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RFID Security Access

Control System

RFID Security Access
Control System
Introductio
n
 Automatic identification and access control
system has become necessary to overcome the
security threats faced by many organizations. By
installing the system at the entrance will only
allow the authorized persons to enter the
organization. The system can also be installed at
various points inside the organization to track the
person’s movement and to restrict their access to
sensitive areas in the organization.

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com/ .RFID Security Access Control System Block Diagram http://www.edgefxkits.

edgefxkits.RFID Security Access Control System Hardware Components • • • • • • • • • • • • 8051 series Microcontroller RFID reader RFID tags Relay Relay driver IC Transformer Diodes Voltage Regulator Resistors Capacitor LED Lamp http://www.com/ .

edgefxkits.RFID Security Access Control System Circuit Diagram http://www.com/ .

robotics or in industries. vcd player.edgefxkits. microwave oven. Parallel and serial ports within single chip.RFID Security Access Control System Microcontrolle r  Microcontroller (MC) may be called computer on chip since it has basic features of microprocessor with internal ROM.com/ .  Microcontroller can be classified on the basis of their bits processed like 8bit MC. http://www.  This is widely used in washing machines. RAM. 16bit MC.

com/ .  An Active Reader Active Tag (ARAT) system uses active tags awoken with an interrogator signal from the active reader. http://www.  An Active Reader Passive Tag (ARPT) system has an active reader.  A Passive Reader Active Tag (PRAT) system has a passive reader which only receives radio signals from active tags.edgefxkits. which transmits interrogator signals and also receives authentication replies from passive tags.RFID Security Access Control System RFID Readers and Tags  RFID systems can be classified by the type of tag and reader.

instead using a semiconductor device to perform switching.com/ . and another. http://www.   Solid-state relays control power circuits with no moving parts. redirected pulse to move them back.edgefxkits.RFID Security Access Control System Relay  Relays are used where it is necessary to control a circuit by a separate low-power signal.  Magnetic latching relays require one pulse of coil power to move their contacts in one direction.

which receives energy from the primary winding and delivers it to the load.com/ . http://www. which receives energy from the ac source. • The secondary coil. which makes a path for the magnetic flux.RFID Security Access Control System Transform  ers The principle parts of a transformer and their functions are: • The core.edgefxkits. • The primary coil.

 This permits rectification and detection of radio frequency signals very effectively. as long as their amplitude is above the forward conduction threshold of silicon (around 0.7V) or the diode is biased.RFID Security Access Control System Diode s  The 1N4148 is a standard small signal silicon diode used in signal processing.  The 1N4148 is generally available in a DO35 glass package and is very useful at high  Frequencies with a reverse recovery time of no more than 4ns. http://www.com/ .edgefxkits.

edgefxkits. temperature.  An IC based voltage regulator can be classified in different ways. http://www.RFID Security Access Control System Voltage Regulators  A voltage regulator is an electronic circuit which maintains the output voltage (almost) constant in spite of changes within some specified limits in the load current. input voltage.com/ . etc. A common type of classification is 3 terminal voltage regulator and 5 or multi terminal voltage regulator.

RFID Security Access Control System Resisto  rs Resistors are components used to resist the flow of electric current and have a stated value of RESISTANCE.com/ . sizes and forms  Axial lead resistors have the value of resistance printed on them or as a colour code http://www.  Resistors can be either fixed or variable in value  Fixed resistors come in a variety of different shapes.edgefxkits.

edgefxkits.com/ . http://www.RFID Security Access Control System Capacito r  A basic capacitor has two parallel plates separated by an insulating material  A capacitor stores an electrical charge between the two plates.

com/ . medical applications. clothing.edgefxkits. VCRs) • Lighting • Indicators and signs • Optoisolators and Optocouplers. toys • Remote Controls (TVs.RFID Security Access Control System LED Applications of LED : Devices. http://www.

interrogator (reader) and computer containing the database.4 GHz http://www.edgefxkits. • Low Frequency: 125-134 KHz • High Frequency: 13.com/ .RFID Security Access Control System RFID Technology  RFID system consists of three components namely transponder (tag).56 MHz • Ultra High Frequency: 902-928 MHz • Microwave Frequency: 2.  The system offers diverse frequency band ranging from low frequencies to microwave frequencies.

edgefxkits.com/ .  When the circuit is powered ON. in which only authorised personnel are allowed access to a secure area.  When the RFID Card or Tag is swiped against the RFID reader. to the microcontroller via serial terminal.RFID Security Access Control System Working Principle  The aim of this project is to design an RFID based security access control system using 8051 microcontroller. it will detect the ID card and sends the unique card no. http://www. the microcontroller will initially display a message as “Swipe the Card” on the LCD display.

then the microcontroller will not open the door and displays a message as “Access Denied” on the LCD display.  If the received number is matched with the already stored number.com/ . then the microcontroller will display the name of the card holder or the identification number on the LCD and activates the motor driver IC.  If there is no match for the received numbers with the stored numbers.RFID Security Access Control System Working Principle  With the help of suitable programming. the door is opened for a predefined duration after which the door is automatically closed.edgefxkits. we need to compare the received card number with the numbers that are already stored in the microcontroller. http://www.   As a result.

 The recognition phase comes when the user wants to enter the hostel.com/ . http://www.edgefxkits.RFID Security Access Control System Operation Of RFID  The security and access control system is comprised of two phases: • Registration phase • Recognition phase  In the registration phase. Some images of the user are captured while issuing an RFID tag.

 While mess module use RFID with a password to grant permission.edgefxkits.  The data exchange between the main controller and computer system is through serial port. http://www.com/ .  While parallel port data and control lines are used for handshaking purposes.  These modules communicate with computer system through a main controller.RFID Security Access Control System Operation of RFID  The entrance and exit modules use RFID recognition for identification.

http://www. it turns on the alarm signal.  On the other hand.edgefxkits. microcontroller searches the NVRAM for this number.RFID Security Access Control System Operation Of RFID  After detecting and receiving RFID tag data through a serial interrupt routine.com/ .  If no match is found.  At the same time. the microcontroller checks the entrance status of the user by scanning NV-RAM. the microcontroller makes an emergency call to the security van through GSM modem. if a match is found.

http://www.com/ .  Differential power analysis involves measuring the precise time and electrical current required for certain encryption or decryption operations.RFID Security Access Control System Security Access  Rfid cards have been advertised as suitable for personal identification tasks.  There are several methods for recovering some of the algorithm's internal state. because they are engineered to be tamper resistant.  The chip usually implements some cryptographic algorithm.edgefxkits.

 Although such techniques obviously involve a fairly high risk of permanent damage to the chip.  Rfid cards can be physically disassembled by using acid. http://www.  Some implementations of symmetric ciphers can be vulnerable to timing or power attacks as well.edgefxkits. abrasives. they permit much more detailed information to be extracted. or some other technique to obtain unrestricted access to the on-board microprocessor.RFID Security Access Control System Security Access  This can deduce the on-chip private key used by public key algorithms such as RSA.com/ .

RFID Security Access Control System Function s • Entrance Monitoring Controller • Exit Monitoring Controller • Mess Monitoring Controller • Computer System and Web Server http://www.com/ .edgefxkits.

edgefxkits.com/ .RFID Security Access Control System Benef ts  Enhances safety and security.  Portability.  Reliability.  Reconfigurable and reusable. http://www.

only a limited number of card details can be stored.edgefxkits.com/ . finger print scanner etc. http://www. the security can be increased by integrating other security measures like facial detection.RFID Security Access Control System Limitations  Even though RFID Technology is secure.  This can be increased by implementing a memory unit like EEPROM.  As the card details are stored in the microcontroller.

http://www. it can be used to access secured areas like research centres. defence sites etc.com/ .  It is a low power system and also the RFID Cards or Tags used are of passive type.RFID Security Access Control System  Applications  RFID based Security Access System is designed in this project.edgefxkits. As the system uses RFID Technology based identification.

RFID Security Access Control System Conclusio n  Design of a RFID security and access control system for use in radio frequency identification with biometrics technology to differentiate between valid and invalid users.com/ .edgefxkits. http://www. The system accomplishes the security and access control task by processing information from subcontrollers.

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