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• Industry standard. headsets. • Allows wireless communication between devices. computer peripherals. • Connect devices such as phone handsets. etc. 3 .Overview • Cable replacement technology.

cost .power . • Range ~10 meters. 4 Why not use Wireless LANs? . • PANs • Single chip radio.Applications: Cable Replacement  1 Mb/s. • Low power & low cost.

address books. 5 . business cards.Applications: Synchronization • Automatic synchronization of calendars.

• Hands-free operation. 6 .Applications: Cordless Headset Cordless headset • Multiple device access.

• Cordless computer. • Cordless phone.More applications… • Conference table. • Instant photo transmission. 7 .

• Transmission of data and voice. • Named after Harald Blatand (Danish for Bluetooth). • 10th century Viking king who united Denmark and Norway. • Use of radio links instead of infrared. • Alternatives to cables connecting mobile phones to accessories.Bluetooth Origins • Study by Ericsson Mobile Communications in 1994. • Result: Bluetooth spec. 8 .

• Target: handheld market. Intel. • Bluetooth spec: defines RF wireless communication interface and protocols.Bluetooth SIG History • Early 1998: Bluetooth SIG is formed. 9 . • Promoter company group: Ericsson. Nokia. Toshiba. IBM. • Goal: develop license-free technology for universal wireless connectivity.

800+ adopters. December 1999: promoters increases to 9.Bluetooth SIG History • • • • May 1998: Public announcement of Bluetooth SIG. July 1999: 1. Microsoft.1 out. Motorola • February 2000: 1. • 3Com. Lucent.0A spec (>1.0B released. • February 2001: version 1. December 1999: version 1.500 pages) published. 10 .

11 .15. IEEE 803.1 standard for Wireless PANs (WPANs) • Only MAC and PHY.More History… • Recently.

Lightweight and small form factor.Goals• Open spec. • Low cost. • In order to replace cables. Easy to use. • • • • 12 Power efficiency. should have similar cost. . • Cell phone cable is ~ $10. Reliable and resilient to failures.

• The Bluetooth stack includes protocols for the radio layer all the way up to device discovery. 13 . etc.The Bluetooth Standard • Defines a protocol stack to enable heterogeneous devices to communicate. service discovery.

Bluetooth Protocol Stack Applications Application RFCOMM/SDP Presentation Layer L2CAP Session Layer Host Controller Interface Link Manager Link Controller Baseband RF Transport Layer Network Layer Data Link Layer PHY OSI/ISO 14 .

• Link Manager: controls links to other devices.Bluetooth Layers • Radio: physically transmits/receives data. • Baseband/Link Controller: controls PHY. • SDP: allows service discovery among Bluetooth devices. 15 . • Host Controller:e2e communication. • RFCOMM: RS323-like serial interface. • Logical Link Control: multiplexes/demultiplexes data from higher layers.

System to Identify the Position on Globe. .  Network Of Satellites.What is GPS? Global Positioning System.

Segments Of GPS The Space Segment The Control Segment The User Segment .

Each satellites transmits low powered radio signals.000 miles Inclination : 55 Deg to the Equator Weight : 863 Kg(in orbit) Orbital Period :12 hrs .The Space Segment Consists of 24 satellites in 6 orbits. GPS Satellite Name : NAVSTAR Altitude : 11.

The Control Segment A Master Control Station Unmanned Monitor Stations Large Ground-antenna Stations .

Calculate the distance.The User Segment Users-Military GPS and Civilians Receivers Decodes the signals from Satellites. .

Modes of Operation Standard Positioning System HA=100m Data Transmitted on L1 Frequency VA=156m For civil users TA=340ns Accuracy is degraded Precise Positioning System Data Transmitted on L1 and L2 Frequencies For Military users Highly Accurate HA=22m VA=27.7m TA=200ns .

Signals from GPS Coarse/Acquisition.To determine Pseudo range 1023 bit long 1.23 Mega-bits per sec Navigation Massage .3547*10^14 bit long 10.023Mega-bits per sec P Code 2.

Working Of GPS .

Applications Industry Agriculture Mapping & GIS Data Collection Public safety Surveying Telecommunication .

. Military Intelligence & Target Location Navigation Weapon Aiming &Guidance Transportation Aviation Fleet Tracking Marine .Application Contd….

Application Contd… Science Archaeology Atmospheric Science Environmental  Geology & Geophysics Oceanography Wildlife .

but lower than those of visible light. infrared frequencies are higher than those of microwaves. but shorter than those of radio waves. .Infrared transmission refers to energy in the region of the electromagnetic radiation spectrum at wavelengths longer than those of visible light. Correspondingly.