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PHYSICS

MODULE 2

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Basic SI Units
Length (L) Metre (m)
Mass (m) Kilogram(kg)
Time
(t) Second (s)

Derived SI Units
Area
(A)
Square Metre (m2)
Volume (V)
Cubic Metre(m3)
Density ()
Kg / Cubic Metre (kg/m3)
Velocity(V)
Metre per second (m/s)

Force (F)
Pressure(p)
Energy (E)
Work (W)
Power (P)
Frequency(f)

Newton (N)
Pascal (Pa)
Joule
(J)
Joule
(J)
Watt
(w)
Hertz (Hz)

matter

Matter - anything that occupies


space.
- consists of atoms and
molecules.

Atom - smallest particle in an element


that has the properties of the
element.

Molecules - the combination of two or


more atoms.

NATURE OF MATTER
Nucleus - each carrying a positive charge are called protons.
In addition to the protons the nucleus usually contains electrically
neutral particles called neutrons.

Neutrons have the same mass as

protons whereas electrons are very much smaller.


Neutron - simply adds to the weight of the nucleus.
- has no charge.
Proton

- positively charged.
- has mass same as the neutrons.

Electron - orbits define the size or volume occupied by the


atom
- negatively charged.
- total number of negatively charged electrons
matches

number of positively charged protons.

The sub-atomic components of atoms.


Particles

Relative
Mass

Electrical
Charge

Comments

Neutron

0 ( zero )

In the nucleus

Proton

+1 ( positive )

In the nucleus

Electron

1 / 1850

-1 ( negative )

Arranged in energy
levels or shells
around the nucleus

Atomic Number no. of protons in the atoms nucleus.


eg. Hydrogen has 1 proton atomic no. is 1.
Carbon has 6 protons atomic no. is 6.

Mass Number total no. of protons and neutrons in


nucleus.
eg. Lithium has 3 protons & 4 neutrons mass no. 7

Relative Atomic Mass


The mass of atom in relation to the mass of a reference
atom.
Element chosen on which to relate mass of all atoms is
Carbon.
Eg.

Carbon (12) - 6 protons + 6 neutrons


Hydrogen - 1 proton + 0 neutron = mass no. 1

*so relative atomic mass for Hydrogen is one twelfth of


Carbon.

Isotopes

are atoms that have same atomic number but different mass
numbers.
Atom gains / loses one or more neutrons from nucleus will
become ISOTOPES.

Are present in most elements and may also be man made.

From left to right across a period =


protons/electrons count increases by
one.
Atomic number = increases from left to
right.
Group
1. Vertical column
2. Elements have same number of outer
shell / valency electrons.
Noble gases - group 8.
Transition metals - middle of the table.
Pure metals - group 1, except Hydrogen.

CHEMICAL COMPOUNDS

Atoms bond together to form a molecule.


Molecules

Monatomic Molecule

Chemical Compounds

Consists of single type of


atom.

Made up of two or more


atoms.

Structure of Atoms

Electrons are arranged in energy levels and shells around


the nucleus and with increasing distance from the nucleus .
Valence electrons :
- how many electrons an atom has in its outer shell.
- determines the chemical behavior.
- The more valence electrons, the more want for the atom
to
get more electrons.
Valency :
1. bonding capacity of an atom; usually equals the number of
unpaired electrons in the atoms outermost shell.
2. No. of bonds it can make with a monovalent atom such as
Hydrogen.
Monovalent
Bivalent
Trivalent
Tetravalent

The Molecule

A group of two or more similar or dissimilar atoms bonded


together .

Metallic bonds - metal + metal (eg: Alloy)


- do not produce molecules
- weakest bonds of all

Ionic bonds

Covalent bonds - non metal + non metal (eg : water)


- produce molecules, strongest bond.

- metal + non-metal (eg: sodium chloride)

Chemical compounds
Defined as :
A substance made up of different elements that are
chemically bonded and are so united that the whole has
properties of its own, which are unlike those of its
constituents.

All other molecules made up of two or more atoms are


known as Chemical compound.

States of matter

All matter exists in one of three physical states.

Physical state refers to the condition of a compound


and has no affect on a compound's chemical
structure

Solid. A solid has definite mass, volume and shape.

Liquid. A liquid has definite mass and volume but


takes the shape of its container.

Gas.

A gas has definite mass but takes the volume

and shape of its container.

increase in the temperature will increase the energy


of its molecules.

Changes between states


Solid to Liquid Fusion
i. Heat energy required to complete process of
converting unit mass of substance from solid to
liquid state without change of temperature is called
the Latent Heat of Fusion.
. Liquid to Gas Vaporisation
i. Heat energy required to vaporise a unit mass of
liquid without temperature rise is called Latent Heat
of Vaporisation.
. Gas to Liquid Condensation
i. Heat energy expelled is called the Latent Heat of
Condensation.
. Liquid to Solid Solidification
i. Loss of molecular energy is the Latent Heat of
Solidification.

Sublimation
i.

Some solid substance when heated do not melt, but


form a Vapour.

ii.

Solid to vapour, without passing through liquid state.

iii. Eg. Dry ice

. Evaporation
i.

Liquid change to vapour.

ii.

Some liquid have low boiling point, so easily change


from liquid to vapour.

iii. Eg. Methylated spirits.

Mechanics :
statics ; forces
centre of gravity
stress and strain
properties of matter
pressure and buoyancy in liquids

Newtons law of motions


First Law of Motion
A body at rest will remain at rest unless given an
external force, or a body which is moving will keep on
moving unless given an external force. ( Inertia )
Second Law of Motion
A force proportional to the rate of change of its velocity
is produced whenever a body ( or mass ) is accelerated.
F = ma

Third Law of Motion


For every action, there is an equal and opposite
direction.

MECHANICS
STATIC
Forces

If a Force is applied to a body it will cause that body


to move in the direction of the applied force.
force has both magnitude (size) and direction.
Forces cannot be directly observed, only their effects
can be seen.
Compressive - force applied on an object to
squeeze it.
Tensile - pair of forces try to extend an object.
Shear - Pair of forces tries to cause one face of
material to slide relative to an adjacent face.
Statics is used to describe study of bodies at rest
when forces are balanced.

External force force applied to an object from


outside its boundaries.
Internal force force induced in the object to react
against externally applied force. ( Reaction )

VECTOR AND SCALAR


Scalar just a magnitude, there is no direction
associated.
eg. Time , mass, volume.

Vector require both magnitude and direction to be


fully defined.
eg. Force, velocity, acceleration.

Adding Forces
2 or more forces act at same line, produce resultant
force.
If at straight line, subtract or addition.

Forces do not act in a straight line use the


parallelogram law.

Worked example
Find the resultant of two forces of 4.0 N and 5.0 N acting at
an angle of 45 degree to each other.
Using a scale of 1.0 cm = 1.0 N, draw parallelogram ABCD
with AB = 5.0 cm, AC = 4.0 N and angle CAB = 45 degree,
see figure 8.

Worked example: three forces acting on a mass.


First resolve each force into its vertical and horizontal
components.

MOMENTS AND COUPLES


If a body free to rotate about some point ;
i.
Applied force will cause rotation
ii. Force required dependent on how far from hinge force is
applied.
iii. Turning effect = magnitude and distance.
Moment = force x distance.

. In SI units, Newtons metres = Newton x metres

The Principle of Moments


If a body is at rest under the action of several
forces, the sum of the clockwise moments about
any axis is equal to the sum of the anti clockwise
moments about the same axis.
Type 1 beam balances where arms are of equal
length.
Type 2 lever arrangement can best be seen in design
of a wheelbarrow.
Type 3 large effort moves through small distance to
overcome small load, which moves through a large
distance.

IN EQUILIBRIUM

COUPLE WHEN TWO EQUAL BUT


OPPOSITE DIRECTION, CAUSES
ROTATION

For example, suppose it is necessary to calculate the


resultant moment of a pivot acting on a bell crank lever,
refer to diagram below.
AO =
OC =
BC =

100 mm
20 mm
20 mm

WHAT IS
CENTER OF GRAVITY ?

CENTRE OF GRAVITY

Gravity is a force which is always present and is a


pulling force in the direction of the center of the
earth.

This force acts on every body through an imaginary


point called the center of gravity (C of G).

A point where all the weight of a body appears to be


concentrated. (total weight can be considered to act
through that datum position )

(total weight can be considered to act through that


datum position )

There must be a datum point, such as where when moment


in clockwise direction will be balanced by moment in anticlockwise direction, if given the same amount of force.

Stability / balancing
The lower the C of G, the stable an
object is.
The wider the base, the more stable
an object is C of G towards the
base.

The location of the center of


gravity in the human body varies
slightly, depending on body
shape.

a male with a muscular upper


body and small hips, the center
of gravity is higher than in a
female with narrow shoulders and
wide hips

in an infant with a large head in


relation to its body, it is higher
than in an adult

When force applied to


C of G, the body will not
rotate.

But if the force is


applied offset of the C
of G, the body will
rotate, or torque will
produced.

Expressed as an algebraic formula,


W1 X1 + W2 X2 + W3 X3 = (W1 + W2 + W3) x G
Where G is the position of the centroid, with respect to the
datum.
G=

C of g of an aircraft

Why do we need to know c of g of an


aircraft ?

To ensure the aircraft is safe to fly, the center-of-gravity must


fall within specified limits established by the manufacturer.

C of G range C of G limits are specified longitudinal (forward


and aft) and/or lateral (left and right) limits within which the
aircraft's center of gravity must be located during flight.

To evenly load the aircraft equipments, passengers, baggage,


cargo, fuel, etc.

So that C of G range will not be exceeded prevent aircraft


unstable during flight.

Also affects C of G in flight fuel usage, passengers movement,


etc.

Similar to aircraft, force applied will be acted through the C


of G, resulting in torque.
Aircraft rotate about its C of G.

WHAT IS STRESS ?
AND WHAT IS STRAIN ?

Stress

If force is exerted on a body, there will be mechanical


pressure acting on the body which is called the stress.

A body with having twice the size of other body subjected


to a force, it will be stronger and less likely to fail due to
applied the applied force.

So, stress is said :


Stress =

*units : Newton metre

-2

, Nm-2

Components will fail due to over-stressed, not over-loaded.

Eg. A tennis ball sealed from atmospheric pressure. So, as


long as the external forces acting on it does not exceed the
internal forces, the ball will maintain its shape.

Forces applied to the body will cause distortion of the body and
change to the materials cross-sectional area ;
eg. Tensile Forces will cause elongation .
Compressive Force will cause reduction in dimension.

Most material have elastic properties ( it will to return to its


original shape after the force is removed ) - provided forces does

not exceed limit of elasticity.


There are 5 types of stress in mechanical bodies :
i. Tension
ii. Compression
iii. Torsion
iv. Bending
v. Shear

Tension

force that tends to pull an object apart

Compression

resistance to an external force that


tries to push an object together.

Torsion
Torsional stress is applied to a material when it is twisted.
Torsion is actually a combination of both tension and
compression

Bending
In flight, the force of lift tries to bend an aircraft's wing
upward.

Shear
combines tension and compression is the shear stress, which
tries to slide an object apart.

Strain

If the outside force is great enough to cause the object to


change its shape or size, the object is not only under
stress, but is also strained.

If a length of elastic is pulled, it stretches. If the pull is


increases, it stretches more; if the pull is reduced, it
contracts.

Hookes law states that the amount of stretch


(elongation) is proportional to the applied force.

How stress varies with stress when a steel wire is stretched until it breaks.
Hookes Law states that, the amount of stretch (elongation) is
proportional to the applied force.

Strain - the degree of distortion then has to be the actual distortion


divided by the original length (in other words, elongation per unit
length).
Strain = change in dimension / original dimension ( No units )

*for shearing and torsional stresses, they are expressed as


shearing action when one layer of materials move
relative to another in direction of applied force.
Shear strain straight motion.
Torsion strain rotational motion.

Compression strain

Shear strain
when the applied load
causes one 'layer' of
material to move relative
to the adjacent layers.

Torsion strain
form of shear stress
resulting from a twisting
action.

Twist will be proportional


to the applied torque.

Shearing Strain

Properties of matter
Diffusion

Is the spreading of a substance of its accord.

due to molecular action, e.g. a smell, whether pleasant or


not, travels quickly from its source to your nostrils where it
is detected.

occurs in liquids and gases but not in solids.

Surface Tension

This suggests that the surface of a liquid behaves as if it is


covered with an elastic skin that is trying to shrink.

The surface tension can be reduced if the liquid is


contaminated, adding a detergent to the water will cause
our needle to sink.

In a liquid, the molecules still partially bond together and


prevents liquid from spreading nag expanding out.

Adhesion
Force of attraction between
molecules of different
substances.

Cohesion
Force of attraction between
molecules of same
substances.

capillary

If a glass tube of small bore is dipped into water , the water


rises u the tube a few centimetres.

The adhesion between the glass and the water exceeds the
cohesion of the water molecules, the meniscus curves up ,
and the surface tension causes the water to rise.

Mechanical properties of
matter
Strength
A strong material requires a strong force to break it
Stiffness
A stiff material resists forces which try to change its shape or size.
Elasticity
The ability to recover to its original shape and size after the force
deforming it has been reformed.
Ductility
Materials that can be rolled into sheets, drawn into wires or worked
into other useful shapes, without breaking are ductile.
Brittleness
A material that is fragile and breaks easily .

Pressure and buoyancy


in liquid
The equivalent term associated with fluids is pressure:
pressure = force / area

or p = F / A .

Pressure is the internal reaction or resistance to that external


force.

Pascals Law : pressure acts equally and in all directions


throughout that fluid.

pressure can be transmitted to some other point in


order to generate another force.

Units of pressure
SI system pressure :
Pascal = force per unit area ( Nm-2)

Atmospheric pressure :
Milibars ( mb ) or pounds per square inch ( psi )

Sea level standard atm presssure :


1013-2 mb or 14.69 psi ( at 0C)

buoyancy
Archimedes Principle states that when an object is submerged in
a liquid, the object displaces a volume of liquid equal to its
volume and is supported by a force equal to the weight of the
liquid displaced.

THE BUOYANCY OF A SUBMERGED BODY =


WEIGHT OF DISPLACED LIQUID WEIGHT OF THE BODY

1. The body will float--if the buoyancy is positive


2.The body will sink--if the buoyancy is negative
3.The body will be stuck--if the buoyancy is neutral

kinetics

Linear motion

Is the uniform motion in a straight line.


Motion is the change of position of a body with
reference to another body.
eg. A person sitting in a moving car and passes a
building.
The person is considered to be at a state of
rest in reference to the car.

The car is considered to be in motion in


relation to the building.

speed

Speed tells us how quickly an object is moving at any given


point in time.

Scalar quantity does not take into account the direction of


the object travelled.

Average speed dividing the distance travelled by the time


taken.
Speed =
=

rate of change of displacement or position

where v represents speed.

Worked example

An aircraft flies at 80 km/ hr for 15 minutes and at


120 km/hr for a further 15 minutes. How far has it
travelled and what is the average speed ?

velocity

Includes direction, distance in straight line and time.

Vector quantity magnitude + distance.

eg. An aircraft moves 200miles South West


from A to B in one hour.
*the velocity is 200mph South West.

acceleration

Is the rate of change of velocity over time.

If the rate of change is constant, acceleration is described as


being uniform.

Acceleration - If the velocity of an object increases over time.

Deceleration / retardation If the velocity decreases over time.

If a car is travelling at initial constant velocity u and then


accelerated with uniform acceleration a to final velocity v,
therefore :
a
v

=
=

(vu)/t
u + at

*Unit : m / s

Equation of linear motion


Equations of linear motion

V = u + at
s=(u+v)t
s = ut + at2
v2 = u2 + 2as
Free falling objects
if a stationary object is released and free falls under
attraction of the force of gravity, it will accelerate at 9.81
m/s 2
So the a will be 9.81 m/s 2 ,
but in this case it is given the symbol g.
If the object is thrown upwards, its g will be 9.81m/s 2

Initial velocity of objects freefalling from rest is zero, so the


equations for free fall are :

V
S
V2

= gt
= gt2
= (2gs)2

ROTATIONAL MOTION
Circular Motion
Rotational motion means motion involving curved paths and
therefore change of direction.
Only cases of constant acceleration are considered here.
They are equivalent to those linear equations of motion :

Centripetal Force

Continuous force applied to a body moving in circular path


to keep it in that particular circular path, preventing it from
travelling in straight line ( tangential to circle it is rotating in
) due to the inertia of the object.

Basically a force acting inwards toward the centre of the


circle.

Is directly proportional to the mass of the object in circular


motion.

Is inversely proportional to the radius of the circle in which


the object travels.

Force = ma, so we can say that the object has an inwards


acceleration called Centripetal Acceleration which is ;
a
= v2 , so F =
r
*where v is linear velocity and r is radius of circular path.

Centrifugal Force
Is the equal but opposite reaction to the Centripetal Force.
( Newtons 3rd Law )

Tensile Force at the other end of the string acts outwards of


the circle.

Relationship between Angular and Linear


Motion :
Providing that we know the value of the
rotating bodys radius ( r ), we can use the
relationship between the radius and the
radian to convert angular values to linear
values and vice versa.
Linear distance : r
Linear velocity : r
Linear acceleration :r

Periodic motion

Some masses move from one point to another, then back to


the original point, and continue to do this repetitively.

The time during which the mass moved away from, and
then returned to its original position is known as the time
period, and the motion is known as periodic motion.

Example : pendulum

Pendulum

When the mass then displaced from its rest position, it will
accelerate back towards its rest position.

On reaching it however, it will not stop, because its inertia carries it


on to an equal but opposite displacement.

the time period can be measured from a any position, through to


the next time that position is reached, with the motion in the
original direction.

Cycle for one complete to and fro movement.


Periodic Time time taken to complete 1 cycle.
Frequency the number of cycle occurring in 1 seconds. ( Hertz
HZ )
Amplitude maximum displacement of a body from its middle or
rest position.

Periodic time, T can be calculated by ;


T = 2 ( L / g )
Where ;
L length of the pendulum
g magnitude of acceleration due to gravity = 9.81
m/s2

For time period ( T ) and frequency ( f ) ;


T=1/f

f=1/T

Spring mass systems

If the mass at the spring is displaced and the force is


released, the spring force will cause the mass to return to
its original position.

It will behave like pendulum, so it continue to move up and


down before it stops completely.

Springs obey Hookes Law.

The resulting motion, up and down, resulting in :

Spring Force
Force ( F ) =

mg =

kE

if mg = kE, then the spring constant k = mg


E
Also, extension E = mg
k
Frequency (f) = ( 1 / 2 ) ( k/m )
where;
F is force.
m is suspended mass.
g is the acceleration due to gravity.
E is the spring extension.
k is the spring constant.

Simple theory of vibration, harmonics and


resonance.

Analysis of oscillating systems will show that they often obey simple
but strict law.
Acceleration is proportional to the displacement from the neutral
position, and in the opposite sense to the direction of the velocity.
Referred to as Simple Harmonic Motion, when acceleration is directed
towards fixed point in its path and is proportional to its displacement
from that point.

Vibration theory

Vibration Theory is based on the detailed analysis of


vibrations and is essentially mathematical, relying heavily
on trigonometry and calculus, involving sinusoidal functions
and differential equations.
Damped vibrations :
Simple pendulum / spring mass will vibrate at constant
frequency and amplitude, once it is started.
But vibrations will die away due to other motions such as
friction, air resistance, etc.

Resonance

When force subjected to force vibration, it will vibrate along


with natural frequency of the object.

If the natural frequency matches the resonant frequency


with forced vibration causes the amplitude to increase
dramatically.

Natural frequency tries to damped out the amplitude but


cannot damp its own natural frequency.

So the two amplitudes combine to produce resonance.

Velocity ratio, mechanical advantage


and efficiency.

Machine utilise some form of motion to convert an applied


force into a useful work output
The input forces is often amplified many times by the
machine so that we can overcome a heavy load with little
effort.
Eg ; levers, pulleys, gears, screws.

Velocity ratio

Ratio of distance the effort is required to move in


comparison with the distance the load moves in the same
time.

Velocity Ratio = Distance moved by effort


Distance moved by load

Mechanical Advantage
Describes the ratio of load moved with the effort required to move it.
Mechanical Advantage = Load
Effort
*A rusty car jack will have a low mechanical advantage because
much of the effort would be used to overcome the friction of a corroded
screw thread.
Efficiency
Describes the ratio of the useful work done by a machine to the total
work put into it.
Efficiency = Work Output x 100% or Mechanical Advantage x100%
Work Input
Velocity Ratio
Expressed as percentage and is always less than 100%.
*Friction and slippage can detract from efficiency of a machine.

LEVERS
Used to gain mechanical advantage.
Most basic form : seesaw that has weight at each end.
( weight on one end tends to rotate it clockwise, weight on the
other end tends to rotate it anti-clockwise )
First Class Lever

Lever has fulcrum between load and effort.


Less effort required to lift the load.

Second Class Lever


Has fulcrum at one end of the lever and effort is applied to
the opposite force.

Third Class Lever


Force is applied between fulcrum and load.
Used to move the load a greater distance than effort
applied.
Disadvantages : much greater effort required to produce
moment.

Pulleys

Pulley wheel has circumferential groove to accept a rope.

Effort is applied by pulling on a rope.

Tension created in the rope and movement are transmitted


through arrangement to the load.

Single fixed pulley is a convenient means of lifting a light load.

So, for instance, if one end of the rope is attached to a fixed


object, pulling on the other end will apply a doubled force to any
object attached to the axle.

dynamics

Mass
Is the quantity of matter that it contains.
Constant regardless of its location.
Basic SI unit : kilogram (kg)
Imperial : pounds (lbs)
Weight
Force with which gravity attracts a body.
Varies with distance between body and centre of the earth,
so if farther than centre of the earth, the less it weighs.
So, it is said that an object in deep space does not has no
weight, but do has mass.
Gravitational acceleration is considered as 9.81m/s2
Force
Is a vector quantity that has magnitude, direction and a
point of application.
Which changes a bodys state of rest or of uniform motion.

Inertia
Newtons First Law
A body at rest will stay at rest unless given an external
force, or a moving body will continue on moving unless
given and external force.
Is the resistance to movement or changes.
Work
Work is done when a force move.
Work done = force x distance moved in the direction of the force.
Unit : Newton metre (Nm) or the joule
1 joule = the work done when a force of 1 Newton is applied
through
a distance of 1 metre

Power
The amount of work done in specific time.
Power = work done =
force x distance
time taken
time
Si unit : Watt ( W ) 1 Joule/ second
Is the rate of work done when 1 Joule is achieved in one second.
*One horsepower is the equivalent of 746 Watts
Brake Horse Power
To rate the engine power.
The engine is made to do work on a device known as
dynamometer or brake loads the engine output.
Shaft Horse Power
Measure output shaft of a turboprop engine, since the power
produced at shaft is what will be delivered to propeller.

Energy

Is the capacity to do work.

Si unit : Joules

Can appear as several form ; mechanical, chemical, heat,


electrical, and radiation.

But only deal with Mechanical Energy, and appears as


potential and kinetic energy.

Energy cannot be created or destroyed, it can only be


changed from one form to another.

Energy will not be converted into 100% work, they will


always appear in a less useful form such as wasted heat.

But it may be converted into 100% energy.

Potential Energy (PE)

Energy is possesses by virtue of its position or state.

Example : A mass raised to a height above the ground has


potential energy since its weight is capable of doing work as
it descends to the ground under the influence of gravity.
Work = force x distance

*since PE is for mass at elevated position,so distance is the


height above ground.
Potential Energy = mass x gravity x height
= mgh

Kinetic Energy

Energy it possesses by virtue of its motion.

Arises from the work done on it.

When body set in motion by a force doing work it acquires


kinetic energy, which will work against any forces that try to
resist it.
Kinetic Energy

= mv2

Conservation of Energy
Whenever energy is converted from one form to another,
none of it is lost.

The sum of the energy can always be accounted for in the


other forms of energy that may have converted into.

After an object hits ground on a fall, the energy has converted


into heat energy and will be dissipated into the air.

So a comparison between work out and work in is obviously a


measure of the system efficiency.
Efficiency = work output
work input

*usually expressed as percentage ( less than 100 % ).

Heat

Defined as energy between two bodies because of


difference in temperature.

If two bodies at different temperature, are bought into


contact, their temperature become equal.

Energy that flows from a hot place to a cooler place.

Heat energy can be transferred by ; conduction, convection


and radiation.

momentum

Product of its mass and velocity.


momentum = mass x velocity

SI unit ; kgm/s

Impulse of a force
If a body was subjected to a sudden blow, shock load or
impact, it will be possible to measure change in
momentum.
Forces which have the short time duration are called the
Impulsive forces.
Change of momentum due to impulsive force is called the
Impulse.
Impact duration small impulsive force large.
Impact duration large impulsive force small.

Impulse

Product of force and time or change in momentum.

For example, if we rest the hammer, on top of the head of a


nail, neither the hammer nor the nail has any momentum.

However, if we bring the hammer down from a height and


strike the nail sharply on its head, both the hammer and
nail will move after the impact. In a short time they will
come to rest with the nail having penetrated whatever it is
under it.

Impulse = change in momentum = mass x change in


velocity.
= force ( N ) x time ( seconds )

CONSERVATION OF
MOMENTUM
When two or more masses act on
each other, the total momentum of
the masses remains constant,
provided no external forces, such
as friction, act.

CONSERVATION OF MOMENTUM
MOTION

MOMENTUM

First law
First Law
Mass remains at rest or continue Mass remains at rest or continue
to move at constant velocity, to move at constant velocity,
unless acted on by an external unless acted on by an external
force.
force.
Second Law
F = ma

Second Law
Rate of change of momentum is
proportional to the applied
force.

Third Law
For every action, there is a n
equal and opposite reaction.

Third Law
If mass A exerts force on B, then
B exerts an equal but opposite
force on A.

Changes in Momentum
Change of Momentum = final momentum - initial momentum
= ( mv)
(mu)
Rate of change of momentum = change in momentum
time taken
= mvmu
t
*The rate of change of momentum is proportional to magnitude
of force causing it.

When two bodies, one of low mass and the other of high
mass, are acted upon by the same force for the same time,
the low body mass will build up higher velocity than the
heavy mass.

For example;
At (a) mass A overtakes mass B.
At (b) mass B will be accelerated by impulsive force delivered
by mass A, and mass A will be decelerated by an impulsive
force delivered by B

At (c) after the impact, mass A and B will have new velocities
Va and Vb.
Momentum before impact equals to momentum after impact.

Example :

A moving snooker balls, each ball has its own momentum before
collision. After collision, the sum of the two balls momentum will be the
same as the sum prior to the collision even though their velocities may
have changed.
sum of momentums of balls = sum of momentum after impact
prior to impact
mu1 + mu2

mv1 + mv2

Moment of inertia

considers the effect of mass on bodies whose moment is


rotational.

Moment of inertia is a function of mass and radius.

Consider the two cylinders, of equal mass, but different


dimensions, capable of being rotated.

The LH cylinder is easier to rotate than RH cylinder.

GYROSCOPES

is a rotor having freedom of motion in one or more planes


at right angles to the plane of rotation.

used in several of an aircrafts instruments, which are vital


to the safety of the aircraft in bad weather.

For example wheels, engines, propellers, electric motors


and many other components must run with perfect
smoothness.

With the rotor spinning, the gyroscope will possess two


fundamental properties:
Gyroscopic rigidity or inertia
Gyroscopic precession

Gyroscopic rigidity

maintains the axis of rotation constant in space.

if a gyroscope is spinning in free space and is not acted upon


by any outside influence or force, it will remain fixed in one
position.

The degree to which the rotor offers resistance depends on 3


things :

Mass of the rotor greater the mass, greater resistance


to change in direction of plane of rotation.

Angular speed of the rotor higher the speed, greater the


resistance.
Radius of gyration of the rotor bigger the radius, greater
the rigidity.

Gyroscopic Precession

angular change of direction of the plane of rotation of a


gyroscope, as a result of an external force.

The rate of this change can be used to give indications such


as the turning rate of an aircraft.

The rotor will rotate about axis AA.


Apply a force so that it acts on the rim of the rotor at 90 0.
Move this force around the rim of the rotor so that it moves
through 900 and in the same direction as the rotor spins.
IV. Precession will move the rotor in the direction that will result
in the axes of applied force and of rotation coinciding.
V. For a constant gyroscopic speed, the rate of precession is
proportional to the applied force.
VI. The opposite also applies, so for a given force the rate of
precession is inversely proportional to rotor speed.
I.
II.
III.

Attitude indicator.

Determining Precession Direction

If a mass is mounted on a rotating shaft, and the centroid is


offset from the axis of rotation, mass will exert centrifugal
force on the shaft.
Even if the eccentricity is small, force may be considerable
at high speed.

So, it will cause the shaft to bend.


If large stresses produced, will cause damage to bearing.
Addition by vibrations from supports and surroundings will
cause undesirable effect.
Some eccentricity is due to manufacturing imperfections or
design, so it is unavoidable.
Balancing is needed to eliminate effect of centrifugal force.
Eg ; weights put on car wheels to balance them, make it
easier to drive at high speed.

Friction

Force that resists any sliding movement between two


contacting surfaces.

Can be taken as advantage, for brakes on vehicle to try to


walk on smooth surface.

Frictional force depends on nature between two surfaces.

Acts in any directions but always acts in opposing motion.

angle of the plane () is increased, the body remains


stationary, until at some particular value of , it begins to
move down the plane.
At this maximum value, the force opposing motion
Fmax = mg sin ,
and the normal reaction between the body and the plane
R = mg cos .
F/ R = mg sin / mg cos = tan
ratio F/R (tan ) is termed the Coefficient of Friction ( ) - <
1.
= F = tan
R

Coefficient of Static Friction

Static friction is friction between two solid objects that are


not moving relative to each other.

The static friction force must be overcome by an applied


force before an object can move.

The maximum possible friction force between two surfaces


before sliding begins is the product of the coefficient of
static friction.

sometimes referred to as limiting friction.


Coefficient of Static Friction () = Friction Force ( F )
Normal Reaction ( N )
Frictional Force , F = N

Coefficient of Dynamic Friction

Dynamic friction is when two objects are moving relative to


each other and rub together (like a sled on the ground).

The amount of force required to keep the object moving is


called the coefficient of dynamic friction.

usually less than the coefficient of static friction for the


same materials

There are several types of friction:

Dry friction resists relative lateral motion of two solid


surfaces in contact. Dry friction is subdivided into static
friction between non-moving surfaces, and kinetic friction
between moving surfaces.

Fluid friction describes the friction between layers within


a viscous fluid that are moving relative to each other.

Lubricated friction is a case of fluid friction where a fluid


separates two solid surfaces.

Skin friction is a component of drag, the force resisting


the motion of a solid body through a fluid.

Internal friction is the force resisting motion between the


elements making up a solid material while it undergoes
deformation.

Fluid dynamics

Fluid term used for liquid and gases.

Specific gravity and density

Density mass per unit volume.


Varies with :
Temperature ( for solids and liquid )
Temperature and pressure ( gas )

Density ( ) = mass
volume
Eg : liquid that fills a certain container has a mass of 756
kg. The container is 1.6 m long, 1.0 m wide and 0.75 of a
metre deep. The liquid density should be ?
= 756
= 630kgm-3
1.2

Standard conditions for the measurement of gas density is


established at 00C and a pressure of 1013.25 milli-bars
(Standard atmospheric pressure).

Temperature change will not change the mass of the


substance, but as temperature change, the substance tend
to expand or contract, altering the volume.

Relative Density

It is necessary to compare density of one substance with the


other to achieve a standard which all other substance can
be compared.

For solid and liquid, compare with water at 4 0C.

For gas, compare with air.


Relative Density = mass of any volume of a substance
mass of equal volume of water / air

Eg ; if a hydraulic fluid has relative density of 0.8, then 1L of


the liquid wieghs 0.8 times as much as 1L of water.

Hydrometer

Used to measure the relative density of liquids.

Glass float contained within cylindrical glass body.

Weight at the bottom, scale at the top.

When liquid drawn into the body, float displays relative


density on graduated scale.

Immersion in pure water will give out reading of 1.000.

App. in aviation : to measure battery electrolyte and fuel.

Viscosity

Measure of the resistance of a fluid which is being deformed


by either shear stress or tensile stress.
Also known as "thickness" or "internal friction.
Eg : water has thin velocity, while honey has thick
velocity.
so there is friction between two liquid surfaces even when
they consist of the same liquid.
This internal friction opposes the motion of one layer over
another and, when it is great, it makes the flow of the liquid
very slow.
Viscosity of a liquid rapidly decreases as its temperature
rises.

Viscosity of different liquids can be compared in different


ways.

Eg ; if we allow fluids of different viscosity run out of


container, the higher the viscosity, the longer time taken
to empty the container.

It is important to know about viscosity as aircraft uses


fluids such as oil in the engine for lubrication.

Fluid Resistance

Skin friction
Resistance present on a thin, flat plate which is edgewise on
to a fluid flow.
Near the surface, the fluid is slowed up due to roughness of
the skin, and fluid can also be considered as stationary at the
surface.
Effected by skin smoothness.
The rougher the skin, the higher the friction.

Eddies or turbulent airflow


swirling of a fluid and the reverse current created when the
fluid flows past an obstacle.
The moving fluid creates a space devoid of downstreamflowing fluid on the downstream side of the object.
Eg. If you put plate at right angles to flow, turbulence will be
created behind the plate and a very high resistance .

Effect of streamlining
flowing steadily over a smooth surface, narrow layers of it
follow smooth paths that are known as streamlines.
This smooth flow is also known as laminar flow.
If laminar flow encounter obstructions, the streamline will
break and become irregular or turbulent.

If fluid flows slowly along pipe,


the flow is streamline.

If flow is very fast and exceeds


a certain critical speed,
the flow will become turbulent.

The Compressibility of Fluids

All fluids are compressible, so that their density will change


with pressure.

Fluid ;
i. assume as incompressible provided under steady flow
conditions, and changes of density small.

Gases ;
i. easily compressed except when changes of pressure

and

density are small.

Static and Dynamic Pressure

Pressure acting on x x1 is due to the weight of the fluid


acting downwards.
W = mg ( g = gravitational force )
mass = volume x density
= height x cross-sectional area x density
= hA
so, downwards force = h . . g . A acting on A
and pressure will be = h g . A
A
=hg

Static pressure

Act depth h, within a stationary fluid of density .

Reduces density accompanied by reduced pressure.

Dynamic pressure

Eg, moving air is essential in flight.

Dynamic presssure = v2 where = density, v =


velocity.

Worked example
What is the pressure at 10.5 m deep of liquid in a pool having
the density of 2.5kg/m3 ?

What is the depth of an object from the surface if pressure


exerted on it is 100psi in a 5.3kg/m3 liquid ?

Bernoullis Theorem
a principle that explains the relationship between potential
and kinetic energy in a fluid.
In a fluid the potential energy is that caused by the
pressure of the fluid, while the kinetic energy is that caused
by the fluids movement.
As a fluid enters a venturi tube, it is travelling at a known
velocity and pressure.
When the fluid enters the restriction it must speed up, or
increase its kinetic energy. However, when the kinetic
energy increases, the potential energy decreases and
therefore the pressure decreases.

thermodynamics

Laws Of Thermodynamics
First Law
Energy cannot be created or destroyed. It can only be converted
from one to another. When the energy converts from one form into
other forms the total quantity of energy remains the same.

Second Law
Heat can only transfer from a high temperature region to a lower
temperature region. It cannot naturally transfer the other way.

Third Law
The transfer of energy from matter becomes increasingly difficult
as its temperature approaches absolute zero. It is considered
impossible at absolute zero.

Temperature
Heat is a form of energy that causes molecular agitation
within a material.
is a measure of the kinetic energy of molecules.
Temperature scale;
Freezing 00C
Boiling 1000C
Farenheit Scale - when you increased the temperature of a
gas by one degree Celsius, it expands by 1/273 of its original
volume.
So if the temperature was decreased to 273 degrees below
zero, the volume of the gas would also decrease to zero, and
there would be no more molecular activity absolute zero.
On the Celsius scale absolute zero is - 273 0C. On the
Fahrenheit scale it is 4600F.
Conversion ;
C x 9/5 + 32 = F ( from Deg. Centigrade to
Farenheit )
(F - 32) x 5/9 = C ( from Farenheit to Deg. Centigrade
)

Heat
is the exchange of thermal energy from a hot body to a cold
body.
When a hot body and a cold body have contact, heat will
flow from the hot body to the cold body until they both
reach thermal equilibrium (they are at the same
temperature).
For example ;
When an aircrafts brakes are applied, the kinetic energy of
the moving aircraft is changed into heat energy by the rubbing
action of the brake friction material against the brake discs.
SI system :
Joule (J)
British thermal unit (Btu)
calorie (cal)

Heat Capacity

specific heat - amount of heat per unit mass required to


raise the temperature by one degree Celsius.

Relationship between heat and temperature change :


Q = cmT

Q is the heat added in 0C


C the specific heat capacity in J / kg0C
M is the mass in kg
T is Tfinal Tinitial in 0C

Different materials require differing amounts of heat energy


to change their temperature.

The heat energy required to change the temperature of 1


kg of material by 1 K is known as the specific heat capacity
(c) of the material.

Due to the high specific heat of water, oceans and large


lakes serve as temperature stabilisers.

Land surfaces have a much lower specific heat, and the


temperature can vary significantly throughout the day.

Heat Transfer

three methods by which heat is transferred from one


location to another or from one substance to another, which
are :
conduction
convection
radiation

Conduction

When body having high heat energy in contact with body


having low heat energy.

Eg; When hot object in contact with cold object, energy of


molecules from hot object will be transferred to molecules
of cold object until they have the same amount of energy
( stabilize ).

Various metals have different rates of conduction.

Liquids are poor conductors of heat in comparison with


metals.

.Gases are even worse conductors of heat than liquids.

Insulators are materials that reduce or prevent heat


conduction.

Convection

process by which heat is transferred by the movement of a


heated fluid.

Transfer of heat by convection is often hastened by the use


of a ventilating fan to move the air surrounding a hot
object.

Eg ; when heat is absorbed by a free-moving fluid, the fluid


closest to the heat source expands and its density
decreases.

Radiation

is the only form of energy transfer that does not require the
presence of matter.

refers to the continual emission of energy from the surface of all


bodies.

This energy is known as radiant energy of which sunlight is a


form.

This is why you feel warm standing in front of a window whilst it


is very cold outside

Expansion and Contraction

All materials expand and contract with a change in temperature.


gases which expand the greatest amount .
Solids and liquids expand much less than gases

Volumetric Expansion

Expansion considered as change in length, change in area


or change in volume.
Different materials expand at different rates.

Expansion of Solids
Expansion is proportional to the increase in temperature to
the original dimension and depends on the actual material
used.
L2 - L 1 =

L1 (2 - 1)

L2 and L1 are final and initial lengths,


2 and 1 are final and initial temperatures
is a material constant (coefficient of linear expansion).

Expansion of Fluids

Fluids expand more than solids.

For gases, as volume and temperature changes are usually


accompanied by pressure changes.

The law of Thermodynamics

Thermodynamics is the study of the way that one does


work with heat.

Energy conservation limits the amount of work we can get


out of a certain amount of heat.

first law of thermodynamics


States that energy is conserved.
The change in internal energy of a system is equal to the
heat added to the system minus the work done by the
system.
U = Q W

( is the mathematical symbol for a change in a quantity)


U is the change in internal energy,
Q is the heat added to the system
W is the work done by the system.
Q is positive if it is put into the system, negative if it is
taken out of the system.
W is positive if the system does work on its surroundings
and is negative if work is done on the system.
The internal energy is the sum of the kinetic and potential
energy of the atom and molecules that make up the
system.

second law of thermodynamics

general principle which places constraints upon the


direction of heat transfer and the attainable efficiencies of
heat engines.

States that heat transfer will occur naturally of its own


accord down the temperature gradient.

Heat will naturally flow from a hot region to a cool region


but not the other way around.

the basic sense of the principle :

Heat will not flow spontaneously from a cold object to a


hot object.

You cannot create a heat engine which extracts heat and


converts it all to useful work.

There is a thermal bottleneck which constrains devices


which convert stored energy to heat and then use the heat to
accomplish work.

gases

Ideal gas - one in which all collisions between atoms or


molecules are perfectly elastic and in which there are no
intermolecular attractive forces.

a collection of perfectly hard spheres which collide but


which otherwise do not interact with each other.

all the internal energy is in the form of kinetic energy and


any change in internal energy is accompanied by a change
in temperature.

From the Ideal Gas Law ;


=

Boyles Law
If temperature is constant ;
P1V1

P2V2

Charles Law
If pressure is constant ;
=

Isothermal and Adiabatic Processes


Isothermal process - in which the temperature in a system
remains constant.
Adiabatic process - one where no heat is added to, or taken
away from the system.
Heat engine

heat engine is a system that performs the conversion of


heat or thermal energy to mechanical work.

Heat Engine Processes

a useful process is the adiabatic process where no heat


enters or leaves the system.
The first law of thermodynamics with Q=0, i.e. heat = zero
shows that all the change in internal energy is in the form of
work done.
internal energy is proportional to temperature, there is no
change in the internal energy of the gas during an
isothermal process.
All the heat added to the system is used to do work.

Engine Cycle

Carnot Cycle
consisting of two isothermal processes and two adiabatic
processes.
can be thought of as the most efficient heat engine cycle
allowed by physical laws.
the Carnot efficiency sets the limiting value on the fraction
of the heat which can be so used.
In order to approach the Carnot efficiency, the processes
involved in the heat engine cycle must be reversible and
involve no change in energy available to do work.
This means that the Carnot cycle is an idealisation, since no
real engine processes are reversible and all real physical
processes involve some increase in energy available to do
work .

Heat Flow to Hotter Region

internal energy will not spontaneously flow from a hot


region to a cold region.
But if external force is given, heat can flow from cold region
to hot region.
Usually this is done with the aid of a phase change, i.e., a
refrigerant liquid is forced to evaporate and extract energy
from the cold area. . Then it is compressed and forced to
condense in the hot area, dumping its heat of vaporisation
into the hot area.

Refrigerator

Heat Pump

Optics ( light )

Speed Of Light

is one form of transmission of Electro-magnetic energy.

travels at high speed (about 3 x 108 metres per second) and


in straight lines.

Can be bent or reflected.

Laws Of Reflection and Refraction


Reflection
Light can also be reflected.
Observation and measurement will show that ;
a. the incident and reflected rays lie in the same plane.
b. the angle of incidence equals the angle of reflection.

Plain and Curved Mirrors

When you look in a mirror, you see a reflection, usually


termed an image.
For example, if an object is viewed from two different angle,
the reflected rays :
appear to come from which corresponds to the image.
lies on the same normal to the mirror as the object.
appears the same distance behind the mirror as the
object is in front.
Appears as the same size.

For mirror that is not plain, it may be curved, spherical and


parabolic.
Incidence equals reflection - still holds, but the curved
surface allows the rays to be focused or dispersed.

FP is known as the focal length.


Note the rays actually pass through F,
and a real image can be formed.

FP is still the focal length, but the


image is virtual.

The size of the image depends on the position of the object.


image may be smaller or larger.

If the object is near to the mirror, the image will be far and
larger from the mirror but in opposite plane.
If the object is far from the mirror, the image will be nearer
and small, between the position of object and mirror in
opposite plane.
magnification = image height
object height

For spherical mirror, magnification = image distance


object distance

Concave mirrors (e.g. shaving mirrors) give a magnified,


erect (right way up) image, if viewed from close-to.

Convex mirrors (e.g. driving mirrors) give a smaller, erect


image, but with a wide field of view.

Parabolic reflectors can focus a wide parallel beam. By


placing the bulb at the focus, they can produce a strong
beam of light. (Conversely, they can focus microwave
signals when used as an aerial).

Refraction

A submerged object is often seen at reduced depth.


This is because the ray has been bent at the water / air
boundary.

Refraction Index

Since the angle of incidence and refraction is not the same ;


sine i = ( a constant )
sine r

depends on the 2 mediums involved.


= speed of light in medium 1
speed of light in medium 2

Ray (1) has been refracted across the


boundary, but ray (2) has been
internally reflected at the boundary.

critical angle of incidence when the


ray in the denser medium does not
emerge, but travels along the
boundary.

sine C = 1 / exists

Refraction is the basic principle


which explains the workings of
prisms and lenses.

Total Internal Refraction


Refraction at a denser medium, a beam of light is bent
towards the normal and, vice versa.

APB ray reflected away.


APD angle of incidence increased, angle of refraction
becomes
900 .
APC Angle of incidence further increased , angle of
refraction is >900 , remaining in the boundary.
Total internal refraction where none of lights passing
through the boundary.

Convex and Concave Lenses

The light rays then meet the surface of the lens at an angle to
the normal, and are then refracted.

Images can be real or virtual, erect or inverted, and larger or


smaller.

The nature of the image will depend on the type of lens, and the
position of the object in relation to the focal length of the lens,
(the focal length is a function of the curvature of the lens
surfaces).

Fibre Optics

Depends upon the total internal reflection of light rays.

Light can be trapped by total internal reflection inside a


bent glass rod and piped along a curved path as in the
diagram below. a single, very thin glass fiber behaves in
the same way.

They are small and so, once light is introduced into the fiber
with an angle within the confines of the numerical aperture
of the fiber, it will continue to reflect almost losslessly off
the walls of the fiber and thus can travel long distances in
the fiber.

If a bundle of parallel fibers is used to construct an optical


transmission line, images can be transferred from one point
to another.

Fibre Optic Imaging

Principle : light striking at one end will be transmitted to the


other end of the fibre.

If the arrangement of fibres in the bundle is kept constant


then the transmitted light forms a mosaic image of the light
which struck the end of the bundle.

Wave motion
and sound

Wave motion

For example, wave is created at a lake or pond due to


disturbance, such as a rock thrown into the water.

The water wave has a crest and a trough and travels from
one location to another.

One crest is often followed by a second crest which is often


followed by a third crest, and so on.

waves may be circular waves which originate from the point


where the disturbances occur; such circular waves travel
across the surface of the water in all directions.

Another example, if a slinky is stretched out from end to


end, a wave can be introduced into the slinky by either
vibrating the first coil up and down vertically or back and
forth horizontally.

As the wave moves along the slinky, each individual coil is


seen to move out of place and then return to its original
position.

The wave does not stop when it reaches the end of the
slinky; rather it seems to bounce off the end and head back
from where it started.

Categories of Waves
Waves come in many shapes and forms.
Some share basic characteristic properties and behaviours,
some waves can be distinguished from others based on
some very observable (and some non-observable)
characteristics.
It is common to categorise waves based on these
distinguishing characteristics.

Direction Of Movement
Transverse wave

Wave moves in a direction perpendicular to the direction


which the wave moves.

If pulse is applied to the left end by vibrating it up and


down, the energy will be transported from left to right and
particle will be displaced upwards and downwards.

Longitudinal Wave

Wave in which particles of the medium move in a direction


parallel to the direction which the wave moves.

If force is applied to the left end by vibrating it left and


right, the energy will be transported from left to right and
particle will be displaced rightwards and leftwards.

Ability to transmit through vacuum


Electromagnetic Wave
wave which is capable of transmitting its energy through a
vacuum.
Electromagnetic waves are produced by the vibration of
electrons within atoms on the Sun's surface.
These waves subsequently travel through the vacuum of
outer space, subsequently reaching Earth.
Eg ; Light Wave.
Mechanical Wave
Wave which is not capable of transmitting its energy
through a vacuum.
Require a medium in order to transport their energy from
one location to another.
Eg ; Sound Wave.

Anatomy of Waves

dashed line - equilibrium or rest position of the string.


(if there were no disturbance moving through it )

Points A and F - crests of this wave (point on the medium


which exhibits the maximum amount of positive or upwards
displacement from the rest position)

Points D and I - troughs of this wave (point on the


medium which exhibits the maximum amount of negative
or downwards displacement from the rest position )

Amplitude of a wave - maximum amount of displacement


of a particle on the medium from its rest position. ( from
rest to crest )

Wavelength ;
a. Simply the length of one complete wave cycle.
b. Wave has a repeating pattern. And the length of one

such

repetition (known as a wave cycle) is the wavelength.

c. Can be measured as the distance from crest to crest or


from trough to trough. ( B G, E - J, D I )

Longitudinal wave

is a wave in which the particles of the medium are displaced


in a direction parallel to the direction of energy transport.

Wavelength - determined by measuring the distance


between any two corresponding points on adjacent waves.
( measure distance from a compression to the next
compression or from a rarefaction to the next rarefaction ; A
C,BD)

Frequency and Period of a Wave

Frequency ;
a. refers to how often the particles of the medium vibrate
when a wave passes through the medium.
b. number of complete vibration cycles of a medium per a
given amount of time and it as the units of cycles per second
or Hertz (Hz) where 1 Hz is equivalent to 1 cycle/second.
c. . A detector could be used to detect the frequency of
these pressure oscillations over a given period of time.
d. unit : Hertz, Hz ( cycle / sec )
Period ;
a. the time which it takes to do something.
b. the time for a particle on a medium to make one
complete vibration cycle.
c. When an event occurs repeatedly, then we say that the
event is periodic.
d. measured in units of time such as seconds, hours, days
or years.

Interference Phenomena
Wave interference
phenomenon which occurs when two waves meet while
travelling along the same medium.

Causes the medium to take on a shape which results from


the net effect of the two individual waves upon the particles
of the medium.
Eg ; if 2 crests of wave having amplitude of +1 move into
each other, the resulting sine crest +2 is created at the
moment when the 2 waves overlapped.
Sometimes called Constructive Interference.

Constructive Interference

Occurs at any location along the medium where the two


interfering waves have a displacement in the same
direction.

If both waves have an upward displacement; consequently,


the medium has an upward displacement which is greater
than the displacement of the two interfering pulses.

Destructive Interference

type of interference which occurs at any location along the


medium where the two interfering waves have a
displacement in the opposite direction.

If a sine crest with an amplitude of +1 unit meets a sine


trough with an amplitude of -1 unit, destructive interference
occurs.
The two pulses cancel each other for the duration of the
overlap.
Once the two pulses pass through each other, there is still
a crest and a trough heading in the same direction which
they were heading before interference.

Principle of Superposition
When two waves interfere, the resulting displacement of the medium
at any location is the algebraic sum of the displacements of the
individual waves at that same location.

To determine the shape of the resultant wave caused by the interference of


two separate waves.

Standing Wave pattern :

An interference phenomena.
When the vibration frequency of the source causes reflected
waves from one end of the medium to interfere with incident
waves from the source in such a manner that specific points
along the medium appear to be standing still.
Only created within the medium at specific frequencies of
vibration; these frequencies are known as harmonic
frequencies, or merely harmonics.
From the presence of two waves (sometimes more) of the
same frequency with different directions of travel within the
same medium.

Anti-nodes - point A on the medium moves from a positive


to a negative displacement over time.

Nodes - point B on the medium is a point which never


moves.

Standing Wave

stationary wave - is a wave that remains in a constant position.

often applied to a resonant mode of an extended vibrating object.

created by constructive interference of two waves which travel in


opposite directions in the medium, but the visual effect is that of an
entire system moving in simple harmonic motion.

modes of vibration associated with resonance in extended objects


like strings and air columns have characteristic patterns called
standing waves.

arise from the combination of reflection and interference such that


the reflected waves interfere constructively with the incident waves.

An important part of the condition for this constructive interference


for stretched strings is the fact that the waves change phase upon
reflection from a fixed end.

Sound
Sound wave - pressure disturbance which travels through
a medium by means of particle interaction.
As one particle becomes disturbed, it exerts a force on the
next adjacent particle, thus disturbing that particle from
rest and transporting the energy through the medium.
speed of a sound wave refers to how fast the disturbance
is passed from particle to particle.
frequency refers to the number of vibrations which an
individual particle makes per unit of time.
speed refers to the distance which the disturbance travels
per unit of time.

Speed of Sound

Is determined to be 331 m / s at 00C 1087 ft /s , 741 mph


or 644 kts.

liquids are better transmitters of sound.

Eg. sound waves travel approx. 4 times faster in water than in


air and speed of sound in solids is even greater, sound travels
through steel is 15 times faster than it travels in air.
speed ( sound wave ) = frequency x wavelength

Alteration in wavelength effects the frequency, but not the


wave speed.

Doubling of wavelength results in halving the frequency, but


wave speed doe not change.

The speed of sound wave depends on the properties of the


medium through which it moves.

Primarily affected by temperature, the lower the


temperature, the lower the speed of sound.
speed of sound = ( R T )
where

= ratio of specific heats of the gas

R = gas constant
T = gas temperature ( in Kelvin )

It determines the nature and formation of shock waves.


Mach No = True Airspeed of aircraft
Speed Of Sound

Intensity

amount of energy which is transported past a given area of the


medium per unit of time.

Often referred to as loudness , the energy of the wave.

The greater the amplitude of vibrations of the particles of the medium,


the greater the rate at which energy is transported through it, and the
more intense that the sound wave is.

Intensity is the energy/time/area; and since the energy/time ratio is


equivalent to the quantity power, intensity is simply the power/area.
Intensity = Energy
Time x Area

or Intensity = Power
Area

Eg ; if amplitude of sound wave is doubled, intensity will increase


fourfold.

Unit : Watts / Meter2 . But scale to measure intensity; Desibel (dB)

Pitch
Best described as position on musical scale.

The ears of humans (and other animals) are sensitive


detectors capable of detecting the fluctuations in air
pressure which impinge upon the eardrum.

The human ear is capable of detecting sound waves with a


wide range of frequencies, ranging between approximately
20 Hz to 20 000 Hz.

The sensations of these frequencies are commonly referred


to as the pitch.

A high pitch sound corresponds to a high frequency and a


low pitch sound corresponds to a low frequency.

Doppler Effect

effect produced by a moving source of waves in which there


is an apparent upward shift in frequency for the observer and
the source are approaching and an apparent downward shift
in frequency when the observer and the source is receding.

Occur with all types of waves - most notably water waves,


sound waves, and light waves.

Doppler Effect observed because the distance between the source of


sound and the observer is changing.

If the source and the observer are approaching, then the distance is
decreasing and if the source and the observer are receding, then the
distance is increasing.

If the source is moving towards the observer, the observer perceives


sound waves reaching him or her at a more frequent rate (high pitch); and
if the source is moving away from the observer, the observer perceives
sound waves reaching him or her at a less frequent rate (low pitch).