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The Male and Female

Reproductive System

The Reproductive System


GONADS primary sex organs
TESTES in males
OVARIES in females

Gonads produce gametes (sex


cells) and secrete hormones
sex cells
Sperm (male gametes or sex cells)
Ova or eggs (female gametes or sex
cells)

FEMALE
REPRODUCTIVE
SYSTEM

Female Reproductive
System
Ovaries
Duct System
Uterine tubes (fallopian tubes)
Uterus
Vagina

External genitalia

Female Reproductive
System

Figure 16.8a

Ovaries
Paired female sex organ
Produces egg cells & female
sex hormones (estrogen,
progesterone)
Composed of ovarian follicles
Structure of an ovarian
follicle
Oocyte
Follicular cells
OVULATION
release of mature egg(ovum)
from the ovary
- usually on the 14th day of
uterine cycle

Support for Ovaries

Figure 16.8b

Oviducts or Uterine or Fallopian


Tubes
site of FERTILIZATION
Attaches to the uterus
Does not physically attach
to the ovary
Has fimbriae -> sweeps
the ovum (matured egg)
into the fallopian tube)

Uterus or womb
thick, walled muscular organ
Can stretch up to over 30cm
accommodate growing fetus
Function:
for IMPLANTATION of fertilized
egg or zygote
nourishes developing fetus
Endometrium (muscle layer, site
of implantation; sloughs off dng
menstruation)
CERVIX
- narrow outlet of uterus
- Protrudes into the vagina

Uterus or Womb
where the fertilized egg is
implanted and where the fetus develops

Vagina
Extends from cervix to
exterior of body
Serves as the BIRTH
CANAL
Passageway of both the
baby & the menses
Receives the penis during
sexual intercourse
Hymen partially closes
the vagina until it is
ruptured

External Genitalia (Vulva)


Mons pubis
-Fatty area overlying the pubic symphysis
Covered with pubic hair after puberty
Labia skin folds
Labia majora
Labia minora
Vestibule
Clitoris
Contains erectile tissue
Corresponds to the male penis

Figure 16.9

Oogenesis
The total supply of eggs are present at birth (abt 2Million
follicles)
Ability to release eggs begins at puberty
Reproductive ability ends at menopause
Oocytes are matured in developing ovarian follicles
Female produce usually one egg per month during her
reproductive years

Oogenesis

Figure 16.10

Uterine Cycle
Cyclic changes of the endometrium of the uterus
28 day cycle (regular/normal)
Regulated by cyclic production of estrogens &
progesterone

Stages of Uterine cycle

Follicular phase : days 1-13


MENSTRUATION
Disintegration of endometrium, blood vessels are broken down; days 1-5

Proliferative phase (days 6-13); endometrium rebuilds


Ovulation
Day *14 of regular cycle
Release of mature egg or ovum from the ovary
Luteal phase
days 15-28
Increased production of progesterone endometrium thickens
Uterine glands ->secrete thick, mucoid secretion
Endometrium of uterus- prepares to receive developing embryo
If implantation doesnt occur -> breakdown-> menstruation

Ovulation

when egg/ovum is released

Hormonal Control of the Ovarian


and Uterine Cycles

Hormone Production by the


Ovaries

ESTROGEN
Produced by follicle cells
Cause secondary female sex characteristics
Enlargement of accessory organs
Development of breasts
Appearance of pubic hair
Increase in fat beneath the skin
Widening and lightening of the pelvis
Onset of menses

PROGESTERONE
Helps maintain pregnancy

Stages of Pregnancy and


Development

Fertilization
Embryonic development
Fetal development
Childbirth

Fertilization
= union of egg cell & sperm cell=>fertilized egg or
zygote
= 23 chromosomes (egg) + 23 chromosomes
(sperm) = 46 or 23 pairs of chromosomes (zygote)
- When zygote starts cell division => embryo
oocyte is viable for 12 to 24 hours after ovulation
Sperms are viable for 12 to 48 hours after
ejaculation
Sperm cells must make their way to the uterine
tube for fertilization to be possible

Mechanisms of
Fertilization

Membrane receptors on an oocyte


pulls in the head of the first sperm
cell to make contact
The membrane of the oocyte does not
permit a second sperm head to enter
The oocyte then undergoes its second
meiotic division
Fertilization occurs when the genetic
material of a sperm combines with
that of an oocyte to form a zygote

Infertility
Inability to conceive or get pregnant or induce conception
Causes of infertility:
Females:
Endometriosis-presence of uterine tissue outside the uterus, in the
oviducts & on abdominal organs
Blocked oviducts
Males:
- Low sperm count/ large proportion of abnormal sperms
- Disease
- Radiation
- Chemical mutagens
- High testes temperature not viable for sperm production

Sexually Transmitted
Diseases

GONORRHEA
TULO
- one of the most common diseases
passed from one person to another
during sexual activity.
- Caused by the bacteria

Neisseria gonorrhoeae
Thick yellow/green discharge or
pus
from the penis or vagina

Gonorrhea Symptoms
Women
may cause pelvic inflammatory
disease
Infection and irritation of the
cervix
Need to urinate often
thick yellow/green discharge or
pus
Infection and irritation of the
vagina
Bleeding between menstrual
periods

In men
cause pain/burning sensation
when urinating and discharge from
the penis.
If untreated, it can cause
epididymitis, which affects the
testicles and can lead to infertility.

SYPHILLIS
- caused by the bacteria
Treponema pallidum
-it infects the genital area, lips, mouth, or
anus of both men and women.
SYMPTOMS:
-early stage: single, small, painless
sore. Sometimes it causes swelling
in nearby lymph nodes. Many
people do not notice symptoms for
years. Symptoms can go away and
come back.
Men are more vulnerable to contracting
syphilis than women.
The active disease is found most often
among men and women aged 15-39
years.

Medical Treatment
Syphilis is easy to cure with
antibiotics if you catch it early.
-correct usage of latex condoms
greatly reduces, but does not
completely eliminate, the risk of
catching or spreading syphilis.

GENITAL WARTS
-fleshcolored or gray growths
found in the genital area and anal
region in both men and women
- caused by human papilloma
virus (HPV)

High-risk HPV can lead to


cancers of the cervix, vulva,
vagina, and anus in women. In
men, it can lead to cancers of
the anus and penis.

Medical Treatment
Laser treatment
may require local, regional, or general
anesthesia
-laser physically destroys the HPVinduced
lesion
Electrodesiccation
-uses an electric current to destroy the warts.
It can be done in the office with local
anesthesia. The resulting smoke plume may
be infectious.

Medications
single-dose injection of an antibiotic such as
ceftriaxone (Rocephin) or a single-dose pill such as
ciprofloxacin (Cipro).

Prevention
Use latex condoms when having sexual intercourse.
Avoid sexual contact with high-risk partners.
Treat infected sexual partners or have them tested
before having sexual relations.