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Claire Ann B. Fernandez
Angela Mae Villanueva
Jose Carlo Tan Feliz
BSN 3-3


Upanishads are a collection of

philosophical texts which form the
theoretical basis for the Hindu religion.
The Upanishads are considered by
orthodox Hindus to contain revealed
truths (Sruti) concerning the nature of
ultimate reality (brahman) and
describing the character and form of
human salvation (moksha).
The main teaching of the Upanishads is
that Atman is Brahman.


Brahman is "the unchanging

reality amidst and beyond the
world", which "cannot be exactly
defined". It has been described in
Sanskrit (being-consciousnessbliss) and as the highest reality.
It is the ground of all things.
It is the Absolute (Pure
Consciousness) that stands
transcendingly in the heart of man
and of every contingent being.

Atman is a Sanskrit word

that means 'inner-self' or

soul the principle of life.
It is the inmost essence in

Five Sheaths of Man

A Kosha usually

rendered "sheath",
one of five
coverings of the
Atman, or Self.
They are often
visualized like the
layers of an onion.

Sheath self dependent on food

This is the material layer of man better known as
the physical or corporate self.
2nd Sheath self as vital breath (pranamayatman).
This is the biological layer.
3rd Sheath Self consisting of will (manomayatman).
This is the psychological layer.

4th Sheath Self or consciousness

This if the intellectual layer.
5th Sheath Final essence of the self as pure bliss
This approximates the Brahman which is Pure Bliss.

These sheaths are considered as dark coverings

of ignorance that lie underneath the whole created


India Caste System

Indian Society and its Caste Systems

The logic behind the Caste is that every

man is born to his own place in the world.

His duty is to show it, to live it and make
known both in appearance and action just
what is his role in the world drama.
Caste is regarded as forming an innate part
of character;
Divine moral order (dharma)
The correct way of dealing with every life
problem is indicated by the laws (dharma)
of the caste & the particular state of life
proper to ones age.

4 Stages of the Ideal Life Course of


Stage the Pupil

nd Stage the Householder
rd Stage the Hermit
th Stage the Wandering Beggar

I. Pupil

Pupil goes to spiritual teacher (guru) to receive divine

knowledge & magic craft of his vocation.

The mere natural man is sacrificed.

II. Householder

From youth to a young man, he is married and takes over the

paternal craft, business or profession and forms a family of

his own.
He gets into 3 of the 4 ends of Hindu life: wealth an power
(artha); pleasure of his caste married life (kama) and rights, &
duties of his caste (dharma).

III. Hermit

Second half of his life cycle after serving the community &

having prepared his children to be independent from him in

life, he steps away from the 3 ends of life to enter in this 3 rd
stage of life.

IV. Wandering Beggar

If a man desires, he may continue on to this stage, but his

wife will need to return home;

The sannys has renounced the world completely, is
regarded as dead by his family (the funeral is held), and is
beyond all dharma and caste.
He surrenders the sacred thread he received when he came
of age, and all the sacrifices and rituals of daily life are

Not just ritually but legally the sannys is released from

debts and contracts, cannot enter into legal transactions or

be a witness in court, and is supposed to be immune from
fines, tolls, and taxes. Indeed, with no possessions, it is not
clear how an ascetic could be responsible for the latter. When
a sannys enters a Hindu temple, he is not a worshiper but
one of the subjects of worship.
He is utterly free & attains the fourth end of life spiritual
release (moksha)
He is entirely concerned with meditation on the absolute or
true reality, Brahman.