion Waveguide Dispersion Profile Dispersion 96 .Intramode Dispersion (SMF) Dispersion in the fundamental mode Cladding Input vg(1) Emitter vg(2) Very short light pulse Intensity Intensity Core Output Intensity Spectrum.

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km)  An indication of the pulse broadening is given by: (D * (spectral width of the optical source) *(link distance)) Slide 98 98 . material dispersion and waveguide dispersion.Chromatic Dispersion  Variation of refractive index with wavelength of light  The two main underlying mechanisms. naturally cancel one another. giving a zero dispersion point 0 Control of the refractive index profile can place 0 anywhere in the 1300/1550nm wavelength range  The fibre characteristics are controlled by careful design of the chemical composition (doping) of the glass used  Dispersion is quoted in terms of the dispersion parameter ‘D’ with units ps/(nm.

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5 1.2 1.4 (m) 1.  Dm + Dw 0 Dw 0 ­10 ­20 ­30 1.6 Chromatic = Material + Waveguide   (Dm  Dw ) L 101 .3 1.2 m)  and the total or chromatic  dispersion coefficient Dch (= Dm  + Dw) as a function of  free  space wavelength.1 1.Chromatic Dispersion Dispersion coefficient (ps km­1 nm­1) 30 Dm 20 10 Material dispersion coefficient  (Dm) for the core material (taken  as SiO2).  waveguide dispersion  coefficient (Dw) (a = 4.

 The waves arrive at  the end of the  fiber at different times and hence result in a broadened output pulse. ²   t t 0  1 o 2 All excitation sources are inherently non­monochromatic and emit within a spectrum ∆ of  wavelengths. ²  Spread. function of the source line width 102 . ps nm­1 km­1  Material Dispersion: Refractive index n is a function of wavelength. Dm = material dispersion coefficient.  Waves in the guide with different free space wavelengths travel at different  group velocities due to the wavelength dependence of n1.Material Dispersion Cladding Input vg(1) Emitter vg(2) Very short light pulse Intensity Intensity Core Output   Dm  L Intensity Spectrum. exists in all fibers.

Dw = waveguide dispersion coefficient  Dw depends on the waveguide structure.  Waveguide dispersion arises as a result of the guiding properties of the  waveguide  which imposes a nonlinear ­lm relationship. ²  Spread. ²  1 o 2  0 t  t Waveguide dispersion: The group velocity vg(01) of the fundamental mode depends on  the V­number which itself depends on the source wavelength   even if n1 and n2 were  constant. ps nm ­1 km­1  Waveguide Dispersion: Signal in the cladding travel with a different velocity than the signal in the core. we will  still have waveguide dispersion by virtue of vg(01) depending on V and V depending  inversely on . significant in single mode conditions 103 . Even if n1 and n2 were wavelength independent (no material dispersion).Waveguide Dispersion vg(1) Emitter vg(2) Very short light pulse Intensity Intensity   Dw  L Cladding Input Core Output Intensity Spectrum.

3 1.5%GeO2 for a = 2.5 to 4 m.0 3.5 –20 1. Kasap.O.5 3.2 1.0 –10 2. © 1999 S.4 1.5 1.5%GeO2 0 a (m) Dw 4. Optoelectronics (Prentice Hall) 104 .Dispersion coefficient (ps km-1 nm-1) 20 Dm 10 SiO2-13.6  (m) Material and waveguide dispersion coefficients in an optical fiber with a core SiO 2-13.

 Kasap.6 Material dispersion coefficient (Dm) for the core material (taken as SiO2 ).   © 1999 S.3 1.2 1.O.5 1. Optoelectronics  (Prentice Hall) 105 .1 1.2 m) and the total or chromatic dispersion coefficient Dch  (= Dm + Dw ) as a function of  free space wavelength.  waveguide dispersion coefficient (Dw ) (a = 4.4  (m) 1.Zero Dispersion Wavelength Dispersion coefficient (ps km­1  nm­1 ) 30 Dm 20 10 Dm  + Dw 0 0 ­10 Dw ­20 ­30 1.

106 .

Polarization Dispersion n different in different directions due to induced strains in fiber in manufacturing.5 ps nm­1 km­1/2  107 . n/n  10­6 Intensity t Output light pulse n1y  //  y n1x // x Ey  Ex Core Ex z Ey  = Pulse spread t E Input light pulse   Dpol L Dpol = polarization dispersion coefficient Typically Dpol = 0.1 ­ 0. handling and cabling.

 the refractive index of glass n is  n = n + CI  where C is a constant and I is the light intensity. n is 310 .  A  7. ­7 2a  10 m.Self-Phase Modulation Dispersion : Nonlinear Effect At sufficiently high light intensities.  Light intensity Imax I For   1 ps km­1 Imax  3 W cm­2.  Optical power  23.8510­7 cm2. 108 . The intensity of light  modulates its own phase.5 W in  the core n Imin n n   n  A Gaussian light intensity spectrum and variation of refractive index due to self­phase modulation.

55 m 0 1.6 m  Total dispersion is zero in the Er-optical amplifier band around 1.Zero Dispersion Shifted Fiber Dispersion Material Dispersion Zero at 1.55 m Waveguide Dispersion Refractive Index Fiber Axis Outer Cladding Outer Core Inner Cladding Inner Core Zero-dispersion shifted fiber Disadvantage: Cross talk (4 wave mixing) End View of Fiber (Not to Scale) 109 .4 m 1.2 m Total Dispersion 1.

We need dispersion not zero but very small in Er­amplifer band (1525­1620 nm) Dch = 0.Nonzero Dispersion Shifted Fiber For Wavelength Division Multiplexing (WDM) avoid 4 wave mixing: cross talk.1 ­ 6 ps nm­1 km­1. Nonzero dispersion shifted fibers Dispersion (ps/nm­km) Standard single mode Nonzero dispersion­shifted Zero dispersion­shifted +10 1300 1400 1600 Nonzero dispersion­shifted Wavelength (nm) 1500 ­10 Reduced Slope 110 .

4 0.5 0.3 0.6 0.Nonzero Dispersion Shifted Fiber Dispersion (ps/nm­km) Standard single mode Refractive Index change (%) Nonzero dispersion­shifted Zero dispersion­shifted +10 1.2 0.9 1300 1400 1600 1500 Reduced Slope ­10 Nonzero dispersion­shifted Wavelength (nm) 0.7 0.8 0.1 ­25 ­15 ­5 0 5 15 25 Radius (m) 0.6% ­0.0 0.1 0.4% Nonzero dispersion shifted fiber (Corning) Fiber with flattened  dispersion slope 111 .0 0.

1 1.O.5 1. Kasap.3 1. The material dispersion coefficient (Dm) for the core material and waveguide dispersion coefficient (Dw)  for the doubly clad fiber result in a flattened small chromatic dispersion between 1 and 2.7 Dispersion flattened fiber example.4 (m) 1.6 1. © 1999 S.Dispersion Flattened Fiber Dispersion coefficient (ps km­1 nm­1) n 30 20 r Dm 10 0 2 1 Dch = D m + Dw ­10 Dw ­20 Thin layer of cladding with a depressed index ­30 1.2 1. Optoelectronics  (Prentice Hall) 112 .

Dispersion and Maximum Bit Rate Fiber Digital signal Information Emitter t Photodetector Input Output Input Intensity Very short light pulses 0.  Nonreturn to zero (NRZ) bit rate = 2 RTZ bitrate 113 .5 B  1/ 2 0 Information Output Intensity ²  T t t 0 ~2²  Return­to­zero (RTZ) bit rate or data rate.

 Optoelectronics  (Prentice Hall) 114 .607 and full width root mean square (rms) spread isrms = 2. © 1999 S.61 0. At time t =    from the pulse center.Output optical power  T = 4 1 0.O. Kasap. the relative magnitude is e ­1/2 = 0.5   t A Gaussian output light pulse and some tolerable intersymbol interference between two consecutive output light pulses (y­axis in relative units).

59 BL     Dch   Dch 1/2 Bit Rate = constant inversely proportional to dispersion inversely proportional to line width of laser (single frequency lasers!) 115 .Dispersion and Maximum Bit Rate Maximum Bit Rate Dispersion 0.59 B   1/2 1/2  Dch 1/2 L 0.25L 0.25 0.25 0.

© 1999 S.05 t f 1 kHz f op f An optical fiber link for transmitting analog signals and the effect of dispersion in the fiber on the bandwidth. Kasap.707 Fiber Sinusoidal signal Emitter t Optical Input f = Modulation frequency Pi  = Input light power 0 Photodetector Optical Output Po  = Output light power t 0 1 kHz 1 MHz 1 GHz 1 MHz 1 GHz f el Sinusoidal electrical signal Po  / Pi 0.Electrical signal (photocurrent) 1 0.1 0.O. fop. Optoelectronics  (Prentice Hall) 116 .

5/ 0.8 GHz.291/2 0. B is the maximum bit rate for NRZ pulses. 1/2/L = |Dch|1/2  = (8 ps km­1 nm­1)(2 nm) = 16 ps km­1 Assuming a Gaussian light pulse shape.5/ fop fel 0.75B = 0.59L/t1/2 = 0.25/ 0.  Solution For FWHP dispersion.75B = 0.9 GHz. Calculate the bit rate distance product (BL). 117 .13/ Example: Bit rate and dispersion Consider an optical fiber with a chromatic dispersion coefficient  8 ps km­1 nm­1 at an operating  wavelength of 1. and the optical and electrical  bandwidths for a10 km fiber if a laser diode source with a FWHP linewidth 1/2 of 2 nm is used.59/(16 ps km­1) =  36. fel = 0. Dispersed pulse shape Gaussian with rms deviation  Rectangular with full width T 1/2 = FWHM width  = 0.17/ 0.75(36.13/  = 0.19/ 0. NRZ = Nonreturn to zero pulses.4251/2 B (RZ) 0.9 Gb s­1 km) / (10 km) = 2.Relationships between dispersion parameters. maximum bit rates and bandwidths.5 m.  RZ = Return  to zero pulses.70fop = 1.9 Gb s­1 km.25/ B (NRZ) 0. The optical and electrical bandwidths for a 10 km distance is fop = 0.29T = 0.73fop = 0.69B = 0. the RTZ bit rate  distance product (BL) is BL = 0.71fop = 0.

453)/1.01425. Modal dispersion for 1 km is intermode = Ln12/[(20)(31/2)c] = 2.5 ps nm­1 km­1)(3 nm) = 0.0225 ns Assuming a Gaussian output light pulse shaper. Calculate.25/rms = 8.474 =  0. Suppose that we use a laser diode emitter  with a spectral linewidth of 3 nm to transmit  along this fiber at a wavelength of 1300 nm.453. How does this compare with the performance of a  multimode fiber with the same core radius.0096 ns Total dispersion is   2 2  rms   intermode   intramode  0.  intramode = 0.2 Gb 118 .029 ns.4251/2 = (0.474 at the  center of the core and a cladding refractive index of 1.0225 ns) = 0.029 2  0.  the total dispersion and estimate the bit­rate  distance product of the fiber. The material dispersion  coefficient Dm at 1300 nm is 7.0096 2  0.4741. and n1 and n2? Solution The normalized refractive index difference  = (n1n2)/n1 = (1.Combining intermodal and intramodal dispersions Consider a graded index fiber with a core diameter of 30 m and a refractive index of 1.910­11 s 1 or 0.425)(0.5 ps nm­1 km­1. The material dispersion is 1/2 = LDm 1/2 = (1 km)(7.030   ns B = 0.

6 dB km-1 at 850 nm 0.015 62. Medium haul communications 119 .3 m Typical light source Light emitting diode (LED) Short haul or subscriber local network communications Typical applications Single-mode step-index Graded Index 0.8 dB km-1 at 850 nm 0.3 m) 125 0.003 8.26 300 MHz km .3 m 0.3 GHz km at 1. 1997 Property  = (n1n2)/n1 Core diameter (m) Cladding diameter (m) NA Bandwidth  distance or Dispersion Multimode step-index fiber 0.3 20 . lasers Local and wide-area networks.3 m 0. Attenuation of light 4 . single­mode step­index.3 (MFD = 9.Comparison of typical characteristics of multimode step­index.55 m Lasers.100 MHzkm.2 dB km-1 at 1. single mode injection lasers Long haul communications 0.34 dB km-1 at 1.3 dB km-1 at 1.3 m > 100 Gb s-1 km in common use 1.55 m LED. and  graded­index fibers.02 100 140 0.1 dB km-1 at 1.5 ps km-1 nm-1 at 1. (Typical values combined from various sources.5 125 0.7 .1 dB km-1 at 1.6 .3 m 3 dB km-1 at 850 nm 0.1 < 3.

Dispersion Compensation Input Output Lt Input Lt Output Dispersion Compensating Fiber Transmission Fiber ² DtLt Very short light pulse ² DtLt + DcLc Dt Dc  Transmission Fiber  Dispersion Compnesating Fiber Total dispersion = DtLt + DcLc = (10 ps nm-1 km-1)(1000 km) + (100 ps nm-1 km-1)(80 km) = 2000 ps/nm for 1080 km or 1.9 ps nm-1 km-1 120 .

 Different cross sections.Dispersion Compensation and Management  Compensating fiber has higher attenuation. Use at the receiver end. Need shorter length  More susceptible to nonlinear effects.  121 .  Manufacturers provide transmission fiber spliced to inverse dispersion fiber for a well defined D vs. Doped core.  Compensation depends on the temperature. Splicing/coupling losses.

) 122 . More DWDM channels expected in ultralong haul transmission. (Courtesy of OFS Division of Furukawa.Dispersion Managed Fiber The inverse dispersion slope of dispersion managed fiber cancels the detrimental effect of dispersion across the a wide spectrum of wavelength.

O.Dispersion for Digital Signals Fiber Information Digital signal Emitter t Photodetector Information Input Output Input Intensity Output Intensity ²  Very short light pulses 0 T t t 0 ~2²  An optical fiber link for transmitting digital information and the effect of dispersion in the fiber on the output pulses. Optoelectronics  (Prentice Hall) 123 . Kasap. © 1999 S.

Different dispersion profiles 124 .

Dispersion Shifting/Flattening 125 .

Total Dispersion For Single Mode Fibers: For Multi Mode Fibers: Group Velocity Dispersion If PMD is negligible 126 .

Dispersion & Attenuation Summary 127 .

128 . Input Output Linear Pulse Pulse broadening due to dispersion Soliton Pulse No Pulse broadining Characteristic Electrical Regeneration every 400-500 Km More than 5000 Km without Electrical Regeneration.Solitons vs. Pulses • Solitons are pulses that keep their shape over long distances.

4. 5. 3.Nô êi dung 1. 2. 6. 7. Giới thiêêu Nguyên tắc TIR (phản xạ toàn phần bên trong) Các loại sợi quang Mất mát trong sợi quang Tán sắc trong sợi quang Giới thiêêu các ứng dụng của sợi quang Qui trình chế tạo sợi quang 129 .

Optical Fiber Telecoms System Input Output Encoder Decoder Driver Light Source Amplifier Optical Fiber Detector 130 .

Optical Fiber Link Input Signal Transmitter Coder or Light Converter Source Source-to-Fiber Interface Fiber-optic Cable Fiber-to-light Interface Light Detector Amplifier/Shaper Decoder Receiver 131 Output .

• Light source: LED or ILD (Injection Laser Diode): – • • • amount of light emitted is proportional to the drive current Source –to-fiber-coupler (similar to a lens): A mechanical interface to couple the light emitted by the source into the optical fiber Light detector: PIN (p-type-intrinsic-n-type) or APD (avalanche photo diode) both convert light energy into current 132 .

Fiber Types • • • • Plastic core and cladding Glass core with plastic cladding PCS (Plastic-Clad Silicon) Glass core and glass cladding SCS: Silicaclad silica Under research: non silicate: Zincchloride: – 1000 time as efficient as glass 133 .

but easy to install Better withstand stress Less expensive 60% less weight 134 .Plastic Fiber • • • • • used for short run Higher attenuation.

Light Sources • Light-Emitting Diodes (LED) – made from material such as AlGaAs or GaAsP – light is emitted when electrons and holes recombine – either surface emitting or edge emitting • Injection Laser Diodes (ILD) – similar in construction as LED except ends are highly polished to reflect photons back & forth 135 .

higher bit rates possible – monochromatic light.ILD versus LED • Advantages: – more focussed radiation pattern. reduces dispersion • Disadvantages: – much more expensive – higher temperature. longer span – faster ON. OFF time. smaller Fiber – much higher radiant power. shorter lifespan 136 .

Light Detectors • PIN Diodes – photons are absorbed in the intrinsic layer – sufficient energy is added to generate carriers in the depletion layer for current to flow through the device • Avalanche Photodiodes (APD) – photogenerated electrons are accelerated by relatively large reverse voltage and collide with other atoms to produce more free electrons – avalanche multiplication effect makes APD more sensitive but also more noisy than PIN diodes 137 .

1 2 3 Multiplexer n-1 n Laser Optical sources 1 2 3 Demultiplexer Optical amplifier n-1 n Laser Optical detectors 138 .Wavelength-Division Multiplexing WDM sends information through a single optical Fiber using lights of different wavelengths simultaneously.

• WD couplers at the demultiplexer separate the optic signals according to their wavelength.On WDM and D-WDM • WDM is generally accomplished at 1550 nm. • ITU adopted a spacing of 0. • Each successive wavelength is spaced > 1.6 nm or 200 GHz for WDM.8 nm or 100 GHz separation at 1550 nm for dense-wave-division multiplexing (D-WDM). 139 .

Advantages of Optical Fibers • • • • • • • Electrical Isolation Immunity to Interference Increased Bandwidth Lower Loss Decreased Size & Weight Remote Access Safe 140 .

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Applications • Communications – – – – – Long Distance Telecoms LANs Industrial Control Avionics Military • Sensing • Power Delivery • Illumination 145 .

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4. 7. Giới thiêêu Nguyên tắc TIR (phản xạ toàn phần bên trong) Các loại sợi quang Mất mát trong sợi quang Tán sắc trong sợi quang Giới thiêêu các ứng dụng của sợi quang Qui trình chế tạo sợi quang 151 . 3. 6.Nô êi dung 1. 2. 5.

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com 154 .How is Optical Fiber made? • Fully Automated • Three Part Process – Preform – Drawing process – Testing & Measurement www.corningfiber.

com/tour/preform.Preform & Melting • Heat source • Tolerances • Uniform Vapor Deposition • Torch travel • Preform rotation www.html 155 .fibercore.

viscosity. thickness of deposition • controls system www. rate of heating.fibercore.Chemical Deposition Process • Halide chemical properties.html 156 .com/tour/preform. materials used • Volume flow rate regulation • Composition.

iec.html 157 .org/tutorials/fiber_optic/topic03.Preform • Heat on lathe decreases and sintered tube collapses • Free fall causes the preform to narrow • Preform is loaded into Draw Tower and threaded through dies by operator Drawing Process www.


Drawing Process • Graphite resistance element oven (1900-2200°C) • Laser micrometer gauge • tractor • controls system • Polymer Coating Applicator * Materials and tolerances under constant improvement 159 .

net/fibrtech/fibr-mfg.cableu.html – – – – – – Attenuation Bandwidth Numerical aperture Cut-off wavelength Mode Field Diameter Chromatic Dispersion 160 .Testing & Measurement • Fiber wound onto spools for consumers • Test: www.

html 161 and Measurement • Tensile Tests (tensile strength of 100.000 psi) • Video Analyzer used to check – Concentricity – Diameters – Coating Dimensions www.

816 162 . 426.Subwavelength-diameter silica wires for low-loss optical wave guiding Nature. 2003.