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Soil and Land Use

Unit 8 Lesson 4
Hunter Holland

What is Soil? Where does it come from? • Soil. • Soil is formed very slowly.A material that forms the crust or covering of the Earth. • It comes from the breakdown of rocks and rotting dead creatures. .

4 Major Components • • • • Minerals-45% Organic Matter-5% Air and Water-50% Living Organisms .

Minerals • The minerals found are formed from the breakdown of rock. • Minerals help provide nutrients. providing a place for roots to grow. .

Organic Matter • Organic matter found comes from the death and decay of any living creature. . • It may also come from animal waste.

Humus • Humus. • Easily found in the woods under leaves.Organic matter that had decayed to the point of no recognition. and oxygen to soil. • Helps the soil hold water and nutrients. . hydrogen. • Provides carbon.

• The two are proportional(More water=less air and More air=less water) • Plants need water to grow and photosynthesize and need air to respire.Air and Water • Found in tiny spores within the soil. • Vital for any living organism living in the soil. .

prairie dogs.Living Organisms • These are bacteria. nematodes. fungi. single cell protozoa. and earthworms. . and ground hogs. • These organisms work together to build the soil.

and color. structure.Soil Classification • Soil is classified by U.S. • Done by Comprehensive Soil Survey System. • Composed of Soil texture. . profile. department of Agriculture.

Sand-large particles Silt-Medium-size particles Clay-Smallest particles Texture determines ability of soil to hold water. .Soil Texture: • • • • • Size of particles in the soil.

. prevents compaction.The best texture of soil.Soil Texture Cont. • Loam. and retains water. • Allows passage of air. • Has equal parts sand and silt with a smaller amount of clay.

(structure less. (aka aggregates) • Grade depends on how it stays together. moderate. weak.Combination of sand. and clay. or strong) .Soil Structure: • Based on the size of particles and how they are grouped. • Peds. silt.

• Horizons.Soil Profile: • A way of looking at a cross section of soil. • A layer.Bedrock – (underlying solid rock) .subsoil • C layer.topsoil • B layer.layers that make up soil.

• Mottling. • The color indicates the quality of the soil.High in iron compounds • Grey.Poor drainage • White.Low nutrient levels.Soil Color • Color comes from minerals and organic matter. • Dark Brown or Black.spotting due to variability of moisture in the soil.High in organic matter • Red or Yellow. .

Soil Chemistry • • • • • • • pH and nutrients in soil are vital.acidity or basicity Scale 1-14 1 is most acidic.6(optimum pH) . pH. 14 is most basic 7 is neutral Normal Soils 4-9 Best.acidic soil 6.

and oxygen.Soil Chemistry Cont. hydrogen. .) • Organic elements. • Three groups of nutrients: organic elements. and minor elements(needed in small amounts for plant growth.Carbon. major elements.