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European shifts from conflict

Protestant Reformation
Scientific Revolution

Despite the enormous costs in human life and money. Why were these wars fought and what was the outcome and significance in European history? • There was widespread death and destruction of the religious wars of Catholics versus Protestants as well as the internal and international wars of the era. • The development of modern diplomacy was a lasting result of that era of warfare. in such areas as firearms. . List the wars and examine their economic and human costs. an island nation. these wars led to tremendous innovations in weaponry and skill. shipping. which was evident in the precarious and shifting balances of power. and metallurgy. – For instance.Warfare was nearly constant in Europe during the early Modern Era. • All states developed armies and navies according to their particular needs. as were advances in communications and transportation. England. had no standing army and a large navy. – The continental states had much larger armies than navies. • Refinements (rather than revolutions) in technology. • The financial expense of these wars should also be addressed. were important.

Colonialism helped promote economic growth. Monarchs promoted alliances with commercial elites. It also ignored alliances for the sake of religious uniformity and aristocratic privilege. States also began to tax the nobility and raise those taxes directly. Spain is an example of a country that kept increasing its military expenditures without promoting economic development.How did the European states “pay the piper”? Were politics and warfare related to European economies and economic development from the sixteenth to the eighteenth century? • Wars were waged for political gain. On the other hand. as well as across religious boundaries. and the high cost of warfare demanded further increases in revenue. and government protection and stimulus further increased economic development. .

” Was Le Roy correct? First. . there was the Protestant Reformation that shattered Latin Christian unity. were the economic and social changes that contributed to European power. and military hardware. Next. but opened the way for intellectual freedom and encouraged some to challenge traditional ideas. The Scientific Revolution and Enlightenment laid an intellectual foundation for the rise of European world dominance. Second. Europe was ascending to power and the Ottoman Empire was declining from power. The constant warfare of the era also produced positive results for states. or the concept of mercantilism. These military improvements proved to be essential in the coming centuries of Europe’s rise to world dominance. These wars inspired the creation of large standing armies.• • • • • A statement by the French scholar Loys Le Roy regarding the 1700s was that “he was living at a turning point in world history. • This led to reliance on conquest for control of the trade routes and flow of the bullion and even further production within the country. therefore we see the Age of Absolutism. • • • • Lastly the European state development and the efforts of European monarchs to consolidate their control were through absolutist policies. – Government support took the form of joint-stock companies and other projects to improve economic conditions. better skilled soldiers. were the events that contributed to this ascension to power by the Europeans On an intellectual and cultural level. – The rise of a bourgeoisie and the expansion of maritime trade with the support of government were instrumental in this change.

Charles V eventually gave up his goal of European unification after decades of bitter fighting. .Charles V of the Holy Roman Empire failed to unify Europe while the European royal monarchies centralized their state control in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. – Following the death of Charles. their resolve deepened. – His Hapsburg Empire included the Iberian peninsula and eventually the French catholics. For example. France. and England began to build successful states based on political centralization and religious unity. Spain. – There single minded purpose was to prevent the expansion of Islam into Europe and after the Battle of Mohacs and the defeat of Hungary to the Ottomans. • • • • • • • Although the Ottoman Empire was turned away in 1529. • There were attempts by Charles V to unify Europe under the rule of the Holy Roman Empire. such as standardized national languages and political offices and national armies. although different nations took a wide array of routes to that end. Spain united behind the Inquisition after the Reconquistalsion of the Jews and Muslims from the Iberian peninsula. Royal authority was boosted by limiting the authority of the church. France switched from Calvinism back to Catholicism following the 100 Years War (“Paris is worth a mass”) England created the Church of England (Henry VIII and Tudors and Stuarts) Monarchs also promoted national institutions. the Holy League defeated the Ottomans in a great naval battle at Lepanto in 1571.

The misery of these people erupted in uprising and mob violence. economic conditions. finance. in areas such as marriage. Deforestation hit the peasantry hard as it eliminated a big resource for the peasantry of lumber and wild game as well as nuts and berries. as well as contrasts between the urban poor and the artisan classes. referred to by the French as the bourgeoisie. education. and child rearing. By 1700 the introduction of American crops improved the diet by providing potatoes and corn to peasants.There were disparities among the various social classes in European urban society between the sixteenth and eighteenth centuries. The new well-off class of urban dwellers. and criminals. prostitutes. the peasantry lived under worse conditions as a result of constant warfare. Its connections to the monarchy and the monarchy’s need for revenue were important. and trade. Who were the bourgeoisie? What conditions did the poorer classes endure? • • • • The contrasts in wealth in Europe were startling. and environmental problems. got its wealth from manufacturing. There were many contrasts of the new wealthy class with the rural aristocracy. . Many peasants were forced to move to the urban areas where they became beggars. Although serfdom had been on the decline in Europe for a long time.

becoming a nun was one of the few respectable options for a single life. This role made them likely to be accused over men as well. were more susceptible to the devil’s temptations. in fact. However. – – Single women had few opportunities open to them. First. Widowed and single women had lower status. • – – • These changes had important demographic results. women generally lived in patriarchal societies and therefore ranked below men throughout the world. – – • Among the elite classes arranged marriage remained important. Education was also determined as much by class as gender. Witchcraft issues were gender issues as well. however. Women also performed the function of midwife as well as healer where they influenced life and death. social class played an extremely important part in defining their life experiences. Men and women of lower classes did not have access to education. Europe led the world in female literacy. Delaying marriage also resulted in the rise of brothels and rape in society. Most European women married and their lives were defined by their husbands’ status and their children.Describe the experiences of women in seventeenth.and eighteenth-century Europe • • • • • There are some of the basic difficulties of explaining the experiences of women. but among the lower classes romantic marriage became fashionable. Women of the elite class enjoyed a life much different from those of the lower classes. Some women of the elite or bourgeois class were educated. – – – The Christian belief that women were morally inferior to men led accusers to assume that women. There continued to be a tradition of arranged marriage versus romantic marriages among Europeans. . especially widows and single women.

This role made them likely to be accused over men as well. – It is also posited that the witch-hunts were a violent reaction to the social tensions. In the seventeenth century. Many were tortured until they confessed to casting spells and using evil magic.How can one explain the witch-hunts that swept through Europe in the late sixteenth and seventeenth centuries? Who were the victims? Why were so many of the accused women? • • • • • • • • The minds of most Europeans were shaped by a mixture of Christian and folk traditions. Disasters such as crop failures could be construed as punishment for sin or considered due to evil magic. threefourths of them women. . authorities tried over a hundred thousand people. Europeans believed in supernatural and magical causes for events. were more susceptible to the devil’s temptations. were accused because of their potential independence and power in society. and environmental strains. for practicing witchcraft. especially widows and single women. such as widows. – Some believe that women who were outside of male authority. Explanations for these witch-hunts vary. – Finally. rural poverty. The Christian belief that women were morally inferior to men led accusers to assume that women. and many were executed. historians also consider that some of the accused were actually practicing witchcraft against their enemies. Women also performed the function of midwife as well as healer where they influenced life and death.

Brahe. • The contributions of Copernicus. . • Galilieo was condemned for his writings.Describe the intellectual revolution of the Scientific Revolution. resulted in the Enlightenment. which. particularly Aristotle. Galileo. Kepler. Why did it begin? Who were some of the notable minds responsible for this revolution? Was there widespread acceptance of their ideas? • The origins of the Scientific Revolution emerging out of the Renaissance rediscovery of Greek thought. and begin a movement to explain the workings of the universe based on natural causes and mathematics. and Newton all combined to alter the way of thinking established by Aristotle. • In the sixteenth century some great thinkers began to challenge the discoveries of the Greeks. along with economic and political changes. • The heliocentric theory of the universe was intertwined with the Age of Discovery and Exploration. • The scientific method also made contributions to social thought.

• The different philosophies regarding church ornamentation and hierarchies were also prominent.How did the basic tenets of Lutheranism and Calvinism differ from those of Catholicism? What was the Catholic response to the Protestant Reformation? • These differences hinged on the differing emphases on the path to salvation—the Catholic belief in salvation through good works. • While many Catholic beliefs were clarified. and the Calvinist belief in predestination. the council mostly reaffirmed papal and church power. the Lutheran emphasis on faith. . • The “Catholic Reformation” addressed the Protestant challenge at the Council of Trent.