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Films

14/05/16

CONTENTS
Introduction
Classification
Direct action film
Indirect action film
Self developing films
Film storage
Conclusion

INTRODUCTION

INTRODUCTION
Image Receptor medium on which images are
recorded & made visible to observer
The image receptor most often used in dental
radiography is x ray film

INTRODUCTION
History:
1913: Hand-wrapped film, Kodak
1919: Machine wrapped, Regular Film, Single emulsion
1924: Radia-tized (Kodak), Double emulsion
1940:
1981:

Ultra speed
Ekta-speed, E Speed film
1994: Ekta-speed plus
2000: Insight Film

CL A SSIFICATION

CLASSIFICATION
Radiograph
ic film
IMAGE
RECEPTOR
Digital
receptor

Direct
action
Indirect
action
Solid state
sensors
Phosphor
plates

CLASSIFICATION

Screen film
TYPE OF
EXPOSURE
Packet film

CLASSIFICATION

Single film
PACKING
Double film

CLASSIFICATION

Single
EMULSION
Double

CLASSIFICATION
Slow
SPEED

Fast
Hyper
speed

CLASSIFICATION
SPEED
Determines how quickly the film reacts to x rays
Fast film Less radiation exposure
Film responds more quickly
Silver halide crystals are larger
Larger the crystals, faster the film speed
Poorer image quality

E, F SPEED

DIRECT ACTION
FILM

DIRECT ACTION FILM


Intra oral film, placed inside mouth during x ray
exposure
Indication: Excellent image quality and fine
anatomical details
Also referred to as:
Non screen film
Packet / wrapped film

Sensitive primarily to x ray photons

DIRECT ACTION FILM


THE FILM PACKET

Packaged to protect from light & moisture


Film & its packaging

Film packet

Film packets have 4 basic components:

DIRECT ACTION FILM


THE FILM PACKET

DIRECT ACTION FILM


PAPER FILM WRAPPER

Black paper protective


sheet that covers the film
shields film from light
Prevents damage while
unwrapping

DIRECT ACTION FILM


LEAD FOIL

Lead foil present behind film


Absorbs back scattered radiation
Decreases film fog
Decreases patient exposure

If film placed backwards in mouth, lead foil


will be positioned between subject and film
Resulting radiograph: Light with embossed
pattern (Tyre track appearance)

DIRECT ACTION FILM


X-RAY FILM

Double-emulsion type of film


Side of the film with raised dot is always positioned facing the x-ray
tube
It comprises of four basic components:
Plastic base
Adhesive
Emulsion
Protective layer

DIRECT ACTION FILM


X-RAY FILM

Ultra speed film


Globular crystals
1um

InSight film
Flat tubular crystals
1.8um
Oriented parallel with film
surface
Large area for x ray beam
Requires half the exposure

DIRECT ACTION FILM


X-RAY FILM

Silver
halide
grains
EMULSIO
N

Vehicle
matrix

DIRECT ACTION FILM


X-RAY FILM
EMULSION
Silver halide grains
Silver bromide - 80 -99 %
Silver iodide - large diameter disrupts the regularity of silver
bromide crystal structure -1- 10 %
Vehicle matrix is used to suspend and evenly disperse silver
halide crystals over the film

DIRECT ACTION FILM


X-RAY FILM
BASE
Support the emulsion
Polyester polyethylene terephthalate
Uniformly translucent
Provides proper degree of flexibility

ADHESIVE
Fixes the emulsion to the base

PROTECTIVE LAYER
Shield from mechanical damage

DIRECT ACTION FILM


PERIAPICAL VIEW

Standard adults
film
Anterior adult
projection
Children

DIRECT ACTION FILM


BITEWING VIEW

INDICATIONS
Examining the Incipient inter proximal
Caries
Secondary Caries beneath the
restoration
Height of pulp horns
Assessment of periodontal status
(Alveolar bone crest height )
Overhanging restorations

DIRECT ACTION FILM


OCCLUSAL VIEW

Occlusal films are 3-4 times


larger than standard films
It is used to show larger areas of
the maxilla or mandible than
may be seen on a periapical film

DIRECT ACTION FILM


OCCLUSAL VIEW
INDICATIONS

Identify the extent of pathological condition


To locate an object in buccolingual position
Developing dentition in children
Image patients which are unable to open
mouth

INDIRECT
ACTION FILM

INDIRECT ACTION FILM


Sensitive primarily to light rather than x rays
Used outside the mouth
Emulsions available:
Standard silver halide blue light
Modified silver with ultraviolet sensitizers UV
Orthochromatic green light
Panchromatic red light

INDIRECT ACTION FILM


INTENSIFYING SCREEN
Consist of fluorescent phosphors, which emits light
when excited with x- rays, embedded in a plastic
matrix
Creates an image receptor system which is 10-60
times more sensitive to x rays than film alone
Substantial reduction in dose of radiation to the
patient

INDIRECT ACTION FILM


INTENSIFYING SCREEN
1. Terbium activated Gadolinium oxysulfide - Green
2. Thullium activated Lanthanum, oxybromide - Blue
3. Niobium activated, yttrium tantalate- Blue & UV
4. Calcium tungstate Blue
.So it is important to use the correct combination of
film with the intensifying screen

INDIRECT ACTION FILM

INDIRECT ACTION FILM

SELF
DEVELOPING
FILMS

SELF DEVELOPING FILMS


Disadvantages
Poor image quality
Deteriorates over
time
No lead foil inside
film
Difficult to position
Expensive

FILM STORAGE
Avoid direct sunlight, radiation, chemical
fumes
Optimum temp: 10 240C
Relative humidity: 30 50%
Use before expiry
Place box on their edges
DO NOT twist, bend

CONCLUSION
Basic knowledge of image receptors & image
formation in dentistry helps us to know quality of
image & possible radiation dose to patient which
provide the way to judge cost vs benefit for different
imaging modalities
This helps us in advising the perfect imaging
modalities for our patient

WHAT ARE THE DIFFERENCES ???


Intra oral film
1. Placed inside the
mouth

Extra oral film


1.Placed outside mouth
2. Screen films

2. Non screen films


3. large in size
3. Small in size
4. to visible light
4. More sensitive to X
rays
5. Cassettes not required

5. Cassette required

Intra oral film


6. Shows individual tooth & adjacent
structure

Extra oral film


6. Shows entire facial
complex

7. Embossed dot present


7. ---8. High resolution & image
sharpness

8. Low resolution

9. Images are close to actual size

9. Invariably magnified

10. More patient cooperation


required

10. ----

CAN YOU IDENTIFY???

CAN YOU IDENTIFY???