WCDMA Basic Theory

WIRELESS NETWORK MASTER PLANNING
By: Manuel M. Aquino Jr.
Future Access Technologies Access Network Planning Department

WNMP

WCDMA

The Goal of this Course

After this course, you should be able to

Understand the technology behind WCDMA and its advantages Understand the roots and roadmap of WCDMA Be familiar with the basic architecture of a WCDMA network WCDMA

WNMP

Content

WCDMA Overview Advantages of WCDMA WCDMA Basic Principle WCDMA Architecture

Training GLOBE TELECOM

WNMP

WCDMA

Evolution of Mobile Communications

1G
AMPS: Advanced Mobile Phone System TACS: Total Access Communication System GPRS: General Packet Radio Services WNMP

Analog

WCDMA

Evolution of Mobile Communications

1G – 1

st

Generation: Analog Cellular

1) Feature: • frequency division multiple access (FDMA) • analog signal • narrow band 2)Main mode: AMPS TACS NMT 3)Limitations: • hard to develop digital bearer services • cannot adopt to digitization of fixed networks • low frequency efficiency • cannot meet larger capacity requirements • easy to be eavesdropped

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WCDMA

Evolution of Mobile Communications

2G – 2

n d

Generation: Digital Cellular

1) Feature: • time division multiple access (TDMA) narrow code division multiple access (N-CDMA) • digital signal, narrow band • strong anti-interference capability • security is guaranteed with authentication and encryption • can support ISDN 2) Main mode: GSM D-AMPS N-CDMA 3)Limitations: • Narrow bandwidth unable to provide various broadband information services such as high speed data services.

WNMP

WCDMA

Evolution of Mobile Communications

3G – 3

rd

Generation: Digital Cellular – IMT 2000

1) Feature: • code division multiple access (CDMA) • digital signal • broadband • integrated service system integrating all current mobile telephone system functions providing multiple services • large capacity 2) meaning of ‘2000’: • frequency spectrum around 2000MHz • data rate up to 2000kbps • putting into business about 2000 3) Main mode: WCDMA CDMA2000 TD-SCDMA

WNMP

WCDMA

Evolution of Mobile Communications

4G – 4

th

Generation: Hybrid IP Based Mobile Network

1) Feature: • 3G Mobile Voice and Data Service, Broadband Access, Video Call • > 10 Mbps Data Rate • In principle will allow high-quality smooth video transmission

WNMP

WCDMA

Birth of IMT2000
1985
FPLMTS
Future Public Land Mobile Telecommunications System International Mobile Telecommunications 2000

1996

IMT 2000

UTRA-WCDMA (Europe)

CDMA 2000 (USA)

WCDMA (Japan) TD-SCDMA (China) GLOBAL CDMA (Synchronous, Korea) WCDMA/NA (USA) WIMS-WCDMA (USA)

DECT (Europe) GLOBAL CDMA (Asynchronous, Korea) UWC-136 (USA)

1999

WCDMA UMTS

TD-SCDMA

CDMA2000

3GPP

3GPP2
WCDMA

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The Goal of IMT 2000
• • • • • • • • • Higher transmit rate 2Mbps Rich and colorful service Good voice quality Larger capacity Lower cost Good security performance High frequency efficiency Increased Mobility Easy to transition from 2G

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WCDMA

Standard Framework of IMT 2000

Core Networks of other IMT-2000 family members

UIM

MT

RAN

CN

CN

UIM-MT MT-RAN RAN-CN NNI Interface Interface Interface WNMP WCDMA

Family concept
WCDMA CN based on MAP

CDMA2000 CN based on ANSI-41

3G standards

TD-SCDMA CN based on MAP

CDMA is the main technology of 3G
WNMP WCDMA

Family concept

CN(Core Network)

2G/3G Radio Network
IS-95

IS-41 CN NNI GSM CN

CDMA2000

GSM WCDMA

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WCDMA

3G Standard Organization

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WCDMA

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WCDMA

WCDMA Technology Evolution
9.6kbps 64kbps 144kbps 2Mbps

2G

2.5G

2.75G
EDGE

3G
WCDMA

GSM

GPRS

Wideband Code Division Multiple Access uses direct sequence spread-spectrum technology to transmit a number of independent conversations across 5MHz segments of the radio spectrum. WNMP WCDMA

UMTS Protocol Version Evolution
• Inherit all the service and function of 2G(GSM and GPRS ) CN is composed of CS domain and PS domain WCDMA UTRAN access Iu interface between RAN and CN

• •

• • •

Inherit all the service and function of R99 CS domain change: control is separated from bearer , the function of MSC can be complete by split SERVER,MGW Voice supported by CS domain, supporting: TDM,ATM,IP

• • •

Inherit all the service and function of R4 Add IMS domain Enhanced IP QoS, supporting End to End IP multimedia service

R5

R4 R99 2000 WNMP 2001 2002
Specification complete time

WCDMA

UMTS R99 NETWORK ARCHITECTURE

3G Rel. 99
Node B

RNC Node B

MGW
PSTN/ PLMN

2G

SS7oIP

BTS BSC SMSC

GGSN

MSC BTS WNMP

TMSC

HLR

SGSN

WCDMA

UMTS R4 NETWORK ARCHITECTURE

3G Rel. 4
Node B MSC Server GMSC Server

SGSN

IP Backbone

MGW RNC Node B
SS7oIP
PSTN/ PLMN

MGW

2G

BTS BSC SMSC

GGSN

MSC BTS WNMP

TMSC

HLR

WCDMA

UMTS R5 NETWORK ARCHITECTURE

3G Rel. 5
Node B MSC Server GMSC Server
IMS

IP Backbone

MGW RNC Node B
SS7oIP
PSTN/ PLMN

MGW

2G

SGSN

BTS BSC SMSC HSS/H HLR LR GGSN

MSC BTS WNMP

TMSC

WCDMA

UMTS
FDD mode
Fig. 1

5 MHz channel

Uplink Downlink

Working frequency: 2GHz Fig. 2 Bandwidth: 5MHz Chip rate: 3.84Mcps Frame length: 10 ms TDD mode

. .Uplink and Downlink .. . .
WNMP WCDMA

5 MHz channel

3G Spectrum

WNMP

WCDMA

Content

WCDMA Overview Advantages of WCDMA WCDMA Basic Principle WCDMA Architecture

Training GLOBE TELECOM

WNMP

WCDMA

Advantages of WCDMA(1)
Frequency reuse factor is 1; network design and expanding become much easier
AMPS, D-AMPS, N-AMPS
1 2 3 7 1 6 4 5

30 kHz Typical Frequency Reuse N=7

GSM 8 Users
1 4 200 kHz Typical Frequency Reuse N=4 2 3

CDMA 100 Users
@12.2kbps/user 5 MHz

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

1 1 1

1 1

Typical Frequency Reuse N=1

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WCDMA

Advantages of WCDMA(2)
Large capacity
FDMA---Different user use different frequency TACS 、 AMPS TDMA---Different user use different time slot of one frequency GSM 、 DAMPS WCDMA---Different user use same frequency at the same time,but with different spreading code

FDMA
Power
T im
y nc ue eq Fr

e

TDMA
Power
Tim
ue req F y nc

e

CDMA
Power
Tim e
e WCDMA Fr y nc ue q

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Advantages of WCDMA(3)

large coverage almost 2 times than GSM, save money for operator

Example:cover 1000 km2 : GSM need 200 BTS WCDMA only need 50 BTS Attention: exact result need “Link Budget ”

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WCDMA

Advantages of WCDMA(4)
High privacy and hard to eavesdropped

Spread signal Information signal
TX RX

Each user is below the noise deeply

Demodulated signal

Spread code

Spread code

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WCDMA

Advantages of WCDMA(5)
Use soft handoff: decrease drop-call rate

WCDMA : ” make before break”---soft handoff WCDMA : ” make before break”---soft handoff Other systems: “make after break”---hard handoff Other systems: “make after break”---hard handoff WNMP WCDMA

Advantages of WCDMA(6)
Perfect Power Control and voice activation make the UE Power low, healthy for human body.

Mean Power GSM: WCDMA: 125mW 2mW

Max Power 2W 200mW

WNMP

WCDMA

Content

WCDMA Overview Advantages of WCDMA WCDMA Basic Principle WCDMA Architecture

Training GLOBE TELECOM

WNMP

WCDMA

WCDMA is a Spread-Spectrum System
TRADITIONAL COMMUNICATIONS SYSTEM Spread Spectrum Narrowband
Slow Information Sent TX Signal Slow Information Recovered

• Traditional technologies try to squeeze the signal into the minimum required bandwidth • Direct-Sequence Spread spectrum systems mix their input data with a fast spreading sequence and transmit a wideband signal • The spreading sequence is independently regenerated at the receiver and mixed with the incoming wideband signal to recover the original data

RX

SPREAD-SPECTRUM SYSTEM
Wideband Signal
Slow Information Sent TX RX Slow Information Recovered

Fast Spreading Sequence

Fast Spreading Sequence

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WCDMA

What is Spread Spectrum?
ORIGINATING SITE

Spread signal
Spread Data Stream

DESTINATION

Input Data

Recovered Data

Spreading Sequence

Spreading Sequence

Definition:Spread spectrum technique, employ a transmission bandwidth that is several orders of magnitude greater than the minimum required signal bandwidth. Sender combines data with a fast spreading sequence,transmits spread data stream Receiver intercepts the stream,uses same spreading sequence to extract original data

WNMP

WCDMA

Spread Process
Digital Signal
-1 1
Spreading

Spreading Signal
-1 1 -1 1 1 -1 1 -1

1 -1 1 -1

Spreading Code

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WCDMA

De-spread Process
-1 1 -1 1 1 -1 1 -1
Despreading

-1 -1 -1 -1 1 1 1 1 -1 1 -1 1 1 -1 1 -1

1 -1 1 -1 1 1 1 1

Integrator

-4 0

4 0

Adjudge

-1

1

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WCDMA

Spread Spectrum Principles
Shannon's Formula

C=B*log2(1+S/N)
Where, C is capacity of channel, b/s B is signal bandwidth, Hz S is average power for signal N is average power for noise In 1948 Claude Shannon published his landmark paper on information theory. A Mathematical Theory of Communication. His paper so clearly established the foundations of information theory that his framework and terminology are standard today. He died February 4, 2001 at age 84.

WNMP

WCDMA

Illustration to SS Principle(1)
MA T HAM H ME R

Power is “Spread” Over a Larger Bandwidth

MATH HAMMER

12.2 KHz 5 MHz

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WCDMA

Illustration to SS Principle(2)

Many code channels are individually “spread” and then added together to create a “composite signal”

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WCDMA

Anything We Can Do, We Can Undo
ORIGINATING SITE
Input Data (Base Band) Spread Data Stream (Base Band + Spreading Sequence)

DESTINATION
Recovered Data (Base Band)

Spreading Sequence

Spreading Sequence

• Any data bit stream can be combined with a spreading sequence • The resulting signal can be de-spread and the data stream recovered if the original spreading sequence is available and properly synchronized • After de-spreading, the original data stream is recovered intact

WNMP

WCDMA

WCDMA Spreading Principle Using Multiple Codes

ORIGINATING SITE
X+A

Spread-Spectrum Chip Streams X+A+B X+A+B+C X+A+B

DESTINATION
X+A

Input Data

Recovered Data

X
Spreading Spreading Spreading Sequence Sequence Sequence Spreading Spreading Spreading Sequence Sequence Sequence

X

A • • •

B

C

C

B

A

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Multiple spreading sequences can be applied in succession and then reapplied in opposite order to recover the original data stream. The spreading sequences can have different desired properties. All spreading sequences originally used must be available in proper synchronization at the recovering destination.

WCDMA

“Shipping and Receiving” via WCDMA
Shipping Receiving

FedEx

Data

FedEx

Mailer

Mailer

Data

• • • •

Whether in shipping and receiving or in WCDMA, packaging is extremely important! Cargo is placed inside “nested” containers for protection and to allow addressing. The shipper packs in a certain order, and the receiver unpacks in the reverse order. WCDMA “containers” are spreading codes.

WNMP

WCDMA

Multiple Access
Multiple Access: Simultaneous private use of a transmission medium by multiple independent users.

Since the beginning of telephony and radio, system operators have tried to squeeze the maximum amount of traffic over each circuit.

WNMP

• Types of Media: – Twisted pair - copper – Coaxial cable – Fiber optic cable – Air interface (radio signals) • Advantages of Multiple Access – Increased capacity: serve more users – Reduced capital requirements since fewer media can carry the traffic – Easier to manage and administer

Transmission

Medium

Each pair of user enjoys a dedicated, private circuit through the transmission medium, unaware that the other users exist.

WCDMA

Channels
Channel: An individually-assigned, dedicated pathway through a transmission medium for one user’s information. The transmission medium is a resource that can be subdivided into individual channels according to the technology used.

FDMA
Power
Tim e
y nc ue q

FDMA Frequency Division Multiple Access – Each user on a different frequency – A channel is a frequency TDMA Time Division Multiple Access – Each user on a different window period in time (“time slot”) – A channel is a specific time slot on a specific frequency CDMA Code Division Multiple Access – A channel is a unique code pattern – Each user uses the same frequency all the time, but mixed with different distinguishing code patterns

e Fr

TDMA
Power
Tim
cy en qu Fre

e

CDMA
Power
Tim
en qu e Fr cy

e

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WCDMA

Physical Channels(1)
The physical channel is in a 3-layer structure by the time:
– Superframe One superframe lasts 720ms, and consists of 72 radio frames. – radio frame One radio frame has a period of 10ms, and comprises 15 timeslots with the same length. Corresponding to 38400 chips, it is a basic unit of the physical layer. – Timeslot A timeslot is a unit composed of a bit domain, corresponding to 2560 chips. The bit number and structure of a timeslot depends on the specific type of the physical channel. WNMP WCDMA

Physical Channels(2)
• The frame structure of the physical channels is shown:

Tslot= 2560 chip

Tslot #1Tslot #2

Tslot #I Tf=10 ms

Tslot #15

Frame #0 Frame #1

Frame #I Tsuper=720 ms

Frame #71

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WCDMA

Key Technologies of WCDMA

• Power Control • Handover Control • Rake receiving

WNMP

WCDMA

Why Power Control?
• • • • All WCDMA users occupy the same frequency at the same time! Frequency and time are not used as discriminators. WCDMA operates by using CODES to discriminate between users. WCDMA interference comes mainly from nearby users Each user is a small voice in a roaring crowd -- but with a uniquely recoverable code.

Transmit power on all users must be tightly controlled so their signals reach the base station at the same signal level and at the absolute minimum power level necessary to ensure acceptable service quality. WNMP WCDMA

Power Control
DL power control Cell transmitting power UL power control UE signal

Transmitting power control bit

Power control order

Overcome Near-Far effect and fading compensation ensuing network capacity

WNMP

WCDMA

Near-Far Effect

Power

Power f f

Nearby terminals have higher probability of success

Power control reduce the interference among each UEs and increase system capacity WCDMA

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3 methods of power control
Open loop: measure received signal level and adjust transmitting power Inner-loop: frequency 1500HZ Measured SIR> Target SIR, lower transmitting power Measured SIR< Target SIR, increase transmitting power

Outer-loop: measure FER, adjust target SIR WNMP WCDMA

Power control
Open loop power control ( no feedback ) RNC UE

Node B Closed loop power control ( feedback )

Inner-loop UE

RNC Outer-loop Node B

WNMP

WCDMA

Power control

Open loop
1 Node B 2 Node B 2 1

If received signal is stronger,then UE can transmit lower

If received signal is weaker,then UE can transmit stronger

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PROBLEM Assumes same exact path loss in both directions; therefore, cannot account for asymmetrical path loss Estimates are based on total power received

WCDMA

Power control
”Power down”
SIR ”Power down” estimation

SIR estimation

RNC

Node SIR B target

”Power up”
SIR ”Power ...” estimation

SIR estimation

...

Inner-loop power control is fast Inner-loop : according to SIR estimation,Node-B transmission power.conducted every 0.66ms (1500Hz ) control UE

Outer-loop : according to FER measurement estimation RNC control and adjust SIR target

WNMP

WCDMA

The Effect of Power Control
The purpose of DL power control:
Saving power resource of base station, reducing interference to other station.

The purpose of UL power control:
Overcoming Near-Far effect, received signal level from all UEs is the same.

WCDMA system n capacity depend o power control

WNMP

WCDMA

WCDMA Handoffs

While in the Idle State

Idle Handoff

Soft Handoff

Softer Handoff During a Call Hard Handoff

WNMP

WCDMA

Soft/Softer Hand-off
C A B C A B A B A B C C

C A B A B

C

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WCDMA

Soft/Softer Hand-off
• The soft/softer handover allows to swap from one cell to another
without call interruption or without deleting all old radio links (by opposition to hard HO). • It also allows the UE to be connected to more than one cell simultaneously.
Soft Handover

Soft Handover
CN CN

Softer Handover

Softer Handover
CN CN

The two Node Bs The two Node Bs may belong to the may belong to the same RNC same RNC

SRNC Iur Node B

DRNC

SRNC

Node B

WNMP

WCDMA

Hard Hand-off
• The hard handover procedure is used in case of service quality degradation or for traffic distribution management. During the hard handover procedure, all the old radio links with the UE are abandoned before new ones are established. Hard handover may occur in the following main cases : • When the UE is handed over another UTRAN carrier, or technology or mode. • When soft handover is not permitted (if O&M constraint)
Hard Handover

CN
RNC or BSC

SRNC

Node B

Node B or BTS

WNMP

WCDMA

Traffic control
• When traffic surpass system threshold, traffic control begin • To accept as many services as possible while keeping the stability of the system.

WNMP

WCDMA

Example for load control
• Breath effect of cell
– With the increase of activated terminals, interference increase – the increase of high speed service, the increase of interference – The shrink of cell coverage area – Coverage blind spot occurs – Drop of call will happen at the edge of cell Coverage and capacity are relative

WNMP

WCDMA

Multipath Propagation
Transmit

Strength

Received Signal
0
Time

WNMP

WCDMA

RAKE Receiving

d1

d2 d3

transmitting

Receiving

Rake combination noise
t

t

t

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WCDMA

RAKE Receiving
Single receiving
receiver

Single receiving Single receiving searcher

combining

signal

calculate

s(t)

s(t)

t

t

RAKE overcome multi-finger interference , improve receive capability WNMP WCDMA

Multi-finger receiver
• Traditionally – Multi-finger signal is treated as interference • The principle of Multi-finger receiver – Multi-finger signals can be combined through relative process – Multi-finger time delay not larger than 0.26us=>78m
t1 t2 t3 a1 a2 a3 + c(t-t1) x c(t-t2) x c(t-t3) x a1 a2 a3 + Finger 1 Finger 2 Finger 3

Multi-finger

+

Diversity gain through Multi-finger receiver

WNMP

WCDMA

Multi-finger receiver
• Maximal ratio combining(MRC)
at each time delay phase shifting by adding

Finger 1

Finger 2

Finger 3

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WCDMA

Channel encoding
Purpose :
Inserting redundant information into data stream to make the detect and correction of transmission error possible. Unusable Voice services Data services

Non-coding :

BER<10-1 ~ 10-2

Convolutional coding : BER<10-3 Turbo coding : BER<10-6

WNMP

WCDMA

Coverage/capacity vs Data Rate
Higher rate needs higher power High data rate transmission is only available nearby the station
Coverage decrease
>384 kbps >144 kbps >64 kbps
Subscriber num increase

>12.2 kbps

WNMP

WCDMA

Characteristic of WCDMA system capacity

t r es e s ty i erenc aci erf by p t ca i n ned i UL by tr a io n res stat s y i as e t ac i of b cap er DL pow

ned rai

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WCDMA

Coverage and Capacity
WCDMA performance is determined by such factors as :
– – – – Number of users Transmission rate Mobile rate Wireless enviroment • indoors • outdoors

The sizes of cell depend on such factors as:
– Local radio conditions (local interference) – Traffic in neighbouring cells (distanced interference)

Cell Radius decrease according to the increase number of users
WNMP WCDMA

Content

WCDMA Overview WCDMA Basic Principle Advantages of WCDMA WCDMA Architecture

Training GLOBE TELECOM

WNMP

WCDMA

WCDMA Architecture
RNS: Radio Network Subsystem
UE: User Equipment

CN: Core Network
IuCS

cell cell cell

Node B

ME
USIM

RNC

MSC
B

E

E

G-MSC
D F C

VLR
cell cell cell

PSTN HLR
G c Gr

ME
USIM

Iur
FDD mode only

Node B Node B

EIR
Gs Gf

AuC

ME
USIM

GGSN
Gi

cell cell cell

RNC: Radio Network Controller

SGSN IuPS Iu

Gn Gp

Uu

Iub

RNS

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WCDMA

UTRAN Structure
Uu Node B U E Node B RNC RNS Iub Iur Iu MSC / VLR

Node B U E Node B RNC RNS UTRAN CN SGSN

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WCDMA

WCDMA Architecture
• The system consists of:
– UTRAN UTRAN performs all the functions related to wireless communication; – CN (Core Network) CN switches and routes voice and data services to connect them to the external network. The UE (User Equipment) is connected to the UTRAN through the air interface standard. WNMP WCDMA

Functional Units
• UE (User Equipment):
As the wireless terminal that performs wireless communication via the Uu interface, it contains an intelligent card, which records the user ID, performs the authentication algorithm, and stores information such as authentication information and keys.

• Node B:
Transmits data streams between the Iub and the Uu interfaces, participating in radio resource management.

WNMP

WCDMA

Functional Units
• RNC (Radio Network Controller):
Owns and controls the radio resources under its administration. The RNC is the service access point provided by the UTRAN for the CN.

• HLR (Home Location Register):
It is a database located at the local system of the user, used to store the subscriber service features. Such features include information of the services allowed, roaming areas and information of value-added services.

WNMP

WCDMA

Functional Units
• MSC (Mobile Switching Center) /VLR (Visit Location Register):
The MSC processes circuit switched services, while the VLR stores a copy of the service feature description of the roaming subscribers, and more accurate information of the location of the UE in the service system. The network part connected through the MSC/VLR is usually referred to as the CS domain.

WNMP

WCDMA

Functional Units
• GMSC (Gateway Mobile-services Switching Center):
It is the switching equipment at the connection between the UMTS network and the external circuit domain network. All incoming/outgoing CS connections go through the GMSC.

• SGSN (Serving GPRS Support Node):
Its function is similar to that of the MSC/VLR, except that it is used for Packet Switched (PS) services. The network part connected through the SGSN is referred to as the PS domain.

• GGSN (Gateway GPRS Support Node):
Its function is similar to GMSC, but it is related to PS services. WNMP WCDMA

Functional Units
External networks fall into two groups:
1. CS network: It provides circuit switched connections, such as the existing telephone services. Both ISDN and PSTN are CS networks. PS network: It provides packet switched connections. The Internet is an example of the PS network.

2.

WNMP

WCDMA

NE Interfaces
• Uu interface:
Serves as the air interface of the WCDMA system to connect a UE to a Node B.

• Iu interface:
Connects the UTRAN and the CN. It is similar to the A interface (circuit switching) and the Gb interface (packet switching) in GSM.

• Iur interface:
Allows soft handover between the RNC equipment of different manufacturers as an open interface.

• Iub interface:
Connects the Node B and the RNC. WNMP WCDMA

Brief Introduction to Node B

CN Iu RNS RNC Iub NodeB Iub NodeB Iur Iub NodeB RNS RNC Iub NodeB Iu

Uu
UE

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WCDMA

Brief Introduction to RNC
CN Iu SRNS RNC Iub NodeB Iub NodeB Iur DRNS RNC Iub NodeB Iub NodeB Iu

UE

Uu

S-RNC: Serving Radio Network Controller D-RNC: Drifting RNC WNMP WCDMA

CONCLUSION
Our world is rapidly changing -- computers have gone from mainframes to palmtops. Radio communications has gone from lunchbox sized (or trunk mounted/remote handset car phone) to cigarette-pack-sized micro-cellular telephone technology. The technical challenges of this progress are significant. The new opportunities created by this new technology are also significant. We've talked here about some of the very basic principles in WCDMA and talked about Network Evolution therefore, we should be prepared to meet the challenges ahead. WNMP WCDMA

Thank You

WNMP

WCDMA

Support Slide for Handoff
Handoff Description
RNC MSC S S S S S S S D D D S S D D D D D D D D D D S S S D S D S D S S S D Softer Hard Soft Hard Soft Hard NODE B SECTOR VOCODER CARRIER TYPE of Handoff

S S

WNMP

WCDMA

Support Slide Terms
CDMA: Code Division Multiple Access -- a way to increase channel capacity. CHIP: The time it takes to transmit a bit or single symbol of a PN code. CODE: A digital bit stream with noise-like characteristics. PN: Pseudo Noise - a digital signal with noise-like properties. SS: Spread Spectrum, a wideband modulation which imparts noise-like characteristics to an RF signal. Originally for military use to avoid jamming (interference created on purpose to make a communication channel unusable), spread spectrum modulation is now used in personal communication systems for its superior performance in an interference dominated environment. Processing Gain: Defined as the ratio of the total bandwidth over bandwidth occupied by the user/s.

WNMP

WCDMA

Support Slide for Code Generation Four-Stage Linear Feedback Shift Register
Modulo-2 Adder

+

X1

X2

X3
Clock Pulse

X4

Output

Output X=X1

+

X2

+

X3

+

X4=10001001101011110

We suppose the initial state of the register X1X2X3X4=0001 WNMP WCDMA

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