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PHENOMENOLOGY

By: Morgan Thompson

What is Phenomenology?
According to our textbook, Phenomenology is the
description of one or more individuals
consciousness and experience of a phenomenon
(Johnson & Christensen 2014).
Examples:
The death of a loved one
Viewing oneself as a teacher
The act of teaching
The experience of being a
minority
Experience of winning a
game

What is the purpose of


Phenomenology?
According
According to
to our
our textbook,
textbook,
The
The purpose
purpose of
of
phenomenological
phenomenological research
research is
is
to
to obtain
obtain aa view
view into
into your
your
research
research participants
participants lifelifeworlds
worlds and
and to
to understand
understand
their
their personal
personal meanings
meanings (i.e.,
(i.e.,
what
what something
something means
means to
to
them)
them) constructed
constructed from
from their
their
lived
lived experiences
experiences (Johnson
(Johnson
&
& Christensen
Christensen 2014).
2014).

Life -worlds, German for


Lebenswelt, first used by
Edmund Husserl. It means
world of immediate
experience.
Reference: Johnson &
Christensen 2014

LIFE WORLD = YOUR MIND

Phenomenologists
According
According to
to the
the text,
text, Phenomenological
Phenomenological researchers
researchers do
do not,
not,
however,
however, generally
generally assume
assume that
that individuals
individuals are
are completely
completely unique.
unique.
More
More technically
technically speaking,
speaking, phenomenological
phenomenological researchers
researchers do
do not
not
study
study just
just the
the variant
variant structures
structures of
of an
an experience
experience (the
(the unique
unique part
part
of
of an
an individuals
individuals experience
experience that
that varies
varies from
from person
person to
to person).
person).
Instead,
Instead, phenomenologists
phenomenologists generally
generally assume
assume that
that there
there is
is some
some
commonality
commonality in
in human
human experience,
experience, and
and they
they seek
seek to
to understand
understand
this
this commonality
commonality (Johnson
(Johnson &
& Christensen
Christensen 2014).
2014).

Essence
there are probably
essences of this
experience that are
common to everyone
(Johnson & Christensen
2014).
Example: in the case
of the death of a loved
one, grief and sorrow
would probably be
elements of the common
experience (Johnson &
Christensen 2014).

Interpretative Phenomenological
Analysis
Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis or IPA is more focused
on situated, interpreted, and particular lived experiences
according to our text.
Example: IPA is interested in research participants perspectives
on their experiences.. IPA starts with and is interested in the
particular, in contrast to searching for universal experiences
(Johnson & Christensen 2016).

How do I conduct a
phenomenological research study?
1. Collect data from several individuals & depict their experience of
something
2. Do in-depth interviews
3. Reduce the statements to essence of the experience
4. Participants must be able to focus on experience and nothing else
5. Tell participants to recall a certain experience theyve had
6. Search for significant statements
7. Search for themes in the data
8. For validity, researcher should have participants review the
statement of experience
9. Write a narrative
Reference: Johnson & Christensen 2014

Example of a phenomenological
research study
Emerging in the beginning of the twentieth century as a
philosophy for understanding the nature of the world around
us,phenomenologyhas gained traction over the last several
years in healthcare as a methodology in rehabilitation research
and as a tool in patient-centered care. We explore the basic
concepts ofphenomenologyand provide conceptual links to the
exigencies of patient-centered care. Along the way, we discuss
recent literature that provides evidence of the use
ofphenomenologyto uncover the lived experiences of
individuals with disabilities. We conclude with concrete examples
and suggestions to clinicians for strategies to
usephenomenologyas a tool in patient-centered care
(Greenfield & Jensen 2013). Follow the link to view the article on
references page.

References
1. Educational Research
Johnson & Christensen 2014
2. Phenomenology
: a powerful tool for patient
-centered rehabilitation
Bruce Greenfield and Gail M
Jensen
Physical Therapy Reviews
Vol. 17 , Iss. 6,2012