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# Physics 111: Lecture 28

Today’s Agenda

Description of Fluids at Rest
 Pressure vs Depth

Archimedes’ Principle: objects in a fluid

Pascal’s Principle: hydraulic forces

Physics 111: Lecture 28, Pg 1

Fluids

What do we mean by “fluids”?
 Fluids are “substances that flow”…. “substances that
take the shape of the container”
 Atoms and molecules are free to move .. No long range
correlation between positions.
What parameters do we use to describe fluids?
 Density

 Pressure



p

m
V

F
A

Physics 111: Lecture 28, Pg 2

 p Density & Pressure are related by the Bulk Modulus B  (  V / V )  LIQUID: incompressible (density almost constant)  GAS: compressible (density depends a lot on pressure) Gas (STP)   Pb H2O      Steel  Bulk modulus (Pa=N/m2) Physics 111: Lecture 28. Pg 3 .

Depth Incompressible Fluids (liquids)   Due to gravity.F1 =mg The downward force from the pressure on the top surface (F1) F2  F1  p2 A  p1 A mg   ( y2  y1 ) Ag p2  p1  g ( y2  y1 ) Physics 111: Lecture 28. each face having area A)  The sum of all the forces on this volume must be ZERO as it is in equilibrium. the pressure depends on depth in a fluid p 0 y1 Consider an imaginary fluid volume (a cube.Pressure vs. Pg 4 . » There are three vertical forces: The weight (mg)  The upward force from the pressure on the bottom surface (F2) p 1 F1 y2 A p 2 mg F 2   F2 .

• If the pressures were different. does the pressure below the surface depend only on depth? • Imagine a tube that would connect two regions at the same depth. then the system was NOT in equilibrium. Physics 111: Lecture 28.Pressure vs. if fluid did flow. since no equilibrium system will spontaneously leave equilibrium. Pg 5 . Depth (2) For a fluid in an open container: • pressure same at a given depth independent of the container y p(y) • fluid level is the same everywhere in a connected container (assuming no surface forces) • Why is this so? Why. fluid would flow in the tube! • However. in equilibrium.

ACT 1  What happens with two different fluids?? Consider a U tube containing liquids of density 1 and 2 as shown: dI 2 1  Compare the densities of the liquids: A) 1 < 2 B) 1 =  2 C) I 1 > 2  If we use the same liquids in a U tube of twice the crosssectional area as the first. Pg 6 . A) dI < dII B) dI = dII C) dI > dII  2 dII 1 II Physics 111: Lecture 28. compare the distances between the levels in the two cases (depth of liquid 2 same in both cases).Lecture 28.

d2 Lecture 12. • Since there’s more liquid above this depth on the left side. the pressures in each side must be equal. Pg 7 d1 . consider case I: d  p d  2 1 g 2 g1 • d  d 2  d1  I p  1 1     g   2 1  p  2 dII 1 II B) dI = dII Physics 111: Lecture 28. p • e. ACT 1 2 dI 1 p At the depth of the interface. that liquid must be less dense! • C) 1 >  2 The pressure depends ONLY on the depth and the density of the fluid.g.

 W2? W1 Archimedes’ Principle Suppose we weigh an object in air and in water. Physics 111: Lecture 28. on the object. the water exerts a net upward force. the buoyant force.y1)A y1 F 1 y2 p 1 A p 2 F 2 FB   liquid gVliquid  M liquid  g  Wliquid Therefore.  The buoyant force is equal to the difference in the pressures times the area. Pg 8 . » Since the pressure at the bottom of the object is greater than that at the top of the object. FB  ( p2  p1)  A  g(y 2 . the buoyant force is equal to the weight of the fluid displaced.

otherwise it will sink. If the buoyant force is larger than the weight of the object.Sink or Float?   The buoyant force is equal to the weight of the liquid that is displaced. it will float. Objects in water y FB mg  We can calculate how much of a floating object will be submerged in the liquid:  Object is in equilibrium FB  mg Physics 111: Lecture 28. Pg 9 .

  object  g  Vobject Vdispl. Vice ice 917 kg/m3    90% 3  water 1024 kg/m Physics 111: Lecture 28.Sink of Float? Object is in equilibrium y FB  mg FB mg  liquid  g  Vdispl. Vobject object   liquid The Tip of The Iceberg: What fraction of an iceberg is submerged? Vwater displ. Pg 10 .

what happens? A) It sinks B) styrofoam Pb C) styrofoam Pb Physics 111: Lecture 28.  If you turn the styrofoam+Pb upside down. Pg 11 . ACT 2  styrofoam A lead weight is fastened to a large styrofoam block and the combination floats on water with the water level with the top of the styrofoam block as shown.Pb Lecture 28.

Lecture 28. Physics 111: Lecture 28. ACT 2 C)    Pb styrofoam styrofoam Pb If the object floats right-side up. Pg 12 . However. when it is upside-down. then it also must float upside-down. Therefore the styrofoam must displace less water than it did when it was right-side up (when the Pb displaced no water). the Pb displaces some water.

Example Problems At what depth is the water pressure two atmospheres? It is one atmosphere at the surface.8m/s2*104 m This assumes that water is = 9.01105 Pa + 103 kg/m3*9.8110 Pa = 971 Atm incompressible.3 m For d = 104 m: The pressure increases one atmosphere for every 10 meters.02105 Pa = 1. would the pressure at the bottom of the ocean be greater or smaller than the result of this calculation? Physics 111: Lecture 28. Pg 13 .8m/s2*d d = 10. What is the pressure at the bottom of the deepest oceanic trench (about 104 meters)? Solution: d is the depth.01105 Pa + 103 kg/m3*9. P2 = 1. 7 If water were compressible. P2 = P1 + gd 2.

How big a downward force must you exert to get it completely underwater? Solution: F = g4r3/3 = 5131 N = 523 kg*g I’m ignoring the weight of the beach ball. Pg 14 .Example Problems (2) Have you ever tried to submerge a beach ball (r = 50 cm) in a swimming pool? It’s difficult. The force is the weight of a 523 kg object. Physics 111: Lecture 28.

Physics 111: Lecture 28. Which cup weighs more? Cup I Cup II  Archimedes principle tells us that the cups weigh the same.  Each plastic ball displaces an amount of water that is exactly equal to its own weight. Pg 15 .More Fun With Bouyancy  Two cups are filled to the same level with water. One of the two cups has plastic balls floating in it.

the ball must have “displaced” some oil. the bouyant force of the oil is not. the ball moves up (relative to the water). Oil (oil < ball <water) is slowly added to the container until it just covers the ball. Why? water     For oil to cover the ball. Therefore.Still More Fun!  A plastic ball floats in a cup of water with half of its volume submerged. Physics 111: Lecture 28.  Relative to the water level. Therefore. Pg 16 . the ball moves up. Note that we assume the bouyant force of the air on the ball is negligible (it is!). the buoyant force on the ball increases.

Pascal’s Principle  So far we have discovered (using Newton’s Laws):  Pressure depends on depth: p = gy  Since pressure depends on depth. F1 F2 d2 d1 A1 A2 Physics 111: Lecture 28. an object in a liquid experiences an upward buoyant force: FB = Wliquid displaced  Pascal’s Principle addresses how a change in pressure is transmitted through a fluid. Pg 17 .

 Hydraulic lifts Physics 111: Lecture 28. Pg 18 . depth depends only on g and the mass density .  Pascal’s Principle is most often applied to incompressible fluids (liquids):  Increasing p at any depth (including the surface) gives the same increase in p at any other depth  The change in pressure vs.Pascal’s Principle: Hydraulic jack Any change in the pressure applied to an enclosed fluid is transmitted to every portion of the fluid and to the walls of the containing vessel.

 This force is transmitted through the liquid to create an upward force F2. F1 F  F  2 1 A1 A1 A2 Check that F•d is the same on both sides. F1 F2 d2 d1 A1 A2  Pascal’s Principle says that increased pressure from F1 (F1/A1) is transmitted throughout A2 F2 the liquid. Energy is conserved! Physics 111: Lecture 28.Pascal’s Principle (2)  Consider the system shown:  A downward force F1 is applied to the piston of area A1. Pg 19 .

» If A2 = 2A1. ACT 3 dA  Consider the systems shown to the right. resulting in a difference di between the liquid levels. a block of mass M is placed on the piston of the large cylinder. A) dA = (1/2)dB B) dA = dB M A1 A10 dB M A2 A10 C) dA = 2dB Physics 111: Lecture 28. compare dA and dB. Pg 20 .Lecture 28.  In each case.

Pg 21 . A10 dB A2 M M A10 Physics 111: Lecture 28. ACT 3 Solution B) dA =   dB dA A1 The change in pressure (Mg/A10) is transmitted to the small cylinder. The area of the small cylinder plays no role. This change in pressure determines the change in levels.Lecture 28.

9 in) Hg vacuum p=0 Barometer atmosphere h p=p 0 Manometer p1 = 10.8 ft) H20 Physics 111: Lecture 28.Using Fluids to Measure Pressure • Use Barometer to measure Absolute Pressure  Top of tube evacuated (p=0)  Bottom of tube submerged into pool of mercury open to atmosphere (p=p0) p  Pressure dependence on depth: h 0 g • Use Manometer to measure Gauge Pressure  Measure pressure of volume (p1) relative to the atmospheric pressure ( gauge pressure )  The height difference (h) measures the gauge pressure: ( p  p0 ) h  1 g 1 atm = 760 mm (29.3 m (33. Pg 22 p0 h .

Pg 23 .BERNOULLI'S EQUATION Physics 111: Lecture 28.

the product Av = constant at any given tube of flow. the net rate of flow of mass inward across any closed surface is equal to the rate of increase of the mass within the surface.v2 A2 Continuity equation v2t v1 A1 v1t   Continuity equation is a mathematical statement of conservation of mass. t = a time interval So. the velocity of flow increases. Physics 111: Lecture 28. It follows that when the cross section of a flow decreases. respectively. Pg 24 .the above equation can be rewritten as follows: A1v1= A2v2  So. For an incompressible fluid in steady flow. the equation takes the following form:  A1v1t =  A2v2t where:  = the incompressible fluid density = const. A1&A2 = the cross-sectional area at section 1&2 v1&v2 = the fluid velocity at section 1&2 respectively.

continuity equation. Physics 111: Lecture 28.Bernoulli’s Equation  When an incompressible fluid flows along a horizontal flow tube of varying cross section area. and for this force to be caused by the fluid surrounding a particular element of fluid. its velocity must change.  Bernoulli’s equation is a general expression that relates the pressure difference between two points in a flow tube to both velocity changes and elevation changes. there is an additional pressure difference. the net force on any fluid element would be zero. If the elevation is also changes. the pressure must be different in different regions. A force is required to produce this acceleration. even when there is no difference in elevation. Thus when the cross section of a flow tube varies. Pg 25 .  If the pressure were the same everywhere. the pressure must vary along the tube.

the net work done by the element during a small displacement s [W = (p1 – p2)V] is equal to the net change in kinetic energy [KE = 1/2V(v22 – v12)] and the net change in potential energy [PE = Vg(y2 – y1)]. we apply the work-energy theorem to the fluid in a section of a flow tube. To derive the Bernoulli’s equation. Pg 26 . that is.  Then the Bernoulli’s equation is (p1 – p2)V = 1/2V(v22 – v12) + Vg(y2 – y1) v2 p2 p1 v1 A1 A2 v2t y2 y1 v1t Physics 111: Lecture 28.

w lf o V V v2 p2 A2 t v 2 = s 2 v1 p1 y1 y2 A1 s1 = v1t Physics 111: Lecture 28. Bernoulli’s equation represents the equality of the work per unit volume (p1 – p2) to the sum of the changes in kinetic and potential energies per unit volume that occur during the flow. Pg 27 .Or (p1 – p2) = 1/2 (v22 – v12) +  g(y2 – y1) in this form.

The pipe leading to the second-floor bathroom 5 m above and 1 cm in diameter. Pg 28 . Example: Water enters a house through a pipe 2 cm in diameter. Bernoulli’s equation may also be written: P + gy+ 1/2  v2 = constant Note carefully that p is the absolute not gauge pressure.   The above equation can be rewritten as follows: P1 + gy1+ 1/2  v12 = P2 + gy2+ 1/2  v22 and since the subscripts 1 & 2 refer to any two points along the tube of flow. Answers: 16 m/s. find the flow velocity and pressure in the bathroom. at an absolute pressure of 4105 pa. 230 kpa Physics 111: Lecture 28. If the flow velocity at the inlet pipe is 4 m/s.

illustrated below. Exercise: a method or determining the velocity of a fluid in a pipe s the venturi meter. Pg 29 . Obtain the velocity v1 in term of pressure difference p1 – p2. Two pressure gauges G1&G2 measure the pressure in the pipe and a contraction inserted in it. p1 G1 G2 p2 v1 flow A1 v2 A2 Venturi meter Physics 111: Lecture 28.