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Air flow over a wind turbine blade

with different airfoil cross-section

Therefore it is critical to design the most efficient blade shape for all possible conditions. the efficiency of the system is related to the blade design.  For a horizontal-axis wind turbine (HAWT) system. windmills for mechanical power. wind pumps for water pumping activities etc.Introduction  Wind power is converting the kinetic energy of wind into other useful forms of energy with the help of wind turbines for making electrical power. .

Blade Design Fig.1 Wind Turbine Blade with cross section (airfoil) .

Airfoil Terminology A number of terms are used to characterize an airfoil:  Chord (c): . .The straight line connecting the leading and trailing edges is the chord line.  Camber: -The camber is the distance between the mean camber line and the chord line.  angle of attack (α): . measured perpendicular to the chord line  Thickness: -The thickness is the distance between the upper and lower surfaces. and the distance from the leading to the trailing edge measured along the chord line is designated the chord. also measured perpendicular to the chord line.the angle of attack is defined as the angle between the relative wind and the chord line.  Mean camber line: -The mean camber line is the locus of points halfway between the upper and lower surfaces of the airfoil.

2 Airfoil Terminology .Airfoil Terminology Fig.

Forces on Wind turbine Blade Air flow over an airfoil produces a distribution of forces over the airfoil surface: Lift force: -Force produced perpendicular to direction of the oncoming air flow.  Pitching moment: -Moment about an axis perpendicular to the airfoil cross-section. The drag force is due to both viscous friction forces at the surface of the airfoil and to unequal pressure on the airfoil surfaces.  Drag force: -Force parallel to the direction of the oncoming air flow. The lift force is a consequence of the unequal pressure on the upper and lower airfoil surfaces. .

3 Forces on Blade Airfoil .Forces on Wind turbine Blade Fig.