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# PROBLEM DEFINITION

CREATIVE PROBLEM
SOLVING
BERPIKIR SOLUSI KREATIF

OBJECTIVES
 Finding out where the problem came from
 Provide different techniques to define real

OUTLINE
o Steps For Problem Definition
o Problem Definition Techniques

MINGGU KE-4

o Yes/No Tree
o Present State, Desired State, And Duncker
Diagram
MINGGU KE-5
o K.T. Problem Analysis

o Should All The Problem Be Solved?

“A PROBLEM WELL STATED IS A PROBLEM HALF SOLVED” (Willingham 1999. 162) .

. You need to realize that there’s a problem If you’re better at identifying the root causes of the problem. the better you’ll get at developing effective solution .Before you can solve anything..

PROBLEM SOLVING Define Generat e Decid e Implem ent Evalua te .

WHAT’S IN ‘DEFINE’? STEPS FOR PROBLEM DEFINITION  Diagnose the situation  Identify the root cause of the problem .

WHAT IS ROOT CAUSE OF A PROBLEM? The highest level of a problem “The evil at the bottom” The origin of a chain of failures .

due to excess buildup of bread crumbs in mechanism No process for cleaning toaster at regular intervals .LEVEL OF CAUSES SYMPTOM The seminar was with few participants PHYSICAL CAUSE The promotion posters were not enough spread POTENTIAL ROOT CAUSE The promotion team lacked numbers Toast is burned Toaster did not eject bread when timer expired.

DESIRED STATE. AND DUNCKER DIAGRAM K. PROBLEM ANALYSIS .T.PROBLEM DEFINITION TECHNIQUES LOGIC TREE (YES/NO TREE) PRESENT STATE.

LOGIC TREE (YES/NO TREE) YES Have you ever been to a seminar? NO Reason: Nobody ever told me about a seminar Do you know about the seminar? .

STEPS FOR LOGIC TREE (YES/NO TREE) List all the potential root causes Develop a hypothesis Test the hypothesis by gathering information Clarify and determine the root cause .

EXAMPLE OF YES/NO TREE OVERSLEEPING .

EXERCISE CARI LAGI YES/NO TREE .

KEPNER-TREGOE PROBLEM ANALYSIS Situation appraisal (where are we?) Problem analysis Decision analysis Potential problem analysis .

KEPNER-TREGOE PROBLEM ANALYSIS Most useful in troubleshooting operations where the cause of the problem or fault is not known What is the problem vs What is not Where does the problem vs Where is everything occur okay When did the problem first vs When was everything occur okay What is the extent .

KEPNER-TREGOE PROBLEM ANALYSIS The Four K. Dimensions of a Problem (hal 69) .T.

EXAMPLE KEPNER-TREGOE PROBLEM ANALYSIS Contoh Fear of Flying (hal 71) .

EXERCISE KEPNER-TREGOE PROBLEM ANALYSIS CARI DI BUKU FOGLER .

PRESENT STATE / DESIRED STATE . Describing the desired state .Describing the present state 2.

THE DUNCKER DIAGRAM Contains two major pathways to go from Present State (the problem statement) Desired State (an acceptable problem solution) NEW PROBLEM STATEMENT .

Duncker Diagram General Solution Functional Solutions: What to do Specific Solutions: How to do it .

EXAMPLE DUNCKER DIAGRAM THE KINDERGARTEN COP (PAGE 61) .

KINDERGARTEN COP .

EXERCISE DUNCKER DIAGRAM CARI DI BUKU FOGLER .

WHICH TECHNIQUE TO CHOOSE? It’s a matter of personal choice Your approach: √ To be organized √ Be creative .

SHOULD ALL THE PROBLEM BE SOLVED?  What are the resources available?  How many people required?  For how long?  How soon do you need a solution? DECIDE .

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Click icon to add picture THANK YOU .

DECISION TABLE One of two tools is likely to be useful for deciding which issues justify the allocation of resources to conduct a root decision table .

. dan untuk berapa lama? Kapan solusi dibutuhkan? Hari ini? Besok? Tahun depan? Note that even though a problem might have minimal risks or direct cost. if it occurs at a high frequency it may disrupt the organization in ways that are more troublesome than immediately apparent. it might cause a reduction in capacity.APAKAH SETIAP MASALAH HARUS DISELESAIKAN? Sumber-sumber apa saja yang tersedia untuk menyelesaikan masalah? Berapa banyak orang yang dibutuhkan untuk mengalokasikan masalah. For example. which could begin to affect on-time delivery or the ability to take on new business.

pdf page 203 .Whether or not the problem needs to be solved: pdf page 123. fogler page 74 Logic tree.

seseorang akan mampu menguji kebenarannya.MENGEMBANGKAN HIPOTESIS Dengan mengembangkan hipotesis dan menganalisis alasan yang mendasarinya. Bila hipotesis benar. selanjutnya dapat memfokuskan mencari solusi . sehingga solusi yang produktif dapat diperoleh.

MENGUJI HIPOTESIS 1. Mengumpulkan dan menganalisis data untuk solusi yang lebih baik .

Membandingkannya dengan hipotesis 3.ANALISIS DAN IDENTIFIKASI AKAR PERMASALAHAN 1. Menganalisis data-data hasil uji hipotesis 2. Menyimpulkan akar permasalahan dari hasil analisis data Contoh table di buku ken hal 42 .

General Solution Functional Solutions Specific Solutions .

Symptom Physical cause Root cause .

Write down a yes/no question relating to the root cause 3. Complete the tree until every question resolved Contoh: concert Exercise: oversleeping .LOGIC TREE (YES/NO TREE) 1. List down a hypothesis for the potential root cause 2.