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Foundations Shaping

Attitudes for the of


Educational Data in the
United States

Jack Atherton

Understanding Data Use


To understand the Professional
Attitudes of Data Use in American
Education it is necessary to the
platform and influencing factors from
which data driven decisions are made.

Factors Influencing Decision Making


Behaviors

Societal
Organizational
Personal
Kowalski, Lasley & Mahoney, 2008

Societal Variables

Legal Requirements

Societal Variables
Meta-Values
Liberty-----------choice
Equality---------equal treatment
Adequacy-------acceptable standards
Efficiency------outcomes through measures of
accountability
(Schlechty, 1990; Razik & Swanson, 2001; Swanson, 1989; Fowler, 2000; King,
Swanson and Sweetland, 2003).

Societal Variables
Politics
Professionalism
objective knowledgeable
choices
Public Spirit altruistic decisions emotionally
attached to community
Mansbridge, (1994). Wirt & Kristi, (2001).

Societal Variables

Economics------the allocation
of
resources

Organizational Variables
Organizational variables are
social and political systems
designed to meet specific goals
Reitz, (1987).

Organizational Variables
Social Climate: distinguishing elements of shared
values and beliefs.
Artifacts visible structures
Espoused values stated professed values
Basic assumptions
givens guiding behaviors
without challenge
Schein (1992)

Organizational Variables

Organizational Politics structure for


distribution of power
Hoy & Miskel (2005)

Organizational Variables

Threat and Risk challenges to


future
Bassett (1970)

Organizational Variables
Uncertainty, Ambiguity & Conflict
uncertainty, unclear expectations and
disagreement in stakeholders
(Thompson, 1967 and Nutt, 1989)

Personal Variables
Personal variables are the normative
expectations resulting from an
institutions mission, history and culture
Getzels & Guba (1957)

Personal Variables
Knowledge and Skills personal experiences influencing a decision
Personality characteristic distinguishing a person
Values personal beliefs
Bias prejudicial interpretations
Decision Making Style patterns in making choices
(Price & Burton, 2004; Kowalski, 2003; Rokeach, 1972; Nutt, 1989;
& Driver, 1979).

Professional Attitudes to the Use of


Educational Data in the United States

???? QUESTIONS ????

References
Bassett, G.A. (1970). A model of creativity and innovation in organizations.

Research in Organizational Behavior,10, 123-67.


Driver, M.J. (1979). Individual decision making and creativity. In S. Kerr (Ed.)
Organizational Behavior. Columbus, OH: Grid Publishing.
Fowler, F.C. (2000). Policy studies for educational change. Upper Saddle River,
NJ: Merrill, Prentice Hall.
Getzels. J.W. & Guba, E.W. (1957). The communities of education. Teachers
college record, 65, 423-441.
Hoy, W.K. & Miskel, C.G. (2005). Educational administration: Theory, research
and practice (8th ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.
King, R.A., Swanson, A.D., & Sweetland. R.C. (2003). School finance

Kowalski, T.J. (2003). Contemporary school administration: An


introduction (2nd ed.). Boston: MA: Allyn and Bacon.
Kowalski, T.J., Lasley, T.J. II & Mahoney (2008). Data-driven
decisions and school leadership. New York, NY: Pearson.
Mansbridge, J. (1994). Public spirit in political systems. In H.
Aaron, T. Mann, & T. Taylor (Eds.), Values and public policy. (pp.
146-172), Washington, DC: Brookings Institute
Nutt, P.C. (1989). Making touch decisions: Tactics for improving
managerial decision making. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Price, W.J. & Burton, E.M. (2004). Leadership skills for supporting learning.

Leadership, 34(2), 20-22.


Razik, T.A., & Swanson, A.D. (2001). Fundamental concepts of educational
leadership and management. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Merrill, Prentice Hall.
Reitz, T.A. (1987). Behavior in organizations (3rd ed.). Homewood, IL:
Irwin.
Rokeach, M. (1972). Beliefs, attitudes, and values: A theory of organization.
San Francisco: CA: Jossey-Bass.
Schein, E.H. (1992). Organizational culture and leadership (2nd ed.). San
Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.