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Foundations Shaping

Attitudes for the of

Educational Data in the
United States

Jack Atherton

Understanding Data Use

To understand the Professional
Attitudes of Data Use in American
Education it is necessary to the
platform and influencing factors from
which data driven decisions are made.

Factors Influencing Decision Making


Kowalski, Lasley & Mahoney, 2008

Societal Variables

Legal Requirements

Societal Variables
Equality---------equal treatment
Adequacy-------acceptable standards
Efficiency------outcomes through measures of
(Schlechty, 1990; Razik & Swanson, 2001; Swanson, 1989; Fowler, 2000; King,
Swanson and Sweetland, 2003).

Societal Variables
objective knowledgeable
Public Spirit altruistic decisions emotionally
attached to community
Mansbridge, (1994). Wirt & Kristi, (2001).

Societal Variables

Economics------the allocation

Organizational Variables
Organizational variables are
social and political systems
designed to meet specific goals
Reitz, (1987).

Organizational Variables
Social Climate: distinguishing elements of shared
values and beliefs.
Artifacts visible structures
Espoused values stated professed values
Basic assumptions
givens guiding behaviors
without challenge
Schein (1992)

Organizational Variables

Organizational Politics structure for

distribution of power
Hoy & Miskel (2005)

Organizational Variables

Threat and Risk challenges to

Bassett (1970)

Organizational Variables
Uncertainty, Ambiguity & Conflict
uncertainty, unclear expectations and
disagreement in stakeholders
(Thompson, 1967 and Nutt, 1989)

Personal Variables
Personal variables are the normative
expectations resulting from an
institutions mission, history and culture
Getzels & Guba (1957)

Personal Variables
Knowledge and Skills personal experiences influencing a decision
Personality characteristic distinguishing a person
Values personal beliefs
Bias prejudicial interpretations
Decision Making Style patterns in making choices
(Price & Burton, 2004; Kowalski, 2003; Rokeach, 1972; Nutt, 1989;
& Driver, 1979).

Professional Attitudes to the Use of

Educational Data in the United States

???? QUESTIONS ????

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