# ANTENNA PRESENTATION

GROUP MEMBERS 
ZIAFAT ALI

Impedance and gain of antenna.  SAAD ASGHAR Beamwidth,Bandwidth,Polarization.  SAMEER SHABEER Antenna apparture,effective area,efficiency

What is an antenna ? 

An antenna is a metallic conductor system capable of radiating and receiving electromagnetic waves. Reciprocity Theorem 

Antenna Parameters 
Antenna Impedance , Za

It is defined as the ratio of input voltage to input current Za = V / I Units= 

Za is the complex quantity and it is written as

Za = Ra + jXa Xa = reactive part results from fields the antenna Ra= resistive part surrounding 

Two kinds of resistance

Ohmic resistance ( Rl ) Radiation Resistance ( Rr ) 
Ra =Rl +Rr

Rl =Losses in the antenna or ohmic resistance Rr=is called radiation resistance 

Radiation Resistance, Rr

is defined as a hypothetical resistance that would dissipate an amount of power equal to the radiated power Rr = power radiated / I² rms 
Ohmic Resistance , Rl

Heating loss present in a conductor is called ohmic resistance Pomic = I²R 

As our resistance is given as

Ra = Rl + Rr so our power is given as Total power = Pl + Pr P = I² R

GAIN 
Saving of energy is called the gain of an antenna  Gain depends upon Beam Width

G =4 / 
Beam width =

= /l 

Maximum amount of energy which our antenna can send in the desired direction is called Gain or Directive gain

DIRECTIVE GAIN 
Directive Gain (Dirgain)
is referred to the ratio of the power density radiated in a particular direction to the power density radiated to the same point by a reference antenna(isotropic antenna) ,assuming both antenna radiate the same power level. 

Dirgain = P/Pref
P = power density at some point with a given antenna (W/m2) Pref = power density at the same point with a reference antenna(W/m2)

BEAMWIDTH 
Beam width is the angular separation of the half-power points of the radiated pattern.  When there is 50% energy present this is called the 3-db beamwidth.  We consider the beamwidth in 3-Dimensions. 
The 1st dimension is for horizontal beamwidth,2nd is for vertical

beamwidth and 3rd is for the length of beamwidth.

BANDWIDTH OF ANTENNA 
The bandwidth of antenna is defined as the

range of frequencies in which the performance of antenna with respect to some characteristics is good. 
We consider the bandwidth of antenna with

respect to 3-db beamwidth as whole of beamwidth is useless and there is no 50% energy outside the 3-db beamwidth.

BANDWIDTH 
There are different types of frequencies

bands for different types of antennas like for yagi are VHF(30MHz-300MHz),UHF(300MHz3GHz). 
The frequency band for microwave antennas

are from 3GHz-300GHz.

POLARIZATION 
An antenna polarization is relative to the E-field

of antenna. 
E-field is responsible for carrying the energy and

magnetic field is not responsible for this. 
The receiver and transmitter antennas need to

possess the same polarization.

TYPES 
  

LINEAR POLARIZATION Horizontal Vertical Theta 

CIRCULAR POLARIZATION.  ELLIPTICAL POLARIZATION

LINEAR POLARIZATION 

VERTICAL POLARIZATION  An antenna is vertically linear

polarized when its electric field is perpendicular to the Earth s surface. 
An example of a vertical antenna

is a broadcast tower for AM radio or the whip antenna on an automobile.

LINEAR POLARIZATION 
 

HORIZONTAL POLARIZATION Horizontally linear polarized antennas have their electric field parallel to the Earth's surface. For example, television transmissions use horizontal polarization. Thus, TV antennas are horizontally-oriented. THETA POLARIZATION It is a type of polarization in which electric field is neither parallel, nor perpendicular but making some angle with the earth surface. 



CIRCULAR POLARIZATION 
A circularly polarized antenna radiates energy in the horizontal plane, vertical planes as well as every plane in between and making one complete revolution during each interval.  If the rotation is clockwise looking in the direction of propagation than this is called right hand polarization.  If the rotation is counterclockwise looking in the direction of propagation than this is called left hand rotation.

ADVANTAGES 
REFLECTIVITY;

Radio signals are reflected or absorbed by materials but circular polarized antennas send in all planes and the signal strength is not lost. 
LINE-OF-SIGHT

When line-of-sight is not clear and there are obstacles like buildings which effect the transmission than we use circular polarization.

ELLIPTICAL POLARIZATION 
A elliptical polarized wave radiates energy in the form of ellipse, in the horizontal, vertical planes as well as every plane in between.  If the rotation is clockwise looking in the direction of propagation than this is called right hand polarization.  If the rotation is counterclockwise looking in the direction of propagation than this is called left hand rotation.

ANTENNA APERTURE (Aa) 
It is defined as the area of an antenna which is responsible for transmitting and receiving energy.  It is the primary parameter which tells about the performance of antenna.  It is always lesser than that of the actual area of an antenna.

EFFECTIVE AREA (Ae) 
It is defined as the product of antenna

aperture and the total area of an antenna, that is,

Ae = Aa * A 

Antenna aperture and effective area are

related as by the above relation.  The gain of antenna is related to the effective area of antenna, that is,

G = 4 * Ae / ²

ANTENNA EFFICIENCY( )
It is defined as the ratio of radiated power to the input power, that is,

= Pr / Pt

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