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STAFF DEVELOPMENT

CONTINUING
EDUCATION

Nirmala Roberts

HISTORY OF
STAFF DEVELOPMENT

Learning on the job as old as nursing itself


1928 - Education for staff nurses by the employing
agencies
Early effort like training of teachers in public
schools
Later (after II world war) ..On-the-job training in
industries
Early staff education prog A few lectures by
physicians + review of nursing procedures, learning
to operate new equipments, and studying the policies
of the institution.

Staff Development Activities

The process by which the employer promotes staff


performance and efficiency consistent with
management goals and objectives.
All the opportunities and facilities for personal and
professional growth outside of formal educational
program
Do not necessarily give a degree, but can lead to
obtaining one
Helps improve the professional & personal K,S and
A of employees

Need for Staff Development

Rapid societal changes


Advancement in health sciences knowledge & technology
Changing demographics Population (age, mobility)
Increased health awareness of public
Changing role of hospital (curative to preventive &
promotive)
Changing nature of nursing role expansion, job satisfaction,
specialization, gain in professional status
Tighter legislation of health care services
Economic recession

Principles of Staff Development

The ultimate responsibility of continuing education rests with


the employee
Most learning is a combination of experience and
conceptualization
Learning is an internal, personal, emotional process
Learning involves a change in behavior
Participative learning suits the autonomy needs of adult learner
A problem solving format meets the adult learners need for
immediate application
Positively rewarded behaviour has a greater likelihood of being
repeated
contd.

Principles of Staff Development

Educational elements need to be interlinked for better


integration
Examples from real life situations serve to better the transfer
of learning
Changes in behaviour affected by CE programs should be
supported
Learning is an active process. Hence assignments are useful
Proactive approach in learning supports the self directive
learning of adult learners
Use variety of source materials and teaching aids to suit the
heterogeneous group of adult learners

Stages of Adult Occupational


Development (Hammer 1977)
Age period

Stage of occupational development

Early to mid 20s

Establishes an occupational direction/ bent

Late 20s to early


30s

Questions commitment to the selected occupation (due to


work and personal pressures)

Mid 30s

Settles in and invests fully in occupation and family


relationships

Late 30s

Attaches to a mentor who enables to excel in the job

40s

Secure reputation built in profession. Now separates from


mentor and establishes self as an independent practitioner

Late 40s and 50s

The job (rather than individuals) generate new interests,


leading to further devt and refinement of occupational
knowledge and skills

Sources of Continuing Education for


Nursing Personnel

In-house
Educators
and
Specialists

Pooled
Resources
of
Health
Consortia

Affiliation
with
Local
Institutions

Professional
Graduate Students
Nursing
assigned to
Organizations
the Agency

ADMINISTRATIVE ORGANIZATION FOR


STAFF DEVELOPMENT
Hospital Administrator

Nursing Director

Training Director

Departmental Heads

Advisory Committee

Sub Committee
(has subject specialists)

Organizing Staff Development


Resources
Education and
and Training
Training Dept
Dept
Education
Director -- Member
Member of
of
Director
the upper
upper management
management
the

Educational
Educational
planning
planning
& resources
resources
&

Induction &
&
Induction
orientation
orientation
training
training

In-service
In-service
Education &
&
Education
Continuing
Continuing
education
education

Educational
Educational
supplies.
supplies.
Equipment,
Equipment,
expertise,
expertise,
financial
financial
support
support

Staff Development Advisory


Committee
Represented by management personnel and/ or
representatives from all levels of workers
Nursing Director
Director of Agencys Educational Dept
Nursing In-Service Director
Director of Continuing Education
Assorted faculty members
Nursing service staff members
Reps from cooperating hospitals, colleges &
universities

Responsibilities for staff Development

Hospital Administrator- Overall responsibility


Nursing Director

Coordinates Policies, programme planning, budgetary approval


Guides & directs learning experiences through
Own continued learning and refinement of skills

Planning with sub committee

Providing budgetary support

Developing areas of responsibility for her staff

Preparing job descriptions for coordinator and the unit staff

Appointing and guiding staff development coordinators

Selecting personnel

Advisory Committee Assists in coordinating operational policies &


programs.

Responsibilities

Staff Development Coordinator --Assists N Director and


Advisory committee in planning and conducting the
programme

Coordinates and supervises activities


Makes available instructional & reference materials for the
programme
Participates in teaching
Counsels and guides nursing personnel on educational activities
Acts as liaison between Ng educational programs and other ISE
programs conducted by hospitals
Establishes and maintains inter departmental and community
relationships for educational activities for nursing services

Responsibilities

The Supervisor & the Head Nurse

Assists in planning, conducting and evaluating


departmental and unit programme
Keep the director informed of the unit ISE programme
Identify the learning needs of personnel in the unit
Plan unit programme with the staff
Promote acceptance of ISE programme
Conduct job orientation, skill training, leadership and
management development through interesting experience,
demonstrating skills, supervising, cork centered
experience and counseling

Planning for Staff Development

As a series of related events


Assess learning needs of nursing personnel - Base on

Proposed need

Steps According to Knowles

Worker needs Felt need &


Group review

Identify a model of desired competencies


Assess the achievement at the present level
Identify the gaps between where we are now and where we want to be..

Review evidence for achievement of objectives


Revise objectives where indicated
Have long range planning by departments and committees
Ensure that K,S & As developed in one program can be augmented in
later courses
Ensure accountability from individual trainers and educational institutions
to achieve educational objectives

Guidelines for Staff Development


Programs

Establish guidelines for program planners & teachers


(- by Advisory committee)
State behavioural objectives for each course outline
and lesson plan
State evaluation criteria for outcome of each course
program
Establish criteria for selecting instructors
Define the duties and responsibilities of each
member

Staff Development Instructor

High level of knowledge, skill & enthusiasm


Highly skilled in direct and indirect teaching
methods (for unlearning and re-learning)
Preferably an employee of the same health agency
Be more a role model of effective learning behaviour
A trainer coacher, rather than a central role

Topics for Staff Development


Programs
Poll employees & managers by interview & questionnaire Nursing care in special care units
Alleviation of employees problems
Disease conditions
Ensure balance between Increased worker productivity
Labor cost reduction
Employer goals of greater confidence
Improved job satisfaction
Increased occupational security

Levels of Learning
I.
II.
III.

IV.

Superficial - Memorization & simple motor


response
Adaptive Information & adaptation in a different
situation
Fairly complex High degree of interpersonal
understanding and skill, understands basic
principles and complex operations, integrates
isolated facts into meaningful patterns
Very complex Learns to coordinate own values
with those of the group

Teaching Methods
Should suit the objectives of that experience
Lecture For acquisition of new knowledge
Group discussion Problem solving & attitude change
Study groups
Unit learning assignments
Case studies Sensitizing to clinical issues, developing
analytical skills and problem solving
Information precis & manuals
Role play Experimentation with various approaches to
problem solving
Management games Decision making, solving problems

Audio-visual equipment
Rule of engaging maximum senses
Learning modules Individual study
Models, charts, posters
Projector - Film strip projector, slide, OHP,
LCD, movie projector
Video camera
Simulator- ECG, CPR, intubation

INTERLOCKING NATURE OF STAFF


DEVELOPMENT ACTIVITIES

Induction
Training

ISE
Orientation

Continuing
Education

Management
Development

Concepts
Competence

Educational need

Interest

Informal learning
Technical learning

Organizational
Development

Induction Training

A brief standardized indoctrination to the


agency's philosophy, purpose, programs,
policy and regulations given to each worker
to identify with.

Orientation

Individualized training to acquaint the newly


hired employee with job responsibilities,
work place, client and co-workers
Helps relate effectively to surroundings and
identify her niche in the organization
Just enough to fill gaps in her K & S,.. Yet,
do not overload with information

Nurse Internship

A variation of the traditional orientation program


Ensure enough clinical knowledge and skills to
ensure safe practice
Achieved through a buddy system or by a nurse
specialist trainer
Aims to

Improve recruitment
Facilitate role transition for the young graduate
Decrease demands on the HN to provide basic skill
training

In Service education

An on-going and on the job instructions given


to enhance the workers performance in the
present job
Given by employing agency for the purpose
of improving present job performance
Designed to upgrade the employees
Remedies training deficits

Continuing Education Program

Any extension of opportunity for use, study and


training to an adult following the completion of or
withdrawal from a full time school/ collegiate
program
In nursing, CE includes educational programs that
are designed to provide K,S & A for the
enhancement of Nursing practice

Exposure to new concept, refined procedure, innovative


product/ procedure
Application training for higher level of technical
expertise

Management Development

Programs to expand interpersonal skills and


more democratic approach to leadership
Teaches responsibilities towards clients and
co-workers
Prepares nurse managers
Planned at various levels of management

Organization Development

Method of improving the process by which


employees relate to each other and work
together to realize organizational goals
Problem identification
Team building

Evaluation of Staff Development


programme
Benefits
Helps determine the achievement of goals
Helps assess the success / failure of the
programme
Indicates needed change for improvement
Helps set realistic goals

Quality Control of Continuing


Education Courses

To award credit to course participants


Need to accredit and approve Continuing
education courses that yield academic credit
Measurement and recording participation in
nonacademic education programs

Drawbacks of Staff Development


Programs

Errors of staff devt officer Acts on pressure


Voluntary candidates take things easy
Norms of old behaviour interferes with new
behaviour
Consultant errors Relationship with
consultant and client (time, money,
expectations of the two)

Take a moment from your day to learn a


few good lessons

Thanx