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Energy and the New Reality, Volume 2

:
C-Free Energy Supply
Chapter 6: Hydro-electric power
L. D. Danny Harvey
harvey@geog.utoronto.ca
Publisher: Earthscan, UK
Homepage: www.earthscan.co.uk/?tabid=101808
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Kinds of hydro-power
• Run-of-the-river (no reservoirs)
• Reservoir-based

respectively .Power production: • Mechanical power of flowing water is equal to Pe = ρg Q H where H is the “head” and Q the volumetric rate of flow • Electric power produced is equal to Pe = ηeηt ρg Q H where ηe and ηt are the generator electrical and turbine mechanical efficiencies.

Power for a Sustainable Future.1a Low-head hydro-electric system barrage turbine river flow (a) low head Source: Ramage (1996. Oxford. Oxford University Press. 183-226 ) .Figure 6. Renewable Energy.

1b Medium-heat hydro-electric system reservoir dam turbine penstock (b) medium head Source: Ramage (1996. Renewable Energy. 183-226 ) . Power for a Sustainable Future. Oxford. Oxford University Press.Figure 6.

Power for a Sustainable Future. Renewable Energy. Oxford. 183-226 ) .Figure 6.1c High-head hydro-electric system high reservoir dam turbine penstock (c) high head Source: Ramage (1996. Oxford University Press.

Renewable Energy.Figure 6. Power for a Sustainable Future. Oxford. 183-226 ) .2 Impellors a) b) c) Fixed blades d) Adjustable blades (Kaplan) Source: Ramage (1996. Oxford University Press.

Oxford. Renewable Energy. Oxford University Press.0 10 100 500 Volumetric Flow Rate (m3 /s) Source: Ramage (1996. Power for a Sustainable Future.3 Impellor Space 1000 500 MW Pelton 100 MW 100 10 MW 1 MW 10 Crossflow Francis 100 kW 20 kW 3 0.2 Propeller 1. 183-226 ) .Figure 6.

8 F lo w a s a P r o p o r t io n o f D e s ig n F lo w Source: Paish (2002.6 0 . Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 6. 537–556.com/science/journal/13640321) 1 .sciencedirect.Figure 6. http://www.0 .4 Hydro Efficiency 100 P e lt o n C r o s s flo w 80 60 F r a n c is P r o p e lle r 40 20 0 0 0 .4 0 .2 0 .

5 Hydro-electricity generation .Figure 6.

Current hydro-electricity • About 19% of global electrical generating capacity in 2005 (778 GW out of 4100 GW) • About 16% of global electricity generation in 2005 (2838 TWh out of 18000 TWh) .

6 Top 10 countries and rest-of-world in terms of hydro-electric power capacity in 2005.Figure 6. Total = 778 GW .

Total = 2838 TWh. .Figure 6.7 Top 10 countries and rest-of-world in terms of hydro-electric generation in 2005.

8 Percent of total electricity generation as hydro-electricity .Figure 6.

Total small-hydro (< 10 MW) .

Figure 6.9 Hydro-electric generation potential .

1 Potential energy generation (TWh/yr). Source: WEC (2007) for hydro generation. total electricity demand (TWh) in 2005.Hydro-electric generation potentials Table 6. UC=under construction. existing (2005) of future generation (TWh/yr). and percent of total electricity demand met by hydro power in various continents and selected countries (listed for each continent in order of decreasing technical potential). UN (2007) for total generation. .

Figure 6.10a Hydro reservoir power densities .

is greater than that from a coal-fired powerplant! • Accurate assessment of the GHG emissions is. averaged over the lifetime of the projected.Greenhouse gas emissions • Methane is produced from the decomposition of organic matter already on the land when it is flooded to produce a reservoir (this emission decreases over time) • Methane is also produced from decomposition of organic matter that washes into the reservoir and decays anaerobically • For some projects. however. the GHG emission per kWh. very difficult .

Figure 6.10b GHG emissions from dams in Brazil (except for “Boreal”) .

Figure 6.11a GHG emissions vs power density for reservoirs in Brazil .

Figure 6.11b GHG emissions vs power density for reservoirs in Quebec .

$2000-8000/kW (including access roads for high estimates) . developing countries • Small hydro. developed countries • Large hydro (involving dams and reservoirs). $2000-9000/kW. $1000-3000/kW.Capital cost of hydro powerplants • Small hydro.

com/science/journal/13640321) .Figure 6. http://www. 537–556.12 Small-hydro capital cost Source: Paish (2002. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 6.sciencedirect.

transmission. .4 Cost of hydro-electric energy (cents/kWh) for various capital costs. insurance. Operation and maintenance. interest rates. and capacity factors. and administrative costs are not included.Cost of hydro-electricity (cents/kWh) Table 6. assuming amortization of the initial investment over a 50-year period. water rent.