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COMPRE-REVIEW

P L U M B I N G

UNIVERSITY OF SAN AGUSTIN


DEPARTMENT OF ARCHITECTURE

P l u m b i n g
Definition
the art and technique of installing pipes,
fixtures, and other apparatuses in buildings
for bringing in the supply of liquids, substances
and/or ingredients and removing them

water, liquid and other carriedwastes hazardous to health, sanitation, life


and property

pipes and fixtures after installation


i.e., the plumbing system
- NPC 217.6

H i s t o r y
Plumbing Practice in the
Philippines
In 1902, the Plumbing Trade was duly recognized by the
government in the City of Manila. Master Plumber John F.
Haas became the first Chief of the Division of Plumbing
Construction and Inspection. A Plumbing Code based on
the Plumbing Code of the United States was incorporated into
the Building Code for the City of Manila.
In 1935, the National Master Plumbers Association of the
Philippines (NAMPAP) was formally organized
Manila City Ordinance 2411, the Plumbing Code of the
City of Manila was enacted and placed under the
Department of Public Services, Manila.

H i s t o r y
In 1954, the Third Congress approved House Bill No. 962
which in June 18, 1955, became R.A. 1378 Plumbing Law
of the Philippines upon ratification of President Ramon
Magsaysay.
On January 28, 1959, the National Plumbing Code of the
Philippines prepared by NAMPAP was promulgated and
approved by Malacaang.
Before Martial Law in 1972, Republic Act No. 6541
otherwise known as the Building Code of the Philippines
was passed with the National Plumbing Code of 1959 as
referral code in full text.
The Professional Regulation Commission (PRC) adopted
the Revised Plumbing Code of 1999 which President
Joseph Estrada approved December 21, 1999 pursuant to
Section 4 of R.A. 1378 known as the Plumbing Law.

P r i n c i p l e s
22 Basic Principles of the
Plumbing Code

1
2
3
4

All premises intended for human use or habitation shall


be provided with a supply of pure and wholesome water,
neither connected to unsafe water supply nor subject to
backflow or back- siphonage.
Plumbing fixtures, devices and appurtenances shall be
supplied with water in sufficient volume and pressure
adequate to function satisfactorily and without undue noise.
Plumbing shall be designed and adjusted to use the
minimum quantity of water consistent with proper
performance and cleaning.
Devices for heating and storing water shall be so designed
and installed as to prevent dangers from explosion
through overheating.

P r i n c i p l e s

5
6
7
8

Every building abutting on a street, alley or easement with


a public sewer shall connect its plumbing fixtures to the
sewer system.
Each family dwelling unit shall have at least one water
closet, one kitchen type sink, a lavatory and a bathtub or
shower to meet the basic requirements of sanitation and
personal hygiene.
Plumbing fixtures shall be made of smooth non-absorbent
material, free from concealed fouling surfaces and shall
be located in ventilated enclosures.
The drainage system shall be designed, constructed and
maintained to safeguard against fouling, deposit of solids,
clogging and with adequate cleanouts so arranged that the
pipes may be readily cleaned.

P r i n c i p l e s

9
10
11
12
13

All piping shall be of durable NAMPAP-APPROVED


materials, free from defective workmanship, designed
and constructed by Registered Master Plumbers to
ensure satisfactory service.
Each fixture directly connected to the drainage system
shall be equipped with a water-sealed trap.
The drainage pipes piping system shall be designed to
provide adequate circulation of air free from siphonage,
aspiration or forcing of trap seals under ordinary use.
Vent terminals shall extend to the outer air and installed to
prevent clogging and the return of foul air to the building.
Plumbing systems shall be subjected to such tests to
effectively disclose all leaks and defects in the
workmanship.

P r i n c i p l e s

14
15
16
17

Substance which will clog the pipes, produce explosive


mixtures, destroy the pipes or their joints or interfere
unduly with the sewage-disposal process shall not be
allowed to enter the building drainage system.
Proper protection shall be provided to prevent
contamination of food, water, sterile goods and similar
materials by backflow of sewage. When necessary, the
fixture, device or appliance shall be connected indirectly with
the building drainage system.
No water closet shall be located in a room or compartment
which is not properly lighted and ventilated.
If there is no sewer system in the area, suitable provision
shall be made for the disposal of building sewage by
some accepted method of sewage treatment and
disposal, such as a septic tank.

P r i n c i p l e s

18
19
20
21
22

Where a plumbing drainage system may be subject to


backflow of sewage, suitable provision shall be made to
prevent its overflow in the building.
Plumbing systems shall be maintained in serviceable
condition by Registered Master Plumbers.
All plumbing fixtures shall be installed properly spaced, to
be accessible for their intended use.
Plumbing shall be installed with due regard to the
preservation of the strength of structural members and
the prevention of damage to walls and other surfaces
through fixture usage.
Sewage or other waste from plumbing system which may
be deleterious to surface or sub-surface waters shall not be
discharged into the ground or into any waterway, unless
first rendered innocuous through subjection to some
acceptable form of treatment.

C o m p o n e n t s
WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM
FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM
PLUMBING FIXTURES
SANITARY DRAINAGE SYSTEM
STORM DRAINAGE SYSTEM
FUEL GAS PIPING SYSTEM

Nature of Water

The Water Cycle:


3 Major
Phases:
Evaporation
Condensation
Precipitation

The Plumbing Cycle

Components & Flow in


Water Systems:
S U P P L Y

DISTRIBUTION

U S E

Water Mains,
Storage Tanks

Pressure,
Piping
Networks

Plumbing
Fixtures

S O U R C E

COLLECTION

Lakes, Rivers,
Reservoirs

Gravity,
Piping
Networks

TREATMENT

Treated water Sewage Plants,


Natural
returned to the
Purification
original source

DISPOSAL
Sanitary and
Storm Sewers

The Plumbing Cycle


Water Functions Diagram:

SUPPLY DISTRIBUTION U S E COLLECTION DISPOSAL

Flow of water (& water carried wastes) should always


be only in one direction (from supply to disposal)
The two sides should always be carefully separated
from each other

WATER DISTRIBUTION
SYSTEM

Sources of Water
For Domestic Use:
SOURCE

Rain
Water

COLLECTION ADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGES


Collected from
roofs of
buildings and
special water
sheds and
stored in
cisterns or
ponds;
Cistern water
for drinking
should be
boiled,
chlorinated or
otherwise
sterilized

Water is soft &


pure and is
suitable for the
hot water
supply system

Only a source
during the wet
season;
Storage
becomes a
breeding place
for mosquitoes;
Roofs may not
be clean

Sources of Water
For Domestic Use:
SOURCE

COLLECTION ADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGES

Natural
Surface
Water

Obtained from
ponds, lakes
and rivers

Easy to
acquire;
Usually in large
quantities;
Used for
irrigation,
industrial
purposes and,
when treated,
for community
water supply

Contains a large
amounts of
bacteria, organic,
& inorganic
substances;
Purification &
treatment is
necessary

Sources of Water
For Domestic Use:
SOURCE

COLLECTION ADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGES

Ground
Water

Obtained from
underground by
means of
mechanical &
manual
equipment;
From springs
and wells and is
the principal
source of water
for domestic
use in most
rural areas

Usually has an
abundant
supply;
requires less
treatment
because of
natural filtering

May have
organic matter &
chemical
elements;
treatment is
suggested;
Character of
ground water, its
hardness,
depends upon
the nature and
condition of the
soil and rock
through which it
passes or
percolates

Water Treatment
Treatment & Purification:
OBJECTIONALBLE
ELEMENT
Calcium, Magnesium

REASONS FOR TREATMENT


Produces hardness

Sulfur

Bad taste & odor, highly corrosive to


plumbing, stains clothing, etc.

Salt

Bad taste, highly corrosive

Iron

Stains clothing & plumbing fixtures,


interferes with water softeners, iron bacteria
clogs pipes

Pathogenic germs

Unhealthy; may cause poliomyelitis

Acid

Highly corrosive, picks up lead, stains


clothing

Algae

Bad taste & odor

Water Treatment
Treatment & Purification:
OBJECTIONALBLE
ELEMENT
Carbon Dioxide,
Hydrogen Sulfide

METHOD OF TREATMENT
Aeration

Suspended Material

Coagulation & Settling Process

Bacteria

Chemicals & Sand filtration

Calcium &
Magnesium

Addition of water softeners

Iron

Iron Filters

Sulfur

Chlorination

Pathogenic Germs

Disinfection

Acid

Marble or Limestone Filtration

Quality of Water
Water Quality Problems &
Their Correction:
PROBLEMS

CAUSE

EFFECTS

CORRECTION

1. Acidity

Entrance of
oxygen and
carbon dioxide

Corrosion of
non-ferrous
pipes
Rusting &
clogging of
steel pipes

Raising alkaline
content by the
introduction of
a neutralizer
(sodium
silicate)

2. Hardness

Presence of
Clogging of
magnesium and pipes
calcium salts
Impaired
laundry and
cooking

3. Turbidity

Silt or mud in
surface or in
ground

Discoloration
Bad taste

Boiling
Use of an ion
exchanger
(zeolite
process)
Filtration

Quality of Water
Water Quality Problems &
Their Correction:
PROBLEMS

CAUSE

EFFECTS

CORRECTION

4. Color

Presence of
Iron and
manganese

Discoloration of Oxidizing
fixtures
filter
and laundry

5. Pollution

Contamination
by organic
matter or
sewage

Disease

Chlorination

Purification of Water

praying the water into the


atmosphere through jets or passing
it over rough surfaces to remove
entrained noxious gases such as
carbon dioxide or hydrogen sulfide

ddition of coagulants, such as


ferrous sulfate and lime, to the water
which cause the larger suspended
particles to form a gelatinous mass
which precipitates readily. The
precipitate is gathered in large
dumps and disposed of.

ater is passed through layers of


sand and gravel in concrete basins
in order to remove the finer
suspended particles.

ater is injected with hypo-chlorite or


chlorine gas to kill the harmful
bacteria.

4 Steps
of Water
Purification
for
Community
Use:
AERATION
COAGULATION &
PRECIPITATION
FILTRATION
CHLORINATION

Wells & Pumps


Types of Wells
(General):
Shallow Wells
Deep Wells

Individual Well Springs:


(Types According to Method of Construction)

Dug Well
Most common type
Usually dug manually
Around 15 m deep
a.k.a. shallow well

Wells & Pumps


Bored Well
Similar to dug well, but constructed
using an auger
Seldom driven below 15 meters

Jetted Well
Use of extreme water pressure so as not to
affect existing foundations in the vicinity
Used only where ground is relatively soft

Wells & Pumps


Driven Well
Dug with driven point
attached to the pipes

Drilled Well
Used for drilling oil
Can reach up to 1000 m

Wells & Pumps


Locating
a Well:
2 Most Common
Sources of
Contamination:
Septic Tank
leach fields
Livestock
feedlots
Location must
not be less than
100 ft. away
from such
pollution sources
Locate on higher ground
The deeper the well, the better! (allows natural filtration)

Wells & Pumps


Methods of Well Screening:

Wells & Pumps


2 Basic Types of Pumps
Piston Pumps

Water is sucked into a sealed vacuum by use of a piston


Single Action (water is drawn
in with only 1 motion) or;

Double Action (water is drawn


in with either stroke)

Duplex or Twin Piston Pump

Wells & Pumps


Centrifugal Pumps
Water is drawn into the pump & discharged with a
centrifugal force

Wells & Pumps


Types of Pumps
Shallow Well Pumps
Shallow well reciprocating pump
Shallow well jet pump
Rotary pump

Deep Well Pumps


Deep well reciprocating pump
Deep well jet or ejector pump; a.k.a. Venturi
Submersible pump
Multi-stage turbine pump

Water Tanks & Cisterns


Gravity Supply Tanks
(Overhead Water Tanks):
Used in Overhead Feed System
Main Components:
Supply Pipe
Inlet
Overflow Pipe
Drip Pan
Gate Valves

Water Tanks & Cisterns


Pneumatic Water Tanks:
Used in the Air Pressure System
Used with a pump

Water Tanks & Cisterns


Types of Hot Water Tanks:
Range Boiler
Small hot water tank (30-60 cm
In diameter; not more than 180cm
In length)
Made of galvanized steel sheet,
copper or stainless steel

Storage Boiler
Large hot water tank (60-130 cm
In diameter; not more than 5 m
In length)
Made of heavy duty material
sheets applied with rust proof paint
From standard metal gauge,
working pressure limit is 85 psi.

Controls & Valves


Function of Valves:
Control of the water system
-

Start or shut down a system


Regulate pressure
Check backflow
Control the direction of water

Rules Regarding Location


of Valves:

Locate & distribute valves in such


a manner that they can isolate a
certain section of the network in
case of system breakdown (before
each branch)
Locate valves where they are not
too visible while remaining
accessible to users

Controls & Valves


Types of Valves:
Gate Valve

a.k.a. Full-way Valve


Used mainly to completely close or
completely open the water line
(does not control flow of water)
Best suited to the main supply and
pump lines wherein operation is
infrequent

2 Types:

The Wedge Shape or Tapered Disc

The Double Disc Valve

Controls & Valves


Globe Valve

Controls the flow of water with a


movable spindle
Can reduce water pressure
Only one side of the valve is an
inlet

3 Types:
The Plug Type Disc Valve

The Conventional Disc Valve

The Composition Disc Valve

Controls & Valves


Check Valve

Main function is to prevent reversal


of flow (backflow) in the line

4 Types:
The Swing Check Valve

The Lift Check Valve

Vertical Check Valve

Horizontal Check Valve

Controls & Valves


Angle Valve

Operates in the same manner as


globe valve (disc & seat design)
Used to make a 90 turn in a line
Reduces number of joints

Foot Valve

Located at the lower end of the


pumps
Used mainly to prevent loss of
priming of the pumps
a.k.a. Retention Valve

Controls & Valves


Safety Valve

Used on water systems, heating


systems, compressed air lines &
other pipe lines with excessive
pressure

Controls & Valves


Types of Faucets/Bibbs:
Compression
Cock

Operates by the
compression of a
soft packing upon
a metal sheet

Key Cock

Operates with a
round tapering
plug ground to fit
a metal sheet.
Hose bibbhas grooves fit for
a hose

Ball Faucet

Constructed with a
ball connected to
the handle

Water Distribution System


Defects in Water Distribution Systems:
Water Hammer
a knocking in the pipes caused when
faucets in the lower levels are shut off
abruptly or automatically
the force exerted by the decelerating
water causes the pipes to shake and
rattle

WATER HAMMER
BACK SIPHONAGE

Back Siphonage
the flowing back of used, contaminated or polluted water from a
plumbing fixture or vessel into a water supply pipe due to a
negative pressure in such pipe

Back Flow the flow of water or other liquids, ,mixtures, or


substances into the distributing pipes of a potable supply of
water to a tank, plumbing fixture, or other device and the flood
level rim of the receptacle.

Water Distribution System


Classification of Public Water
Distribution:
Direct Pressure Distribution
Water is obtained through a large intake
installed on the lake basin & extended
into deep water
Components:
Water basin
Receiving well
Filtration plant

DIRECT PRESSURE
DISTRIBUTION

Water Distribution System


Classification of Public Water
Distribution:
Indirect Pressure Distribution
Water is taken form a drilled well or
underground water
Involves individual special mechanical
equipment

DIRECT PRESSURE
DISTRIBUTION
INDIRECT PRESSURE
DISTRIBUTION

Cold Water Distribution


System
Parts of the Cold Water Distribution
System (Potable & Tap):
Service Pipe
pipe from the street water main or
other source of water supply to the
building served

SERVICE PIPE
WATER METER

Water Meter
device used to measure in liters or
gallons the amount of water that
passes through the water service

Horizontal Supply Main


the principal water distribution pipe
running from the water meter from
which the various branches and
risers to the fixtures are taken.

HORIZONTAL SUPPLY
MAIN

Cold Water Distribution


System
Parts of the Cold Water Distribution
System (Potable & Tap):
Riser
a water supply pipe extending
vertically to one full story or more
to convey water into pipe branches
or plumbing fixtures

Fixture Branch
the water supply pipe between the
fixture supply pipe and the waterdistributing pipe

Controls & Valves


used for control, isolation and repair
of the water distribution system

Storage Tanks

SERVICE PIPE
WATER METER
HORIZONTAL SUPPLY
MAIN
RISER
FIXTURE BRANCH
CONTROLS & VALVES
STORAGE TANKS

Cold Water Distribution


System

Types of the Cold Water Distribution


Systems (within buildings):
Upfeed System
Direct Upfeed
-

Water is provided by the city water


companies using normal pressure
from public water main

UPFEED SYSTEM

Cold Water Distribution


System
Air Pressure System (Pneumatic)
-

When pressure supplied by city water


supply is not strong enough
Compressed air is used to raise and
push water into the system

UPFEED SYSTEM

Cold Water Distribution


System
Downfeed (Overheadfeed) or Gravity System
UPFEED SYSTEM
DOWNFEED OR
GRAVITY SYSTEM

Water is pumped into a large


tank on top of the building and is
distributed to the fixtures by
means of gravity.

Cold Water Distribution


System
DISADVANTAGES

ADVANTAGES
Upfeed System
1.

Eliminates extra cost of pumps &


tanks.

1.
2.

Pressure from water main is


inadequate to supply tall buildings.
Water supply is affected during
peak load hour.

Air Pressure System


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

With compact pumping unit.


Sanitary due to air tight water
chamber.
economic (smaller pipe diameter)
less initial construction &
maintenance cost
Oxygen in the compressed air
serves as purifying agent.
Adaptable air pressure.
Air pressure serves zones of
about 10 stores intervals.

1.

Water supply is affected by loss of


pressure inside the tank in case of
power interruption.

Cold Water Distribution


System

DISADVANTAGES

ADVANTAGES

Overheadfeeed System
1.
2.
3.

Water is not affected by peak load


hour.
Not affected by power
interruptions.
Time needed to replace broken
parts does not affect water supply.

1.
2.
3.
4.

Water is subject to contamination.


High maintenance cost.
Occupies valuable space.
Requires stronger foundation and
other structure to carry additional
load of tank and water.

Hot Water Distribution


System

Types of the Hot Water Distribution


Systems (within buildings):
Upfeed and Gravity Return System
With a continuing network of
pipes to provide constant
circulation of water
Hot water rises on its own &
does not need any pump for
circulation
Hot water is immediately
drawn form the fixture any time
Provided economical circulating
return of unused hot water
Eliminate waste of water
Larger pipe is installed at the
top of the riser & the diminishing
sizes passes through the lower
floors of the building

Hot Water Distribution


System

Types of the Hot Water Distribution


Systems (within buildings):
Downfeed and Gravity Return System
Hot water rises on to
the highest point of
the plumbing system
and travels to the
fixtures via gravity
(closed pipe system)
overhead feed &
gravity return system
Water distribution is
dependent on the
expansion of hot
water & gravity.
Larger pipe is installed
at the bottom of the
riser & the diminishing
sizes passes
through the upper
floors of the building

Hot Water Distribution


System
Types of Hot Water Distribution
Systems (within buildings):
Pump Circuit System
For a more efficient circulation of hot water to the upper floor
levels of multi-storey buildings

Water Tanks & Cisterns


Hot Water Consumption
KIND OF
BUILDING

GALLONS PER
PERSONS PER HOUR

Office Buildings
School Buildings
Apartment Buildings

4 to 5
2 to 3
8

Hotels

8 to 10

Factories

4 to 6

Residential

10

Working Load of Hot Water Systems


KIND OF BUILDING

AVERAGE WORKING
LOAD

School, Office & Industrial types


Apartments & Residences

25%
35%

Hotels & Restaurants

50%

Hot Water Distribution


System
2 Types of Water Heating Systems:
Hot Water Space Heating System
Water is confined within a system at low temperature

Hot Water Supply System


Not a closed system which operate on much higher
temperature

Protection of Hot Water Tank:


System Relief Valve
Used for Hot Water Space
Heating System

Temperature & Pressure Relief


Used for Hot Water Supply System

FIRE PROTECTION
SYSTEM

Water & Water Supply for


Fire Fighting
Supplying Water for
Fire Protection Systems:
The Elevated Water Tank
The Underground Water Reservoir

Types of
Fire Protection Systems:
Dry Standpipe System
No longer being utilized in new buildings
How it works: a standpipe is connected
to the exterior of the building
The standpipe is a pipe installed in
buildings not as part of the water supply
or waste disposal system but primarily
for use as water conveyance in case of fire

CONNECT T
FIRE HOSE

Water & Water Supply for


Fire Fighting
Wet Standpipe System
How it works: a piping network (line is directly connected
to the main water line) connects to all levels of a building
(at least 1 standpipe on each level)

Wet Standpipe System with Siamese Connection


How it works: a piping network (line is directly connected
to the main water line) connects to all levels of a building
(at least 1 standpipe on each level); additionally, a
Siamese connection is located outside the building for
additional water supply (connects to fire truck hose)

Water & Water Supply for


Fire Fighting

Sprinkler System

Smoke Detectors &


Sprinkler Heads
Spacing of Sprinkler Heads:

Spacing of Sprinkler Heads


KIND OF BUILDING
Light Hazard Occupancy
Extra hazard Occupancy

COVERAGE OF ONE
SPRINKLER HEAD
20 square meters
10 square meters

Special Installation Requirements


At least one fire department connection on each frontage
A master alarm system valve control for all water supplies
other than fire department connections
Special fire walls between protected areas
Sloping water proof floors with drains or scupper to carry
away waste water

Smoke Detectors &


Sprinkler Heads

PLUMBING FIXTURES

Plumbing Fixtures
Definition:
Receptacles which are used to provide, receive
and discharge water, liquid and water-carried
wastes into a drainage system with which they
are connected to

Classifications:
Soil
Water Closets
Urinals
Slop Sinks

Scullery
Kitchen Sinks
Laundry Tubs
Bar Sinks

Bathing
Lavatories
Bathtubs
Shower Baths
Bidets
Jacuzzis
Foot/Sitz Tub
Shower Receptors
Floor drains
Shower Compartments

Soil Fixtures
Setting:

WATER CLOSETS

Water closet center to side wall: minimum of 0.375 m


Water closet center to WC center: minimum of 0.75 m

Types:

According to Type of Flushing


Flush Tank water closets
Direct Flush Valve (DFV) water closets
-Flushing

action can be obtained directly from a


flush valve connected into the bowl

According to Flush Tank Types


Integral Flush Tank
Close Coupled Flush Tank
Low Flush Tank
High Flush Tank

Soil Fixtures
According to Mounting
Floor Mounted
Wall Hung

According to Flushing Action


Wash Down

Wash down

Flushes through a simple


wash down action
Discharges waste into a
trapway located at the front
of the bowl
Has a bulge on the front
Has a small amount of
standing water
Cost less but is least
efficient and noisiest

Soil Fixtures
Reverse Trap
-

Flushes through a siphon


action created in the trapway

Siphon Jet
-

Has a larger trapway


making it less likely to clog

Quieter flushing action


Retains a large amount of
standing water

Soil Fixtures
Siphon Vortex
-

Direct Flush Valve

Less noisy and very


efficient
Flushing action is started
by a whirlpool motion
followed by a complete
flush down
Retains a large amount of
standing water

flushing action is obtained


directly from a flush valve
connected into the bowl

Soil Fixtures

Soil Fixtures

Soil Fixtures
Minimum Requirements for Water Closets
OCCUPANCY

MIN. WC

KIND & NO. OF USERS

Dwelling or Apartment

family

Elementary Schools

1
2
1

for 1-20 persons


For 21-50 persons
per additional 50 persons

Assembly Places
(Theaters and Auditoriums- for
public use)

1
2
3
3
4
8
1
2

per 1-100 males


per 101-200 males
per 201-400 males
per 1-50 females
per 51-100 females
per 101-200 females
per additional 500 males over 400
per additional 300 females over 400

Dormitories

1
1
1

per 10 males
per 8 females
per additional 25 males, 20 females

Industrial

1
2
3
4
5
1

per 1 - 10 persons
for 11 - 25 persons
for 26 - 50 persons
for 51 - 75 persons
for 76 - 100 persons
per additional 30 persons in excess of 100

Soil Fixtures
URINALS

Types:
Wall Hung
Pedestal
Through
Stall

Soil Fixtures
Setting:
Urinal center to side wall: minimum of 0.30 m
Urinal center to urinal center: minimum of 0.60 m

Flushing:
Flushing trough urinals shall be done through automatic
flushing tanks. (NPC 408.1)
Flushometer valves shall be self-closing type discharging
a predetermined quantity of water. No manually controlled
flushometer valve shall be used to flush group urinals.
(NPC 408.2)

Soil Fixtures
Minimum Requirements for Urinals
OCCUPANCY
Schools:
Elementary
Secondary

MIN. #

KIND & NO. OF


USERS

1
1

per 75 males
per 35 males

Office or Public Building

1
2
3
4
1

per 1-100 males


per 101-200 males
per 201-400 males
per 401-600 males
For each additional 300 males

Assembly Places
( Theaters and auditoriums)for public use)

1
2
3
4
1

per 1-100 males


per 101-200 males
per 201-400 males
per 401-600 males
For each additional 500 males

Dormitories

1
1

Per 25 males
per 50 males in excess of 150

Industrial and Commercial

Scullery Fixtures
Materials:

KITCHEN SINKS

Cast Iron Enamel


Formed Steel Coated with Porcelain Enamel
Stainless Steel

Configurations:
Single, Double or Triple Well
Shallow or Deep Well

LAUNDRY TUBS

Materials:
Cement or Cement with Tiles
Porcelain

Scullery Fixtures
SLOP SINKS
Where janitors clean & leave their mops

BAR SINKS

LAVATORIES

Types:
Pedestal
Pullman or Counter
(self-rimming, flush, undercounter)

Wall Hung
Through

Bathing Fixtures
BATHTUBS
WHIRLPOOL
BATHS
with removable panel of sufficient dimension to access
pump
circulation pump shall be located above the crown weir of
the trap
pump and circulation piping shall be self draining
Metal enclosure containing
shower head, valves and faucets

SHOWER BATHS

Bathing Fixtures
BIDETS

Setting:
Bidet center to side wall: minimum of 0.375 m
Bidet center to bidet center: minimum of 0.75 m
Luxury type bathtubs

JACUZZIS

Bathing Fixtures
FLOOR DRAINS
With approved-type hinged strainer plate having the sum
of the areas of the small holes of the waterway equal to
the cross-sectional area of the tailpiece
Provided with integrally cast water stop outside flange
around the body at mid depth and with an inside caulk
outlet to provide a watertight joint in the floor

SHOWER RECEPTORS
Receptor floor shall drain not less than 2% slope or more
than 4% slope.
Thresholds shall accommodate a minimum 559 mm wide
door.
For wheelchair use, dam or curb may be eliminated.

Bathing Fixtures
SHOWER
COMPARTMENTS
Shall have a minimum interior area of 0.6 sqm and shall
be capable of encompassing a 762 mm diameter circle.
This area shall be maintained from a point above the
shower drain to a height of 1.78 m with no protrusions
other than the fixture valve, shower head and safety grab
rails.
Drains for gang shower rooms shall be spaced not more
than 4.9 m apart.

SANITARY DRAINAGE
SYSTEM

Sanitary Piping Layout


General Rules in designing
the Sanitary system:
The pipes should take the shortest possible route to
the house sewer or the terminating point of the
Sanitary system
Control components such as clean-outs, traps, and
vents, should be located strategically so as to ensure
efficiency

2 Subsystems of the Sanitary System:


Waste Collection System
Ventilation System

Waste Pipe

Essential Parts of the


Sanitary Drainage System

conveys only wastewater or liquid waste free of fecal matter.

Vent Pipe
used for ensuring the circulation of air in a plumbing system
and for relieving the negative pressure exerted on trap seals.

Trap
a fitting or device designed and constructed to provide, when
properly vented, a liquid seal which prevents the backflow of
foul air or methane gas without materially affecting the flow of
sewage or wastewater through it.

Stack
the vertical main of a system of soil, waste or vent pipings
extending through one or more stories and extended thru the
roof.

Branch
any part of the piping system other than a main, riser or stack.

Essential Parts of the


Sanitary Drainage System
House/Building Drain
part of the lowest horizontal piping of a plumbing system which
receives the discharges from the soil, waste and other
drainage pipes inside of a building and conveys it to the house
sewer outside of the building.

House/Building Sewer
extends from the house drain at a point 0.60 meters from the
outside face of the foundation wall of a building to the junction
with the street sewer or to any point of discharge, and
conveying the drainage of one building site.

Principles of Waste & Soil


(EXCRETA) Pipes Roughing-in

CHANGES IN DIRECTION OF SANITARY DRAINAGE LINE

Horizontal to Horizontal change in direction


use 45 wye branches combination wye 1/8 bend
branches, or other approved fittings of equivalent
sweep

Vertical to Horizontal change in direction


45 wye branches or other approved fittings of equivalent
sweep

Principles of Waste & Soil


(EXCRETA) Pipes Roughing-in

Horizontal to vertical change in direction


use 45 or 60 wye branches, combination wye -1/8
bend branches, sanitary tee or sanitary tapped tee
branches, or other approved fittings of equivalent
sweeps.
No fitting having more than one inlet at the same level
shall be used (i.e., sanitary cross)
Double sanitary tees may be used when the barrel of
the fitting is at least two pipe (2) sizes larger than the
largest inlet, (pipe sizes recognized for this purpose
are 51, 64, 76, 89, 102, 114, 127, & 152 mm dia.)

Sanitary Drainage Lines


UNIT OF MEASUREMENT OF SIZES
OF SANITARY DRAINAGE LINES
The size of waste pipes or soil pipes depend on the
amount of waste it carries.
A lavatory discharges 0.47 liters/sec or 28.3 liters/min (7.5
gallons per min or 1 cu ft per min), which is equivalent to
the Fixture Unit (F.U.)
The F.U. rating of plumbing fixtures is based on the size of
required trap.
For a continuous flow into a drainage system, such as
from sump pump or ejector, air conditioning equipment or
similar devices, two (2) fixture units shall be allowed for
every 0.063 L/s of flow.

Sanitary Drainage Lines


Maximum Trap Loading
ITEM NO.

PIPE SIZE FIXTURE UNIT

32 mm

38 mm

51 mm

76 mm

102 mm

Exception: On self-service laundries.

Discharge Capacity
ITEM NO.

LITERS/SEC (GPM)

Notes:
1.Capacity

over 3.15 L/s shall


be determined by the
Administrative Authority.
2.For a continuous flow into a
drainage system, such as
from sump pump or ejector,
air-conditioning equipment or
similar devices, two (2)
fixture units shall be allowed
for every 0.063 L/s of flow.
3.1 gpm = 0.063 L/s

FIXTURE UNIT

Up to 0.47 L/s (Up to 7.5 gpm)

0.50 to 0.95 (8 to 15 gpm)

1 to 1.89 (16 to 30 gpm)

1.95 to 3.15 (31 to 50 gpm)

Sanitary Drainage Lines


MINIMUM SLOPE OF
SANITARY DRAINAGE LINES
Minimum slope or pitch of horizontal drainage pipe 2%
or 20mm/m ( per foot).
Exception: Where it is impracticable due to depth of street
sewer, adverse structural features and irregular building
plans, pipes 102 mm dia or larger may have a slope of not
less than 1% or 10mm/m, approved by the Administrative
Authority

Traps & Interceptors


Types of Permissible Traps:
The Common P-Trap
Used for lavatories, kitchen sinks,
laundry tubs, & urinals
Materials commonly used for the
P-trap: nickel, chrome plated brass,
Galvanized malleable copper, & PVC.

The Deep Seal P-Trap

Water seal is about twice the size of


The common P-trap

Traps & Interceptors


The Stand Trap
Used for fixtures such as slop sinks
That are usually built low in the
ground, leaving very little space for a
foundation & a trap
Serves as a water seal & structural
support for the fixture

The Running Trap


Used within the line of house drain

Traps & Interceptors


Types of Permissible Traps:
The Drum Trap
Has a large diameter (around 0.16 m)
Used for fixtures that discharge large amount of water
(bathtubs, shower or floor drains)

Traps & Interceptors


Types of Prohibited Traps:
Traps with movable parts or concealed interior
partitions

No fixtures shall be double-trapped

The S-Trap
Predecessor of P-traps
Used when not all traps had to connect to ventilation
systems

Traps & Interceptors


REQUIREMENTS:
Traps REQUIRED
Each plumbing fixture, excepting those with integral traps,
shall be separately trapped with an approved-type waterseal
trap.
Not more than one trap shall be permitted on a trap arm
(portion of a fixture drain between a trap and the vent)

One trap, centrally located, may serve three single


compartment sinks or laundry tubs or lavatories, adjacent to
each other and in the same room, where their waste outlets
are not more than 0.75 m apart.

Traps & Interceptors


SIZE OF TRAPS:
The trap shall be the same size as the trap arm to which it is
connected.
Each fixture trap shall have a trap seal of water of not less
than 51 mm and not more than 102 mm (except where a
deeper seal is found necessary by the Administrative
Authority for special conditions.

Traps & Interceptors


Minimum sizes of traps for common plumbing fixtures
ITEM
NO.

FIXTURE

DRAINAGE
TRAP & TRAP
FIXTURE
ARM SIZE
UNITS

Bathtubs

38 mm

Bidets

38 mm

Floor Drains

51 mm

Shower, single stall

51 mm

Sink (residential)

38 mm

Urinal, wall mounted, integral trap

51 mm

Wash Basin (single)

32 mm

Water Closet (private installation)

76 mm

Water Closet (public installation)

76 mm

Traps & Interceptors


INSTALLATION OF TRAPS:
The vertical distance between a fixture outlet tailpiece and
the trap weir shall not exceed 0.60 m in length.

Horizontal Distance of Trap Arms


TRAP ARM
DIAMETER

DISTANCE
TO VENT

32 mm

0.76 m

38 mm

1.07 m

51 mm

1.52 m

76 mm

1.83 m

102 mm & larger

3.05 m

Note:

In no case shall
the trap distance be less
than 2 times the diameter
of the trap arm.

The developed length of the trap arm (measured from the


top of closet ring to inner edge of vent ) of a water closet or
similar fixture shall not exceed 1.8 m.
For trap arm 76 mm dia or larger, a cleanout is required for
a change of direction of greater than 22 .

Traps & Interceptors


INDUSTRIAL INTERCEPTORS
(CLARIFIERS) & SEPARATORS:
Interceptors (a device designed and installed to separate and
retain deleterious, hazardous or undesirable matters from normal
wastes and permits normal sewage or liquid wastes to discharge
into the disposal terminal by gravity) shall have a water seal of

not less than 152 mm deep.


Each interceptor shall be properly vented.
Slaughterhouses, packing establishments, and any
establishment which discharges wastewater with
considerable amount of grease, hairs, feathers , etc. shall
drain through a screening device and thence into a grease
interceptor.
Auto wash racks and/or floor or slabs used for cleaning
machinery or machine parts shall be adequately protected
against storm or surface water and shall drain into an
interceptor which will separate oil and grease before the
effluent reaches the public stream.

Clean-outs
REQUIREMENTS:
Clean-outs REQUIRED
at the upper terminal of every horizontal sewer or waste line
at each run of piping more than 15 meters (50 feet) in total
developed length
at every 15 m (50 ft) of total developed length or a fraction
thereof
additional clean-out shall be provided on a horizontal line
with an aggregate offset angle exceeding 135
inside the building near the connection between the building
drain and the building sewer or installed outside the building
at the lower end of the building drain and extended to grade.

Clean-outs
Clean-outs NOT REQUIRED
on a horizontal drain less than 1.5 m in length unless such
line is serving sinks or urinals.
on short horizontal drainage pipe installed at a slope of 72
deg or less from the vertical line (or at an angle of 1/5 bend)

Clean-outs
SIZE OF CLEAN-OUTS:
Size of clean-out shall be in conformity with the size of pipe
served

Clean-Out Size
SIZE OF
PIPE

SIZE OF
THREADS
CLEANOUT PER 25.4MM

38 mm

38 mm

11-1/2

51 mm

38 mm

11-1/2

64 mm

64 mm

76 mm

64 mm

102 mm & larger

89 mm

Clean-outs
INSTALLATION OF
CLEAN-OUTS:
Each clean-out shall be installed so it opens with the
direction of flow or at right angles to the direction of flow
except in the case of a wye branch.
Each 90 clean-out extension shall be constructed from a
wye fitting or an approved fitting of equivalent sweep.
Each clean-out 51 mm or less shall have a front clearance
of not less than 305 mm; those 51 mm or more shall have a
front clearance of 450 mm.
Clean-outs in underfloor piping shall be extended to or
above finish floor or shall be extended outside the building
when there is less than 450 mm vertical clearance or 750
horizontal clearance to the means of access.
No underfloor clean-out for residential occupancies shall be
located more than 6.1 m from an access door, trap door or
crawl hole.

Vents & Venting System


VENTILATION
Portion of the drainage pipe installation intended to
maintain a balanced atmospheric pressure inside the
system

Vent Pipe- a pipe or opening used for ensuring the


circulation of air in a plumbing system and for relieving the
negative pressure exerted on trap seals.

Vents & Venting System

Main Types:

VENTS

Main Soil & Waste Vent

the backbone of the entire sanitary


system
Connected to the Main Soil & Waste
Stack
The portion where waste does not
travel through
Continues to the roof; the portion
penetrating the roof is called the
Vent Stack Through Roof (VSTR)

Vents & Venting System


Main Vent
the principal artery of the venting
system to which vent branches are
connected.
a.k.a. Collecting Vent Line
serves as support to the Main Soil &
Waste Vent

Vents & Venting System


Individual Vent or Back Vent

a pipe installed to vent a fixture trap, that


connects with the vent system above the
fixture served or terminates in the open air.

Vents & Venting System

Other Types:

Unit, Common or Dual Vent

an arrangement of venting so
installed that one vent pipe sill
serve two (2) traps.

Vents & Venting System


Relief Vent

a vertical vent line that provides


additional circulation of air between
the drainage and vent systems or to
act as an auxiliary vent on a specially
designed system such as a
yoke vent connection between the
soil and vent stacks.

Vents & Venting System


Yoke or By-pass Vent

a pipe connecting upward from a soil


or waste stack below the floor and
below horizontal connection to an
adjacent vent stack at a point above
the floor and higher than the highest
spill level of fixtures for preventing
pressure changes in the stacks.

Vents & Venting System


Circuit Vent

a group vent pipe which starts in front of the


extreme (highest) fixture connection on a
horizontal branch and connects to the vent stack.
a.k.a. Loop Vent
Serves a battery of fixtures

Vents & Venting System


Looped Vent

a vertical vent connection on a


horizontal soil or waste pipe
branch at a point downstream
of the last fixture connection
and turning to a horizontal line
above the highest overflow
level of the highest fixture
connected there
Used in spaces without partitions

Vents & Venting System


Wet Vent
that portion of a vent pipe through which wastewater also
flows through.

Vents & Venting System


Local Vent
a pipe or shaft to convey foul air
from a plumbing fixture or a room
to the outer air.

Dry Vent
a vent that does not carry liquid or
water-borne wastes.

Vents & Venting System


Stack Vent
the extension of a soil or waste stack
above the highest horizontal drain
connected to the stack.

Vent Stack
the vertical vent pipe installed
primarily for providing circulation of
air to and from any part of the soil, waste
of the drainage system. The uppermost
end above the roof is called Vent Stack
Through Roof (VSTR).

Vents & Venting System


REQUIREMENTS:
Vents REQUIRED
Each trap shall be protected against siphonage and backpressure through venting.

Vents NOT REQUIRED


on a primary settling tank interceptor which discharges
through a horizontal indirect waste pipe into a secondary
interceptor. The secondary interceptor shall be properly
tapped and vented.
Traps serving sinks in an island bar counter. Such sink shall
discharge by means of an approved indirect waste pipe into
a floor sink or other approved type receptor.

Vents & Venting System


SIZE OF VENTS:
The sizes of vent piping shall be determined from its length
and the total number of fixture units connected thereto.
The diameter of an individual vent shall not be less than 32
mm (1-1/4) nor less in size than one-half (1/2) the diameter
of the drain to which it is connected.

Installation of Vents
GRADES & CONNECTIONS
All horizontal or branch vents shall be free from drops or
sags & shall be graded and connected to drip back by
gravity to the drainage pipe it serves.
Each vent shall rise vertically 152 mm above the highest
level rim of the fixtures served before offsetting horizontally.
All vent pipes shall extend undiminished in size above the
roof or shall be reconnected to the soil or waste stack vent
at a point below the roof. The vent stack through roof
(VSTR) shall be increased one (1) pipe size above the
connection between the stack vent and the horizontal vent.
Two (2) fixtures having same level inlet openings, may be
served by a common vertical vent pipe connected to an
approved double branch fitting.

Installation of Vents
VENT TERMINATION
VSTR shall terminate vertically not less than 150 mm above
the roof nor less than 300 mm from any vertical surface
nearby.
Each vent opening shall terminate:
Not less than 3.00 m from any openable window;
Not less than 0.90 m above any openable window;
Not less than 0.90 m away from any lot line, alley and street
boundary lines.
Vertical vent pipes shall extend 3.00 m distant from any part
of the roof that is used for human activities and shall extend
not less than 2.10 m above such roof.

Installation of Vents
VENT STACK & RELIEF VENTS
Each soil or waste stack extending ten (10) or more storeys
above the building drain shall be served by a parallel vent
stack which shall extend undiminished in size from its upper
terminal at the roof and connect to the soil or waste stack at
ground level and at every fifth floor levels with a yoke vent
at a point below the horizontal soil or waste branch
connection to the stack and at the nearby vent stack above
the same floor to provide a relief vent.
The size of yoke vent shall be not less in diameter than
either the soil stack or the vent stack, whichever is smaller.
The yoke vent connection at the vent stack shall be placed
1.0 m above the floor level and, by means of a wye branch
at the soil stack, shall be placed below the fixture branch
serving that floor.

Vents & Venting System


SANITARY SYSTEM PROBLEMS:

Trap Seal Loss

- Direct effect of the Minus & Plus Pressure inside the system
due to inadequate ventilation of traps
- Attributed to the following conditions: Siphonage
Back Pressure
Evaporation
Capillary Action
Wind Effects

Retardation of flow
-

Due to the effect of atmospheric pressure and/or gravity

Deterioration of the Materials

INDIRECT WASTE PIPING,


WET-VENTED SYSTEMS & SPECIAL WASTES

Indirect Waste Pipe


is a pipe that does not connect directly with the
drainage system but conveys liquid wastes by
discharging into a plumbing fixture, interceptor or
receptacle directly connected to the drainage system.

House Drain Appliances


HOUSE DRAIN APPLIANCES:

GREASE TRAPS:
For establishments like restaurants, cafes, lunch counters,
cafeterias, bars and clubs, hotel, hospital, sanitarium,
factory or school kitchens. A grease trap is not required for
individual dwelling units.
No grease trap shall be installed for a facility that has an
approved rate of flow of more than 3.4 liters per second
(54.26 gpm) nor less than 1.3 L/s (20.74 gpm).
Each grease trap shall have an approved water seal of not
less than 51 mm in depth or the diameter of its outlet,
whichever is greater.
No food waste disposal unit shall discharge into a grease
interceptor or grease trap.

House Drain Appliances


GREASE TRAPS:
Used for fixtures where grease may be introduced into the
drainage or sewer system in quantities that can effect line
stoppage or hinder sewage treatment or private sewage
disposal.

2 Main Types
Earth Cooled Grease Trap
Mechanical Grease Trap

House Drain Appliances

Grease Interceptor

Earth cooled Grease Trap

Mechanical Grease Trap

Operating Principles (separation of grease from water):


grease suspended in waste floats to the surface

Traps & Interceptors


Grease Trap Capacity
TOTAL # OF REQUIRED GREASE
FIXTURES
RATE OF RETENTION
CONNECTED
FLOW
CAPACITY

Note:

76 L/ min.

18 Kg

95 L/ min.

23 Kg

132 L/ min.

32 Kg

189 L/ min.

45 Kg

The total capacity of fixtures discharging into


the grease trap shall not exceed two and one-half
times (2-1/2 x) the certified L/m flow rate of the grease
trap. (NPC 1011.4)

House Drain Appliances


HOUSE TRAPS:
Placed in the house drain immediately inside the foundation wall
of the building

Drain Tiles:
Used to prevent groundwater from seeping through the
basement walls & foundation
Hollow tiles are placed around the perimeter of the foundation
where water is collected; drain tiles are connected to the house
Drain or sump pit

House Drain Appliances


Garage Traps:
a.k.a. garage catch basin
Operating Principles: trap is filled with water & located at the
Lowest point of the garage so it can collect all wastes.

House Drain Appliances


Back Flow Valves:
Used in house drain to prevent the unlikely occurrence of
back flows
Similar to check valves

House Drain Appliances


The Sewage Ejectors:
Pumps the wastes up form the sump pit to the sewers (which
Are usually higher than basement levels)

Private Sewage
Disposal Systems
DISPOSAL PHASE- the final stage of the plumbing process;
where used water and water-carried wastes are brought to
various disposal outlets

Definition:

SEPTIC TANKS

A watertight covered receptacle designed and constructed


to receive the discharge of sewage from a building sewer,
separate solids from the liquid, digest organic matter and
store digested solids through a period of detention, and
allow the clarified liquids to discharge for final disposal

SLUDGE- solid organic matter that are denser than water


and settle at the bottom of the septic tank

SCUM- lighter organic material that rise to the surface of


the water

EFFLUENT- liquid content of sewage

Private Sewage
Disposal Systems

Bacteria in septic tank


to encourage decomposition:
Aerobic bacteria- relies on oxygen to survive
Anaerobic bacteria- can survive in places without
oxygen

Private Sewage
Disposal Systems

Private Sewage
Disposal Systems
SINGLE CHAMBER SEPTIC TANK:

Private Sewage
Disposal Systems
DESIGN CRITERIA:

PLANS:
should show all dimensions, reinforcing, structural
calculations, and such other pertinent data as needed.

QUALITY OF DESIGN:
shall be such as to produce a clarified effluent of acceptable
standards and shall provide adequate space for sludge and
scum accumulations.

MATERIALS:
constructed of durable materials, not subject to excessive
corrosion or decay, shall be watertight.
Material: cement (usually) or pre-fabricated cast iron

Private Sewage
Disposal Systems
COMPARTMENTS:
have a minimum of 2 compartments:
First compartment: not less than 2/3 capacity of the total
capacity of tank; not less than 2 cum liquid capacity;
shall be at least 0.9 m width and 1.5 m long; Liquid
depth not less than 0.6 m nor more than 1.8 m.
Secondary compartment: maximum capacity of 1/3 total
capacity of tank; minimum of 1 cum liquid capacity
In septic tanks having over 6 cum capacity, the secondary
compartment may be not less than 1.5 m in length.
maintain a slope of 1:10 at the bottom of the digestion
chamber to collect the sludge and make it easily accessible
from the manhole

MANHOLES:
with at least two (2) manholes, 508 mm in min dimension;
one over inlet, other over outlet. Wherever first compartment
exceeds 3.7 m in length, an additional manhole required
over the baffle wall.

Private Sewage
Disposal Systems
SIZES OF PIPE INLET & OUTLET & THEIR
VERTICAL LEGS:
Inlet and Outlet pipes diameter size not less than the
sewer pipe
Vertical legs of inlet and outlet pipes diameter size not
less than the sewer pipe nor less than 104.6 mm.

LENGTH AND LOCATION OF INLET & OUTLET:


Shall extend 101.6 mm above and at least 304.8 mm below
the water surface
Invert of the inlet pipe shall be at a level not less than 50.8
mm above the invert of the outlet pipe.

VENT DIAMETER:
equal to the cross sectional area of the house sewer.

Private Sewage
Disposal Systems
AIR SPACE:
Side walls shall extend 228.6 mm above liquid depth.
Cover of septic tank shall be at least 50.8 mm above the
back vent openings.

PARTITION (between compartments):


shall be of solid durable materials extending 101.6 mm
above the liquid level.
An inverted fitting equivalent in size to the tank inlet, but in
no case less than 104.6 mm in diameter, shall be installed in
the inlet compartment side of the baffle with the bottom of
the fitting placed midway in the depth of the liquid. Wooden
baffles are prohibited.

STRUCTURE:
Shall be capable of supporting an earth load of not
less than 14.4 kPa

Private Sewage
Disposal Systems
CAPACITY:
The capacity of septic tanks is determined by the number of
bedrooms or apartment units in dwelling occupancies; by
the estimated waste/sewage design flow rate for various
building occupancies; or by the number of fixture units of all
plumbing fixtures; whichever is greater.
The capacity of any one septic tank and its drainage system
shall also be limited by the soil structure classification in its
drainage field.

LOCATION:
Should not be located underneath the house
At least 15 meters from the water distribution system

SEWERS
CLASSIFICATION OF SEWERS:
Combination Public Sewers
Oldest variety
Carries both storm & sanitary wastes

Storm Sewers
Carries only rainwater collected from the storm
drain or from the streets
Terminates at natural drainage areas
(i.e. lakes, rivers, and water reservoirs)
Require manholes to serve as cleanouts and to make sewers accessible
for inspection and repair built at depth of about 2 to 3
meters; diameter ranging from 0.6 to 1.2 meters

SEWERS
Sanitary Sewers
Carries regular sanitary wastes only
Terminates in a modern sewage disposal plant for
treatment
Built at a depth of 3 meters

2 TYPES OF SANITARY SEWERS:


Tributary Sewers

Termination points of individual units or structures


Usually round shaped, with diameters between
0.60 to 1.2 meters
Made of vitrified clay or cement pipes; often
installed by the curb line, before the street

SEWERS
Intercepting Sewers
a.k.a. collecting sewers
Termination points of tributary sewers
Placed much lower in the ground, from 4 to 30
meters in depth
Varies in shape but have a diameter or effective
opening ranging from 0.60 to 3 meters

Sloped at an angle of 1:50 or 2%


Lifting stations are placed at certain intervals and
pumps or sewage ejectors are used to lift the
waste; sewers terminate at the disposal plant

SEWERS
REQUIREMENTS:
Sewers REQUIRED
Drainage pipes of all buildings shall be connected to the
public sewer. When not available, they shall be connected
to an approved private sewage disposal system.
Public sewer may be considered as not being available if it
is more than 61 meters from any proposed building or
exterior drainage facility.
Exception: Single family dwellings with an existing private
sewage disposal system may not be connected to a new
public sewer when no hazard, nuisance or unsanitary
condition is evident and when there is no sufficient grade or
fall existing to permit proper drainage flow by gravity to the
public sewer.

SEWERS
DAMAGE TO PUBLIC SEWER OR PRIVATE
SEWAGE DISPOSAL SYSTEM
It is unlawful to discharge any ashes, cinders, solids, rags,
flammable, poisonous, explosive liquids or gases, oils,
grease, and other things whatsoever which would cause
damage to the public sewer or private disposal system.
No rain, surface or subsurface waters shall discharge into
any excreta drainage system.
No cesspool and septic tank effluents, seepage pit or under
drain system shall be connected to the excreta building
sewer leading to a public sewer main.
No commercial food waste grinder shall be connected to a
private or public sewage disposal system.

SEWERS
SIZE OF SEWER:
The minimum size of any building sewer shall be
determined on the basis of the total number of fixture units
drained by such sewer. No building sewer shall be smaller
than 150 mm diameter nor less in size than the building
drain.

SEWERS
INSTALLATION OF SEWER:
Building sewers shall be run in practical alignment at a
uniform slope of not less than 2% or 21 mm/m toward the
point of disposal.
Exception: When impractical due to depth of street sewer,
structural features or to adverse arrangement of building, to
obtain a slope of 2%, sewers 102 mm and 152 mm in dia
may have a slope of not less than 1% (10.5 mm/m) and
those 203 mm dia and larger may have a slop of not less
than 0.5% (5.3 mm/m)

SEWERS

No building sewer shall be installed less than 0.6 meter from


the outer face of any building foundation, nor less than 0.3
meter below the finish surface of the ground.
Location of building sewer in relation to other services is
shown below.
0.60 m from any building or structure
15.2 m from water supply wells
15.2 m from streams
0.30 m from domestic supply pipes
0.30 m from public water main

SEWERS
Building sewer or drainage pipe of clay or materials which
are not approved for use within a building shall not be laid in
the same trench as water pipes unless (NPC 1208.1);
the bottom of the water pipe is 0.3 meter above the top of
the sewer or drainage pipe (NPC 1208.1.1),
the water pipe is placed on a solid shelf excavated at one
side of the common trench with a minimum horizontal
distance of at least 0.3 m from the sewer or drain pipe (NPC
1208.1.2).
Water pipes crossing sewer or drainage pipe of clay or
materials which are not approved for use within a building
shall be laid a minimum of 0.3 m clear above the sewer or
drain pipe. Water pipe joint shall be installed not less than 3
meters away from sewer line in both directions.

Private Sewage
Disposal Systems
DESIGN CRITERIA:

DISPOSAL FIELDS

AREA:
dependent on the required septic tank capacity or estimated
sewage flow rate, whichever is greater, and;
the type of soil found in the excavation.

DISTANCE FROM WATER TABLE:


No excavation for leach bed shall extend within 1.5 m of the
water table.

WITH SEEPAGE PIT:


Filter material in the trenches shall terminate 1.5 m from pit
excavation and the pipe extending from such points to the
seepage pit shall be watertight.

Private Sewage
Disposal Systems
DESIGN CRITERIA:

SEEPAGE PITS

CAPACITY:
based on the quantity of liquid waste and on the character
and porosity of the surrounding soil.

MINIMUM EFFECTIVE ABSORPTION


AREA:
calculated as the excavated side wall area below the inlet.

MULTIPLE SEEPAGE PITS:


served through a distribution box or shall be connected in
series by means of a watertight connection. The outlet shall
have a vented leg fitting extending 304.8 mm below the inlet
fitting.

Private Sewage
Disposal Systems
SIZE OF SEEPAGE PIT:
Circular in shape with excavated diameter of not less than
2.2 m and to be lined with clay or concrete brick.

STRENGTH:
Brick lining shall have a minimum compressive strength of
17225 kPa.

Private Sewage
Disposal Systems

CESSPOOLS

Private Sewage
Disposal Systems
DESIGN CRITERIA:

TEMPORARY PERMITS:
Temporary expedient pending the construction of a public
sewer, so long as it is established that a public sewer will be
available in less than 2 years and the soil and ground water
conditions are favorable;
As an overflow facility when installed in conjunction with an
existing cesspool;
As a means of sewage disposal for limited, minor, or
temporary uses.

Private Sewage
Disposal Systems

COMMERCIAL / INDUSTRIAL
SPECIAL LIQUID WASTE
DISPOSAL
DESIGN CRITERIA:

REQUIREMENTS:
When liquid wastes containing excessive amounts of
grease, garbage, flammable wastes, sand, or other
ingredients which may affect the operation of a private
sewage disposal system, an interceptor for such waste shall
be installed.

DISPOSAL:
Waste from interceptors may be discharged to a septic tank
or other primary system or into a separate disposal system.

Private Sewage
Disposal Systems
GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR PRIVATE SEWAGE
DISPOSAL SYSTEMS
Location of Sewage Disposal System
MIN. HORIZONTAL
DISPOSAL
BLDG SEPTIC
FIELD
DISTANCE IN CLEAR
SEWER TANK
REQUIRED FROM
1

Buildings or
structures*

SEEPAGE
PIT OR
CESSPOOL

0.6 m

1.5 m

2.4 m

2.4 m

Property line
Adjoining private
Property

Clear**

1.5 m

1.5 m

2.4 m

Water supply
wells

15.2 m

15.2 m

30.5 m

45.7 m

Streams

15.2 m

15.2 m

15.2 m

30.5 m

Trees

3m

3m

Private Sewage
Disposal Systems
GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR PRIVATE SEWAGE
DISPOSAL SYSTEMS
Location of Sewage Disposal System
MIN. HORIZONTAL
DISPOSAL
BLDG SEPTIC
FIELD
DISTANCE IN CLEAR
SEWER TANK
REQUIRED FROM
6

Seepage pits or
Cesspools

Disposal field

On site domestic
Water service line

Pressure public
Water main

SEEPAGE
PIT OR
CESSPOOL

1.5 m

1.5 m

3.7 m

1.5 m

1.2 m

1.5 m

0.3 m

1.5 m

1.5 m

1.5 m

3m

3m

3m

3m

Sewage Treatment Plan (STP)


Some features of STP:
An aeration system within the tank;
A submersible mixer to mix the waste;
A sludge waste pump that aids in clarifying;
A decanter;
Blowers;
A fully electronic control system, etc.

Water Recycling
2 Most Common Types of Municipal
Sewage Treatment
The Activated Sludge Process
Involves a series of stations where the raw sewage must
pass through
First Phase- gets rid of heavy materials with the use of three
different filter houses
Second Phase- clarifies the effluent
Third Phase- hardens the sludge and converts it to fertilizers
Produces water with 99-99.5% purity

Water Recycling
Raw sewage inlet

The Activated Sludge Process


1. Grit Chamber

2. Coarse screen house


4. incinerator

3. Fine screen house


5. Activated sludge tank
8. Power House

9. Drier house

12. warehouse

6. Aerating
basin

10. Liquid
extractor
house

7. Clarifier
11. Chemical
house

13. Vacuum
power
house

outlet

Water Recycling
The Trickling Filter Process
a.k.a Percolating or Sprinkling Filter System
Requires less mechanical elements and less stages
Produces water with 95% purity
Requires a large ground area for its building

Joints & Connections


Tightness:
Perform Pressure Test on joints and connections of pipes
& fittings to ensure gastight & watertight connections.

Types of Joints:
Caulked Joints

For bell-and-spigot cast iron


soil pipe & other similar joints

Face to face
distance
engagement length

Calking:

Joints & Connections

Align pipes
Packing OakumWrap an oakum or hemp around the spigot Neck;
Drive the oakum into the bottom of the hub using a yarning iron;
compress firmly (make a 20-25mm clearance from top of bell)
Ladle Lead- Seal joint with lead (3mm above bell)
Packing with Calking Iron

Joints & Connections


Threaded Joints

For iron pipe size (IPS), pipe and


fittings shall be standard taper pipe
threads
Threads on plastic pipe shall be
factory cut or molded
Lubricate clean-out plugs & caps with
water-soluble, non-hardening material

Considerations:
Direct Connections
The manner of planning and layouting of pipes;
Short and direct installations of pipelines (if possible)
Measuring and Cutting
Threading Operations
Sizing of the Pipes

Joints & Connections


Solder & Sweat Joints
For joints in copper tubing
Solders and fluxes with lead content
which exceeds 0.002 are prohibited in
piping systems used to convey
potable water

Soldering of joints:
Clean pipe with emery cloth (or fine sand paper)
Apply (non corrosive) flux or soldering paste
Heat the fitting with a propane torch
Apply (non corrosive) flux or soldering paste
Wrap soldered joint with wet rags

Joints & Connections


Wiped Joints

Joints in lead pipe or fittings; between


lead pipe or fittings & brass or copper
pipe, ferrules, solder nipples or traps
Joints between lead pipe & cast iron,
steel or wrought iron pipe shall be
made by means of a caulking ferrule
or soldering nipple

Flared Joints

For soft copper, water tubing shall be


expanded with a proper flaring tool

Cement Mortar
Joints

Prohibited on new building sewers

Joints & Connections


Asbestos
Cement Sewer
Pipe Joints

Shall be a sleeve coupling of the same


composition as the pipe or of other
approved materials, and sealed with
neoprene rubber rings or joined by an
approved type compression coupling

Joints & Connections

Burned Lead
Joints

Shall be lapped and the assembly


shall be fused together to form a
uniform weld at least as thick as the
lead sheets being joined

Copper Water
Tube

joints shall be made by the use of


approved brass fittings soldered,
or by brass compression type fitting

Joints & Connections


Solvent Cement
Plastic Pipe
Joints

Shall comply with appropriate IAMPO


installation standard

Method:
Measure the face to face distance of the fittings
Cut with sharp knife/hacksaw/handsaw
Clean pipe end with Methyl Ethyl Keton (MEK)
or Acetone
Apply solvent cement to the shoulder fitting and
butt-end of pipe
Insert pipe into the fitting
When bending plastic pipes, pack pipe with sand
then heat using flame torch or hot water, gradually
applying pressure

Joints & Connections


Special Joints:
Copper Tubing
To Screw Pipe
Joints

Joints shall be made by use of brass


adaptor fittings
Joints shall be properly sweated or
soldered

Slip Joints

Used in fixture traps (exposed for


Maintenance) and drains

Expansion
Joints

Used in soil & waste stack


Joints shall be free & accessible

Joints & Connections

Unions

Plastic Pipe
Connection to
Other Materials

May be used in drainage work when


accessibly located in the trap seal or
Between a fixture & its trap

Use only approved types of fittings &


adapters designed for the specific
transition intended

Joints & Connections


Flanged Fixture Connections:
Fixture connections between drainage pipes & water
closets, floor outlet service sinks, pedestal urinals, and
earthenware trap standards shall be by means of
approved brass, hard lead, ABS, PVC, or iron flanges
caulked, soldered, solvent cemented or screwed to the
drainage pipe
Closet beds or stubs must be cut off square
Wall-mounted water closet fixtures shall be securely
bolted to an approved carrier fitting;
Gasket material shall be graphite-impregnated asbestos,
felt, or similar approved types

Joints & Connections


Prohibited
Joints & Connections:
For Drainage Systems any fitting or connection
which has an enlargement, chamber or recess with a ledge,
shoulder or reduction of pipe area, that offers any obstructions
to flow through the drain
An enlargement of 76 mm to 102 mm closet
or stub shall be considered an obstruction

bend

Hangers & Supports


Supporting Cast-iron Pipe:
Supports shall be placed at every joint on horizontal runs
unless distance between joints is less than 4 ft.
Use strap iron or special pipe hangers for this purpose

Hangers & Supports


Vertical runs of cast-iron pipe can be attached to the
building structure with wire staples, vertical pipe brackets
or pie straps

Friction clamps should


support the weight of
cast-iron pipe at each
floor level

Hangers & Supports


Masonry Anchors/Fasteners:
Lag shields (made from lead) are commonly used to
attach pipe hangers or fixtures to concrete or masonry

Hangers & Supports


Caulking anchors provide a fastener which is
permanently attached to the concrete or masonry; it is
internally threaded to accept machine screws and bolts

Hangers & Supports


Toggle Bolts are used
when attaching pipes to
hollow masonry units;
with spring-operated wings

Hangers & Supports


Plastic Anchors can be installed in smaller holes

Inspection & Test


Water Testing:
Testing of water supply piping is conducted by
closing all outlets & filling the system with water
from the main to locate leaks and other potential
problems

Air Pressure Testing:


Used in detecting leaks by filling the piping
system with compressed air (use of soap suds
in locating escaping air)

STORM DRAINAGE
SYSTEM

Rainwater Pipes
DOWNSPOUTS OR CONDUCTOR
PIPES, GUTTERS
Rainwater piping shall not be used as soil, waste and vent pipes.
Downspout and gutter sizes are based upon the maximum depth
of rainfall per hour falling upon a given roof area in square meters.
Normally a 102 mm/hr rainfall intensity is used around Metro
Manila.
Gutter sizes are also dependent on the slope of the horizontal
pipe.
Round, square (sized to enclose its equivalent round pipe) or rectangular
(shall have at least the same cross-sectional area as its equivalent round pipe,
except that the ratio of its side dimensions shall not exceed 3 to 1) rainwater

pipes may be used for downspouts.


Downspouts for high-rise buildings shall be of stronger pipe
materials to resist the high hydrostatic pressure, they shall be
installed within a pipe chase, and have no intermediate branch
from the roof to the ground level.

Rainwater Pipes
ROOF DRAINS
Roof drains shall be equipped with dome-type strainers extending
102 mm above the surface of the roof surface. With a minimum
total net inlet area of 1 times the area of the outlet pipe to
which it is connected.
Roof deck strainers shall be approved flat-surface type, with a
total net inlet area not less than 2 times the area of the outlet pipe
to which the drain is connected.
Roof drains passing through building interiors shall be made
watertight by the use of C.I. drain with integrally-cast waterstop
ring around the outside of the body and placed at mid-depth of the
concrete roof slab and the installation of a clamped suitable
flashing material around the drain.
In all cases the outlet connections are inside-caulk or female
screwed.

Storm Water System


3 Major Systems of
Collecting Storm Water:
The Independent System
a.k.a. the Separate System
Brings collected water directly
to the water reservoirs

Storm Water System


The Combined System
Combines storm water
with sanitary wastes

Storm Water System

The Natural System


Without using any roof gutters or downspouts
Also when rainwater are collected in cisterns

Storm Water System


Roofing Elements to
Collect Rainwater:
The Gutter
Usually located along the
entire perimeter of the roof

The Downspout
Located every 8 to 10 meters
& at every corner of the roof
(but, to avoid clogging of pipes,
it is best to locate them every
4 to 6 m)

Storm Water System


The Strainer or Roof Drain
Used to prevent clogging of pipes

The Shoe

Storm Water System


The Catch Basin
Downspouts should terminate in a catch basin (can serve more
than one downspout)
Delivers water to the sewers in the street via gravity

The Storm Line


Connects to each catch basin

PIPES and FITTINGS

Pipes & Fittings


Acid Resistant Cast Iron Pipe
Made of an alloy of cast iron and silicon
Installed where acid wastes are being discharged
Brittle

Cast Iron Soil Pipe


Most popular and generally specified material for drainage
installation.
Durable, conveniently installed (<25 storey)
Commercial length: 600 cm
Diameters: 50-150mm

2 Types:

HUB

SV type -

generally used; for building installations

XV type -

extra duty; for underground installations

SPIGOT

Pipes & Fittings


4 Varieties:
Standard Pipe

Single Hub Pipe

Double Hub Pipe

Hubless Pipe

Pipes & Fittings


Asbestos Pipe
Made of an asbestos fibers and portland cement
Used as soil, waste, ventilation pipe & downspouts

Joints:
Grouted and firmly packed with oakum or old hemp
Rope soaked in tar with pure lead or cement mortar
(not less than 25mm deep well calked)
Cement mortar (in place of mineral lead) for
chimneys

Bituminous Fiber Sewer Pipe


cheapest
Light in weight, slightly flexible and could take
slight soil movement without danger of cracking
or pulling out of its joints
may be softened/damaged by excessive hot water of
chemical flow

Pipes & Fittings


Vitrified Clay Pipe
One of the oldest materials used for sewer lines
Highly resistant to most acids
Brittle

Lead Pipe
Highly resistant to acid
Poisonous and injurious, is therefore not
recommended to convey water for human
consumption

Galvanized Wrought Iron Pipe


Better then steel pipe for plumbing installation
Resistant to acid waste

Pipes & Fittings


Copper Pipe
Durable and extremely corrosive resistant
Easy to install
Smooth interior surface

Classification:

K type- heaviest; for underground


L type- lighter; in both rigid and flexible form; for
residential water supply line and radiant heating
installations
M type- thinnest; in rigid form; for small water supply
lines and radiant heating installations

Brass Pipe
Most expensive
Made of an alloy or zinc (15%) and copper (85%)
Resistant to acids and has a smooth interior surface

Pipes & Fittings


Plastic or Synthetic Pipe
Developed in Germany in 1935
Most are produced from synthetic resins

2 Types:
Rigid type
Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC)
Chlorinated Polyvinyl Chloride (CPVC)
Unplasticized Polyvinyl Chloride (UPVC)
Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (ABS)
Polypropylene (PP)
Styrene Rubber Plastic (SR)

Flexible type

The Polyethylene (PE)The Polybutylene (PB)-

coil form; 30 m long


coil form; 30 m 150 m long

Pipes & Fittings


Considerations in
choosing materials:
Quality and durability.
Resistance to external and internal
contact with foreign matters.
Resistance to acid waste and
other chemical elements that
will pass into it.
Cost of materials and labor.

Pipes & Fittings


Types of Fittings:
COUPLING/
SOCKET

MALE
ADAPTOR

EXTENSION
PIECE/
NIPPLE

FEMALE
ADAPTOR

REDUCER

45
STREET
ELBOW

REDUCING
ELBOW

90
STREET
ELBOW

Pipes & Fittings


UNION
CROSS
TEE
PLUG
REDUCING
TEE
DOUBLE
HUB
CAP

Pipes & Fittings


Other water Service
Fittings & Devices:
CORPORATION
STOP
METER
STOP
CURB
STOP
CURB
STOP
BOX

WATER
METER

Pipes & Fittings


Sanitary Fittings

Pipes & Fittings

Working Drawings
Piping Symbols for Plumbing:
DRAIN OR WASTE ABOVE GROUND
DRAIN OR WASTE BELOW GROUND
VENT
SD

STORM DRAIN
COLD WATER

SW

SOFT COLD WATER


HOT WATER

SPRINKLER MAIN
SPRINKLER BRANCH AND HEAD

Working Drawings

GAS

COMPRESSED AIR

VACUUM

S - CI

SEWER CAST IRON

S - CT

SEWER CLAY TILE

S-P

SEWER PLASTIC

Working Drawings
Plumbing Abbreviations:
ITEM

ABBR.

ITEM

ABBR.

Cast Iron
Centerline
Cleanout

CI
CL
CO

Hot Water
Laundry Tray
Lavatory

HW
LT
LAV.

Cold Water
Copper
Dishwasher

CW
COP.
DW

Medicine Cabinet
Plastic
Plumbing

MC
PLAS.
PLBG.

Floor Drain
Galvanized Iron
Hose Bib

FD
GAL. I
HB

Water Closet
Water Heater
Water Softener

WC
WH
WS

Working Drawings
Pipe & Fitting Symbols:

Working Drawings

Working Drawings

Working Drawings

FUEL GAS PIPING


SYSTEM

LP Gas
Liquefied Petroleum Gas saturated hydrocarbons found in
petroleum (i.e. butane, propane, isobutane, etc.)
a.k.a. Bottled Gas
for Home, Commercial and Industrial Use

Typical LP Gas service installation:


CYLINDER
- where gas is stored
PIGTAIL
- where high pressure
vapor flows through when
cylinder valve is opened
REGULATOR
-reduces the high pressure
-of gas to the proper
operating gas pressure of
the appliance

LP Gas
Safety Precautions for installation of LP Gas
Cylinders & Gas Appliances:
Location of Cylinders
Install out of doors or in a building or section of a building
having good floor and ceiling level ventilation directly to the
open; (outdoors) in areas with no (combustible materials)
vegetation (i.e. Grass, weeds) waste paper, garbage, etc.
within 19 feet of a cylinder
Locate in a place where it is accessible to LP Gas
deliverymen
Install on a firm, dry, level foundation (cement or cement
blocks) to prevent damage to the bottom ring from soil
corrosion
Do not place below ground level; maintain at least a 3 ft.
distance from drains, culverts, or entrances and openings
leading to cellars & other depressions (where gas might
accumulate)

LP Gas
Locate in a place safe from accidental damage from
vehicles & tampering by children or unauthorized persons;
should be protected by cylinder hoods (if located in
driveways or alleys)
Use in the upright position, with the valves uppermost.
Do not place close to steam pipes or any other source of
heat
When cylinders are being connected/disconnected there
should be no open flame or similar source of ignition in the
vicinity
Close the cylinder valves before disconnecting
Replace cylinder cap when the cylinder is disconnected to
protect the cylinder valve in transit and prevent the cylinder
valve from being used as a handle

LP Gas
Safety Precautions for installation of LP Gas
Cylinders & Gas Appliances:
Pressure Regulators & Other Service Equipment
Pressure regulators, copper tube pigtails, throw-over- valves
and manifolds which are connected to the cylinders should
be rigidly supported
The vent in the regulator should be facing downward (to
prevent entry of rain)
All safety valve outlets in the service equipment should be
vented to the open air & not choked with dust or other
foreign matter

LP Gas
Gas Piping & Shut-Off Valves
Piping should be adequately supported to the well, beyond
the reach of people passing by.
When pipes pass thru floors, walls or partitions, no joints
should be allowed at these places to minimize danger of
leaks.
Piping should not be run in or through elevator shafts, air or
ventilation ducts, chimneys or flues.
Ends of piping should not be plugged with cork, wood,
paper, etc., the correct terminal fitting should be used.
Suitable gas line shut-off valve should be fitted for every
appliance.
Both ends of the connection to portable appliances should
be securely attached by means of clips. Hose should be of a
type resistant to LP gas.

LP Gas
Location of Appliance
The location of the gas appliance in the kitchen should be
decided before the piping is laid out. Appliances should be
set where conditions for ventilations and air circulation are
met.
A permanent and adequate air supply should be provided
for the appliance. This source of air for combustion and
ventilation should not be subject to accidental interruption or
curtailment.
Appliance should be installed in a way to allow ease of
repair and adjustment of appliance burners and parts
A water heater should be installed in a place with adequate
ventilation and with a sufficient clearance between ceiling
and top of heater.

LP Gas
Testing for Leaks
Before any system of gas piping is finally put into service, it
should be carefully tested to ensure that it is gastight.
Where any part of the system is to be enclosed or
concealed, this test should precede the work of closing in.
Matches, candles, or other sources of ignition should not be
used to check for gas leakage. The position of a leak may
be detected by using soap solution.
Leaking or otherwise defective pipes or fittings should be
replaced. No attempt should be made to affect temporary
repair.