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Drs. Amin Ponimin, M.Pd,

STIKES MUH KLATEN
Sumber Materi : dari tulisan
dr. S. Wulandari, M.Sc

Hemodynamics
Describes the physical factors governing

blood flow within the circulatory system

Pressure
Flow
Resistance

Blood Velocity

Q = VA

V = Q/A

Blood Flow
Blood flow : the quantity of blood that passes a given point in

the circulation in a given period of time

ml/mnt, L/mnt
Determined by :
Pressure gradient

Force that pushes the blood through the vessel

Vascular resistance

The impediment to blood flow through the vessel

as a result of friction between the flowing blood and the intravascular
endothelium all along the inside of the vessel

Organs blood flow is determined by changes in resistance

Ohms Law
Q=P
R
Q : Blood Flow
P : Pressure Difference (P1

P2)
R : Resistance

Blood flow in the

total circulation
Cardiac output (CO)
CO : the amount of
blood pumped into
the aorta by the
heart each minute
Blood flow within
each organ
changes with body
activities

Laminar Blood Flow

Streamline
Each layer remaining the same distance from

vessel wall

Parabolic velocity
Most portion of the blood stays in the centre

of the vessel

Turbulen Blood Flow

Causes :
High velocity
Obstruction
Sharp turn
Rough surface
Disorderly
Greater resistance

Reynolds number
the measure of the tendency for
turbulence to occur
Re : reynolds number
v : mean velocity

(cm/s)
d : diameter (cm)
: density
: viscosity (poise)

POISEUILLEs LAW

r P1 P2
Q
8 L
4

Q = debit / flow rate (m/s)

= blood viscosity (Poiseuille/Pa.s)
r = radius of the vessel(m)
P1/P2 = pressure (N/m = Pa)
L = length of the vessel (m)

Applied only to single vessel

Resistance to Blood
r P P
Flow
Q
4

8 L

Pressure

Flow Rate =

Pressure
Resistance

=Q

Flow Rate =

Resistance =

P
8L / r 4

Total Peripheral Vascular

Resistance & Total Pulmonary
Circulatory Blood Flow rate ~ CO ( 100 ml/s)
Vascular Resistance
Total Peripheral Resistance : the resistance of

the entire systemic circulation 1 PRU

Total Pulmonary Resistance : 1/7 systemic
circulation
vasodilation resistance decreases
vasoconstriction resistance increases

Series & Parallel Vessels

Series Vessels
Arteries, arterioles, cappilaries, venules & vein
are collectively arranged in series
Flow through each vessel is the same
The total resistance to blood flow is equal to the
sum of the resistances of each vessel
Parallel vessel
Permits each tissue to regulate its own blood flow
the total resistance is far less than the resistance

The total parallel resistance is less than single

lowest resistance
Changing the resistance of a small number of
parallel vessel will have little effect on total
resistance

Blood Conductance
Conductance is a measure of the blood flow
through a vessel for a given pressure
difference.

Blood Viscosity &

Hematocrit
The greater the viscosity, the less the flow
in a vessel
Water viscosity= 10-3 Pa s (20)
Blood viscosity= 3-4 x 10-3 Pa s
Hematocrit >>> Blood viscosity >>>
Temperature <<< blood viscosity >>>
Flow <<< blood viscosity >>>

Polisitemia vera

Vessels Diameter
The most important factor determining

resistance to flow
Q ~ r4

Blood Pressure
Pressure >>> Flow >>>
an increase in arterial pressure not only

increases the force that pushes blood through

the vessels but also distends the vessels at
the same time, which decreases vascular
resistance.

L / r
= 8Q

Tekanan Darah :
- Berbanding lurus dengan V (curah jantung)
- Berbanding lurus dengan tahanan (perifer)
dipengaruhi oleh tonus dan elastisitas arteri
- Berbanding lurus (viskositas darah)
dipengaruhi oleh volume darah
- Berbanding lurus dengan L (panjang pembuluh)
- Berbanding terbalik dengan r (jari-jari/ diameter
pembuluh)

METODE PENGUKURAN
Diukur dengan Sphygmomanometer
TEKANAN
DARAH
Spygmomanometer

terdiri dari :

1. Manometer
2. Pressure cuff
Tipe Spygmomanometer :
1. Manometer air raksa
tekanan = tinggi kolom air raksa
2. Manometer aneroid
tekanan menyebabkan jarum
bergerak ke angka

TEKANAN ZAT CAIR

PA P B = g ( h A h B )
hA & hB (+) jika diukur ke bawah
PA = PA + PO
PB = PB + PO
PA & PB = tekanan mutlak zat cair
PO
= tekanan atmosfer
PA & PB = selisih tekanan mutlak & tekanan atmosfer
Metode Pengukuran Tekanan :
Menentukan tinggi kolom cairan yang
memproduksi tekanan yang setara dengan
tekanan yang diukur
Manometer (tabung bentuk U yang terisi
cairan, biasanya air raksa/air)

Arteries and blood pressure

Pressure reservoir
Arterial walls are able to

expand and recoil

because of the pressure
of elastic fibers in the
arterial wall
Systolic pressure:
maximum pressure
occurring during systole
Diastolic pressure:
pressure during diastole

Figure 14.8

Blood pressure values: what

do

Pulsethey
pressure:mean?
PP = SP-DP
Mean arterial blood

pressure = MAP

Pdias)

LAJU ENDAP DARAH

2
(LED) v 2r g 0
9

v = kecepatan
endap/sedimentasi
r = jari-jari benda
= viskositas
g = percepatan gravitasi
= massa jenis benda
0 = massa jenis zat cair

Referensi
Guyton, A.C., John E. Hall., 2006. Textbook of

Medical Physiology.11th ed. Elsevier

Inc.Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.
Klabunde, R.E. 2011. Cardiovascular
physiology concepts. 2nd ed. Lippincott
Wiliams & Wilkins.
Cameron, John R., 2006. Fisika Tubuh
Manusia; Alih bahasa, Brahm U. Pendit. Ed.2Jakarta. EGC.
Gabriel J.F. 1996. Fisika Kedokteran. 7th ed.
Jakarta. Penerbit Buku Kedokteran EGC.

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