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Design For Six Sigma

Prepared by: Bassem El Ahmar Instructor: Dr. Yousif Jammal Course Title: Total Quality Management [MBA] Spring 2010 AUCE

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The best Six Sigma projects begin not inside the business but outside it, focused on answering the question, how can we make the customer more competitive?
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Jack Welch

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T ECHNICAL D EFINITION OF S IX S IGMA

Technical Definition (Motorola)
75% ±1.5W

LSL

USL

12.5%
Cp=2 Cpk=1.5

12.5%
Cp=2 Cpk=1.5

Cp=Cpk = 2

3.4 DPMO

-WWW -3 WWWWWWWWW

6W to LSL
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6W to USL

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Evolution to: A Management driven, scientific methodology for product and process improvement which creates breakthroughs in financial performance and Customer satisfaction

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W HAT IS S IX S IGMA ?

Management mandated and directed improvement program focused on breakthroughs in financial performance and customer satisfaction Uses Champions, Black Belts and Green Belts to facilitate change Focused on core business and Customer needs

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A systematic method for process and product improvement A Greek symbol for measuring performance variation A metric for evaluating performance quality A standard of excellence (3.4 defects per million opportunities)

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B REAKTHROUGH AND C ONTINUOUS I MPROVEMENT

Breakthrough Strategy

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Efficient Systems

Improved Profitability

Customer Satisfaction

Customer Satisfaction + Efficient Systems = Improved Profitability
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T HREE E MPHASIS A REAS FOR S IX S IGMA

Design for Six Sigma Transactional Six Sigma Production Six Sigma

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W HAT M AKES S IX S IGMA W ORK ?

Select important problems and projects customer satisfaction and financial performance Allocate the time Professional people work on Provide individuals

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Provide Management direction Require a well thought out Verify the dollar Sustain the benefits

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S IX S IGMA 3 C RITICAL E LEMENTS

Business objectives and metrics

Dedicated resources and focused infrastructure

Systematic Approach

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S IX S IGMA DMAIC R OAD M AP
Define
Measure DMAIC Analyze Improve Control
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S IX S IGMA R ESULTS

Improved Customer satisfaction

Improved quality, efficiency and cost of goods sold

Self-sustaining infrastructure

Commonality

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D ESIGN FOR S IX S IGMA

Applications of Six Sigma that focus on the design or redesign of products and services and their enabling processes so that from the beginning customer needs and expectations are fulfilled are known as Design for Six Sigma or DFSS.
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T HE A IM OF DFSS

The aim of DFSS is to create designs that are resource efficient, capable of exceptionally high yields, and are robust to process variations.

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A NOTHER V IEW OF D ESIGN FOR S IX S IGMA
DFSS is the change in the product design organization from a deterministic to a probabilistic culture. Our people were trained to incorporate statistical analysis of failure modes, both in products and processes. Then they began to incorporate design changes that modify and eliminate design features with a probability of failure within a predefined range of operating environments and conditions. The design organization changed from a ³factorof-safety´ mentality to one in which there was a quantitative assessment of design risk.
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F OUR E LEMENTS OF D ESIGN

Four elements of design are most critical to the effort: Design for reducibility (design for manufacturing and assembly) Design for Reliability Design for Performance (technical requirements) Design for Maintainability.
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T HE DMAIC M ODEL
Voice of the Customer

Measure

Improve

Define

Analyze

Control

Institutionalization
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T EAM C HARTER

Problem & Goal Statements Should be:

SMART

Specific

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E STABLISHING P ROJECT B OUNDARIES

Identify the customer Define customer s expectations and needs Clearly specify your deliverables tied to those expectations Identify CTQ s for those deliverables Map your process

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Determine where in the process the CTQ s can be most seriously affected Evaluate which CTQ s have the greatest opportunity for improvement Define the project to improve the CTQ s you have selected

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T HE SIPOC M ODEL

Supplier

Input

Process

Output

Customer

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S IX S IGMA COPIS M ODEL

Customer

Output

Process

Input

Supplier

From Concept to Market: the Voice of the Customer
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DFSS AS A G ROWTH S TRATEGY

Achieving world-class performance. DFSS grows into program profits. A structured compensations system. Leaders, need to be selected DFSS should be regarded as a part of doing business.

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V OICE OF THE C USTOMER
(VOC)

Why don t you guys learn how to meet a schedule? Your service quality to poor When will you learn how to provide service and a Customer first attitude? Why don t you tell us when there is a problem?

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I sent out e-mail after e-mail with no response! Why do you try and make your customers responsible for your quality problems? Your RMA frequency is unacceptable

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C RITICAL TO Q UALITY (CTQ) C HARACTERISTICS
Response (Y) (Y)
Performance to Schedule

Use the tree diagram to define Customer CTQs
usto er e uire e t

Specification Limit(s) Allowable defect Rate
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LSL = 0 hours late USL = 6 hours early

< 3.4 DPMO

¡

 

¤ ¤

Target

¡

Customer Needs

Product arrives on-time on-

100% of co itted ships prior to 5:00 p as received o usto er receivi g dock

¤

¡¡

¤

Measure
¤ ¡ ¡ £ ¢  

Deviatio fro schedule i co pleted u its

¡

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DFSS AS A M EANS OF S ERVING C USTOMERS

Continual customer feedback and ideas A DFSS must be inclusive All employees must understand how it works

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P RODUCT-P ROCESS F USION T HROUGH DFSS

Drive product and process compatibility. The value chain of your customer includes everything. Six Sigma activity to reduce variability in the factory is a losing process. Metrics must tell the story of the organization s performance. DFSS can have applicability in diverse industries.

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T HE DFSS E NGINEERING O RGANIZATION
Design organizations are struggling with the loss of knowledge , experience and skills. Enlarging the responsibility of design.

The trend toward engineering efficiency.

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S IX S IGMA C HAMPIONS 

  

Create the vision of Six Sigma for the company. Define the path to implement Six Sigma across the organization. Develop a comprehensive training plan for implementing the Breakthrough Strategy. Carefully select high-impact projects.

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Support development of statistical thinking . Ask Black Belts many questions to ensure that they are properly focused. Realize the gains by supporting Six Sigma projects through allocation of resources and removal of roadblocks.

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Hold the ground by implementing Black Belt recommendations. Make sure that project opportunities are acted upon by the organization s leadership and the finance department. Recognize people for their efforts.

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M ASTER B LACK B ELTS 

    

Understand the big business picture. Partner with the Champions. Get certified as Master Black Belts. Develop and deliver training to various levels of the organization. Assist in the identification of projects. Coach and support Black Belts in project work.

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Participate in project reviews to offer technical expertise.  Help train and certify Black Belts.  Take on leadership of major programs.  Facilitate sharing of best practices across the corporation. 

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B LACK B ELTS

Act as Breakthrough Strategy experts and be Breakthrough Strategy enthusiasts. Stimulate Champion thinking. Identify the barriers. Lead and direct teams in project execution. Report progress to appropriate leadership levels. Solicit help from Champions when needed. Influence without direct authority.

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Determine the most effective tools to apply. Prepare a detailed project assessment during the Measurement phase. Get input from knowledgeable operators, first-line supervisors, and team leaders. Teach and coach Breakthrough Strategy methods and tools. Manage project risk. Ensure that the results are sustained.

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G REEN B ELTS

Function as Green Belts on a part-time basis, while performing their regular duties.  Participate on Black Belt project teams in the context of their existing responsibilities.  Learn the Six Sigma methodology as it applies to a particular project.  Continue to learn and practice the Six Sigma methods and tools after project completion. 

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H OW D O W E D O I T ?

Define

Develop

Deploy

Management review of progress

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O VERVIEW 

There are tremendous improvement and savings available to companies in their operations if they will mobilize their resources toward reduction of waste and improvement of quality. Six Sigma requires Leadership from the Executive Staff. The roadmap is clear and the methods for improvement are well defined.  

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Software tools make the data collection and analysis clear. Development of an implementation and training plan is the next step. 

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