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TEACHING LEARNING

METHOD

POSTER
Poster

are prepared graphic device


that can be made of a variety of
materials and media like
photoghaphs, daigrams,graphs,word
messages. Poster work best in
smaller audience size. It is a
portable. Poster is simple and very
elaborate.

PURPOSE OF POSTER
1) The main purpose is to grab
peoples
attention.
2) It usually provide all information.
3) Sometime poster are designed to
make people curious about
something and encourage them to
seek our further information.

Use of poster
Advertising

an event or products.
Campaigning for a cause.
Drawing attention toward desirable
action value
Popularizing a slogan.
Giving a warning.
Provide all the importance
information.

ADVANTAGES OF POSTER
A

poster speaks for itself, the


presence of its author isnot
necessary.
It is also possible to present several
poster in the same time.
It is low cost.
The good poster tell the message at
a glance.

DISADVANTAGE OF POSTER
Once

a poster is printed it will be


difficult to make correction or
adaption, It is therefore less flexiable.
The more elaborate poster require
extensive preparation and can be
quite costly.
Transporting them can be more
difficulty.
Preparing the poster take much time .

CHARACTERISTICS OF
POSTER
It

should
It should
It should
It should

be
be
be
be

eye catching.
brief.
clear.
include all information.

PAMPHLET
Apamphletis

an unboundbooklet
(that is, without ahard coveror
binding). It may consist of a single
sheet ofpaperthat is printed on both
sides and folded in half, in thirds, or
in fourths, called aleaflet, or it may
consist of a few pages that are folded
in half andsaddle stapledat the
crease to make a simple book.

Uses of pamphlet
Pamphlets are an important way of
getting information to the
community.
to mobilise people to support your
cause.
to advertise a meeting or specific
event.
to popularise your slogans and
messages.

IMPORTANCE OF
PAMPHLET
explain

an issue to the community.


inform people of their rights.
win support for a campaign you are
running.
win support for your organisations
point of view.

DISADVANTAGE OF
PAMPHLET
Pamphlets

have to be circulated by

hand.
Pamphlets are most end up in the
dustbin unread.

EPILEPSY

DEFINITION OF EPILEPSY

Epilepsyis a chronic disorder or group of


disorders. characterized by recurrent,
unpredictable seizures. A seizure is a
temporary physiological dysfunction of the
brain, in which neurons will produce
excessive electrical discharge. Because it is
a chronic condition, many women are
affected by epilepsy in pregnancy period. In
this condition the baby are directly affected.

CLASSIFICATION OF
EPILEPSY
1) GENERALIZED SEIZURE : It refer to major
convulsion in which patient may lose
consciousness for several minutes.
2)MINOR EPILEPSY: It occur most often in
children and usually disappears after
puberty. It consists of transient loss of
consciousness lasting a few second. As a
rule, such a patient demonstrate a brief
changes rolling of eyes, blinking and slight
mouth movement.

3) PARTIAL SEIZURE: it is occurs most as a


localized motor seizure with convulsion
starting in one part of the body. Patient
may lose consciousness.
4) status epilepticus: seizure actively
lasting for more then 15-30 minute .it is a
medical emergency and may need IGU to
support.

CAUSE OF EPILEPSY

Brain malformations.
Lack of oxygen during birth.
Low levels of blood sugar, blood calcium,
blood magnesium or other eletrolytes
problems.
Infection of CNS.
Intracranial hemorrage.
Maternal drug use.
Fever (febrile seizures).
Brain tumor (rarely).

-Allergy.

-Infections.
-Congenital.
-Conditions.
-Genetic factors.
-Head trauma.

SIGN AND SYMPTOMS OF


EPILEPSY
Headache.
Changes in moodorenergy levels
Dizziness
Fainting
Confusion
Memory loss
Fixed jaw.
Dilated and fixed pupils.
Body stiffness.
Incontinence of urine.

DIAGNOSIS OF EPILEPSY
History of seizure.
Physical examination.
Neurological examination.
Electroencephalograph (EEG).
Skull x-ray.
CT scan of head.
CSF analysis.
Blood test : Blood sugar and electrolytes.

MEDICAL
MANAGEMENT
Anticonvulsant:

phenytoin,
ethosuximide, Phenobarbital,
Carbamazepine , valporic acid
.
gabapentin , lamotrigine , topiramote
Diet: (a diet high in fats and proteins,
and low in carbohydrates).
Activity: bed rest.
Monitoring: Vital signs, I/O, and
neurovital signs. glucose, potassium,

GENERAL MANAGEMENT
1) IMMEDIATE CARE DURING ATTACK
Move the patient from the danger.
After convulsion stop, put patient in recovery
position.
Clear the airway, donot insert the anything in
mouth.
Take a nearest medical facility.
2) CARE DURING SEIZURE
Never leave client along.
If client is standing, lower to floor/bed and remove
articles or equipment away to prevent injury.

-Loosen constrictive clothing, especially


around neck.
-Turn head or body to one side to aid
with airway.
-Insertion of tongue blade must be done
before tonic clonic movement begin.
-Watch patient for side effect of the
anticonvulsant drugs.
(vomiting,fever,drowsiness,rash,ataxia)

-Avoid the patient for driving, swimming,


climbing a ladder.
-After the seizure the patient should be
place on his/her side to facilitate the
drainage of secretion.
-Allow the patient when the sleep after
the seizure.
-Reorient the patient when she/he
awake.

DISCHARGE INSTRUCTION
Legal issue patients driving license is
temporarily revoked and will be reissued
when seizure free for one year.
Avoid alcohol.
Maintain the balance die
Teach the patient and family members to
take the medicine at time.
Encourage the patient for medical identity
card.
Avoid the activity which are harm for them.