You are on page 1of 55

Chapter 16 The

Gilded Age

I.

Industry and Invention

I. Industry

Growth
Increased population
New machines and methods

I. Industry

Growth
Sympathetic government
New sources of power

I. Industry
Captains of industry
Robber barons
Made US the economic envy of the world

I. Industry
Cornelius Vanderbilt
Shipping
James J. Hill
Railroads
Great Northern

I. Industry
Andrew Carnegie
Steel
Vertical integration
Carnegie Steel
The Gospel of Wealth

I. Industry
John D. Rockefeller
Oil
Horizontal integration
Trust
Standard Oil

I. Industry
James Buchanan Duke
Tobacco
New South
American Tobacco Company

J. P. Morgan
Investment banker
United States Steel Corp

I. Industry

I. Innovations

Diet
Dress

I. Innovations

Communications
Telephone
Alexander Graham Bell

I. Innovations

Electricity
Thomas Edison
Menlo Park, NJ
Inventions

II. Political Reform and Reaction

A) Issues

Government corruption
Civil service reform
Tariff revision
Regulation of the trusts

B) Reform

Spoils system synonymous with


corruption, incompetence
President Hayes

C) Factions
Stalwarts
Senator Conkling
Half-breeds
President Hayes

D) 1880
Republican factions
Garfield for president
Half-breed
Arthur for VP
Stalwart

Democrats nominate Winfield S.


Hancock
Garfield won the election

E) Garfield
Reforms short-lived
Shot a few months after
inauguration
Charles Guiteau

F)Arthur

Turned out to be conscientious


Backed civil service reform

F)Arthur

Arthur favored lowering tariff rates


Mongrel Tariff
Failed to reform
Partisan

G) 1884

Republicans nominated James Blaine


Democrats nominated Grover
Cleveland

G) 1884

Mudslinging
Cleveland won narrow victory
NY decided by 1,149 votes

G) 1884
Interstate Commerce Act
Reasonable and just
Publish rates
Creation of ICC

H) 1888
Election
Republicans nominated Benjamin Harrison
Democrats re-nominated Grover Cleveland

Cleveland won popular vote


but lost in electoral college

I) Harrison

Weak president
Dominated by Blaine
Billion-Dollar Congress

I) Harrison

Sherman Antitrust Act


Made monopolizing illegal
Difficult to enforce

I) Harrison
McKinley Tariff
Highest tariffs yet
Trade decreased
1890 elections saw big
Democratic gains

Cleveland wins rematch with Harrison


Democrats also control both House and
Senate

Panic!
Panic of 93
Worst economic depression in
nations history to that time

III.Labor, Rural, and


Economic Issues

A) Labor Unions
Industrialization
Immigration
Child labor
Legislation

A) Labor Unions

Knights of Labor
Terrence V. Powderly
Issues advocated
Less radical and violent

A) Labor Unions

American Federation
of Labor (AFL)
Samuel Gompers

A) Labor Unions

Haymarket Riot
Anarchists
Homestead Strike

B) Labor Unrest

Pullman Strike
Eugene V. Debs
Injunction
Socialism

C) Rural Revolt
Farmers grievances
Grange
Oliver H. Kelly
Railroads
Munn v. Illinois
Farmers Alliance

C) Rural Revolt
Populism
Populist Party
Currency policy
Free silver

D) 1896 Election

Republicans: William McKinley


Democrats: William Jennings Bryan
The Great Commoner

McKinley campaigned from home


Bryan went on a tour of the country
McKinley won

III. Growth

Cities
Attractions
An ugly side

A) Immigration
New Immigration
Fewer from Britain, Germany
More from Southern and Eastern
Europe
Chinese

A) Immigration
Many immigrants had no money, job skills
Sweat shops
Tenements
Opposition
Diversity in society

B) New Forces
Darwinism
The Origin of Species
Natural selection
Social Darwinism
Herbert Spencer

B) New Forces

Reform Darwinism
Lester Frank Ward
Importance of government
Darwinism and religion

B) New Forces
Race Relations
Jim Crow laws
Segregation
Depriving the right to vote
Plessy v. Ferguson

B) New
Forces
Booker T. Washington
Up From Slavery
Concentrate on bettering selves
economically

B) New Forces
W. E. B.
DuBois
Sought a
political
solution

B) New Forces
Literature
Realism/Mark Twain
Naturalism/Stephen Crane and Jack
London
Success/Horatio Alger

B) New Forces

Materialism
Leisure
Baseball
Sports

B) New Forces

Leisure
Vaudeville
Circuses

B) New
Forces
Leisure
Bicycles
Alcohol
Desire for prosperity

IV. Meeting the Challenge


Urban evangelism
D. L. Moody
Evangelistic campaigns
Methodology
Sam Jones

IV. Meeting the Challenge


Effects
Millions heard Gospel
Salvation decisions
Societal effects
Prohibition and reform