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Water power –the matured

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Water power has a long history. water powered mills ground grain into flour. Such direct usage is now rare. electricity. Until the early twentieth century. and most water power is used to generate a convenient secondary energy source. sawed lumber and performed numerous other tasks. .

which is slightly more than by nuclear generation. Hydro power generation is an established technology and maybe as much as one fifth of the world's electricity is generated this way. . Hydro power is available by creating dams in stream and river flows.

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Hydroelectric dam in cross section .

compressed air or any other source of mechanical energy. a wind turbine. generally using electromagnetic induction. a hand crank. an electrical generator is a device that converts mechanical energy to electrical energy. water falling through a turbine or waterwheel. The source of mechanical energy may be a reciprocating or turbine steam engine.In electricity generation. . an internal combustion engine.

Large Dams such as Hoover Dam are able to provide large amounts of hydroelectric power. . Hoover Dam is among the most recognized and renowned structures built by the Bureau of Reclamation.07 gigawatt capability. it has a 2. The dam was authorized under the Boulder Canyon Project.

providing a useful revenue stream to offset the costs of dam operation. .Advantages Economics   The major advantage of hydroelectricity is elimination of the cost of fuel. Where a dam serves multiple purposes. The cost of operating a hydroelectric plant is nearly immune to increases in the cost of fossil fuels. a hydroelectric plant may be added with relatively low construction cost.

While some carbon dioxide is produced during manufacture and construction of the project. this is a tiny fraction of the operating emissions of equivalent fossil-fuel electricity generation.Greenhouse gas emissions  Since hydroelectric dams do not burn fossil fuels. they do not directly produce carbon dioxide (a greenhouse gas). .

Related activities  Reservoirs created by hydroelectric schemes often provide facilities for water sports. and become tourist attractions in themselves. In some countries. farming fish in the reservoirs is common. Multi-use dams installed for irrigation can support the fish farm with relatively constant water supply. .

. For instance.Disadvantages Environmental damage  Hydroelectric projects can be disruptive to surrounding aquatic ecosystems. studies have shown that dams along the Atlantic and Pacific coasts of North America have reduced salmon populations by preventing access to spawning grounds upstream. even though most dams in salmon habitat have fish ladders installed.

In many cases.Population relocation  Another disadvantage of hydroelectric dams is the need to relocate the people living where the reservoirs are planned. no amount of compensation can replace ancestral and cultural attachments to places that have spiritual value to the displaced population. . Such problems have arisen at the Three Gorges Dam project in China.

Dam failures  Failures of large dams. . while rare. are potentially serious — the Banqiao Dam failure in Southern China resulted in the deaths of 171. sabotage and terrorism.000 people and left millions homeless. Smaller dams and micro hydro facilities are less vulnerable to these threats. Dams may be subject to enemy bombardment during wartime.

Made by : Schiopu Nicoleta Tiganus Emilia Stefana Coordinated by : Schnabel Dieter .