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TEKNIK RESERVOIR LANJUT

Dr. Ir. Rachmat Sudibjo

Teknik Perminyakan
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SHALLOW ANTICLINAL TRAP

INTEGRATED PETROPHYSICS

INTEGRATED PETROPHYSICS

CORING

CONVENTIONAL CORE

PETROGRAPHIC ANALYSIS
Thin Section Petrography

THE TYPICAL COMPONENTS


OF A SANDSTONE RESERVOIR

POORLY SORTED SANDSTONE

OOLITIC LIMESTONE

SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY


ANALYSIS

USEFUL POROSITY

Some micro porosity may not be observed in conventional core analysis.


Most porosity indicating logs see unconnected porosity, but the sonic log
may not see any or all of the microporosity.

FLUID SATURATIONS

CAPILLARY PRESSURE

RELATIVE PERMEABILITY

LOGGING UNIT

DRILLING FLUID INVASION

Resistivity Response versus


Depth of Investigation

THE PETROPHYSICAL MODEL

GENERAL RULES FOR PICKING LOG VALUES

In thick beds, pick average values


(heavy black vertical lines) ===>

Old style induction log, layer roughly


15 feet (5 meters), pick peaks and valleys;
other logs, pick averages ===>

RESERVOIR DESCRIPTION

PVT
Gas
Sep.

Diff. Flow
Regime

Oil

Stoc
k
Tank

Transport

Objectives of PVT Analysis

Reservoir fluid type


Physical properties of reservoir fluids
EOS vs. measured data
PVT models
Composition of recovered fluids
Composition of remaining fluids
Well stream composition
Completion design
Separator/NGL plant specifications
Product values Vs. time

Reservoir Fluid
Type Identification
Analyzing a fluid sample in the laboratorium
Production data:

Initial GOR

API

Oil color

C7+

Reservoir Fluid Types Classification

Black Oil Phase Diagram

initial reservoir
conditions (P&T):
much lower than the
critical conditions

heavy molecules
(C7+)
concentration: high

Volatile Oil Phase Diagram

initial reservoir
conditions
(P&T): close to
the critical
conditions

fewer heavy
molecules (C7+)
than black oil

Retrograde Gas Phase Diagram


The initial reservoir
conditions (P&T):
higher than the critical
conditions
fewer heavy molecules
than volatile oils
The overall
composition of the
reservoir fluid
becomes heavier as
the gas is produced
and the heavier
condensate remains
behind

Wet Gas Phase Diagram


Reservoir Temperature
above Cricondentherm
(pressure path not enter
phase envelope)

Separator condition: the


fluid is in two phases
Gravity of stock tank
liquid same as
retrograde gas -constant
during life of field

Wet gas
Pressure

Reservoir fluid is in gas


phase throughout the
reservoir life

Pressure path
in reservoir

Critical
point

% Liquid

Separator

Temperature

Dry Gas Phase Diagram


Pressure path
in reservoir

Primarily methane and


some intermediates

The reservoir fluid is in


gas phase throughout
the reservoir life
Pressure

No liquids formed in
reservoir as well as at
surface

Dry gas

% Liquid

Separator

Temperature

Reservoir Fluids Phase Diagram Window


OIL
Heavy Oil

Black Oil

GAS
Volatile
Oil

Cricondenbar

Retrograde
Gas

Wet
Gas

Dry
Gas

Critical Point

B
Pressure

Bubble
Point
Loci

Dew Point
Loci

Retrograde
Region
Cricondenterm

Two Phase Region

C
Temperature

C7+ & GOR for Reservoir Fluids

Composition of Reservoir Fluids

Differences Between Black and


Volatile Oil
Black Oil

The evolved gas is a dry gas.


The solution gases remain gas phase in the reservoir,

tubulars and separator.


As reservoir pressure decreases, the gas leaving

solution, becomes richer in intermediate components.


API gradually decreases during the reservoir life.

Phase Diagram of Black Oil and Associated Gas

Production Processes for a Black Oil

Differences Between Black and


Volatile Oil
Volatile Oil

The evolved gas is a retrograde gas.


The evolved retrograde gases release a large
amount of. condensate at surface conditions.
Often over one half of the stock tank liquid
produced during the reservoirs life.
API steadily increases with time.

Phase Diagram of Volatile Oil and


Associated Gas

Production Processes for a Volatile Oil

Analysis and Prediction Tool


Black Oil Mbal
Assume free gas in the reservoir remains gas in the separator
Treat a multi component black oil mixture as a two-component
mixture: gas and oil

Volatile Oil Mbal


Treat mixture as a multi-component mixture
Total composition of the production stream is known

Effect of Using Black Oil Mbal


for Volatile Oil

Differentiation between Volatile and


Retrograde
A GOR of 3200
SCF/STB is a good
cut-off
A value of 12.5
mole % of C7+ is a
useful dividing line

Differences between Volatile Oil and


Retrograde Gas
Retrograde Gas
GOR increases with time as condensate dropout
API increases with time
Compositional Mbal should be used in reservoir
calculations
Conventional gas Mbal can be used above dew point
Also, it can be used below dew point if two phase Z-factors
are used

Differences between Retrograde and Wet


Gas
An initial GOR of
15,000 SCF/STB
can be a cutoff
A value of 4 mole%
or less can be
useful dividing line

Field and Laboratory Identification


of Reservoir Fluids

Reservoir Fluid Sampling


Open Hole Sampling:
RFT, small sample volume and often contaminated
MDT, allows controlled drawdown and multiple
sample chambers
Optical MDT, allows to identify the type of fluid
being sampled
Cased Hole Sampling:
Surface Sampling
Subsurface Sampling

Surface & Subsurface Sampling

Well Conditioning during Sampling


Small perforation is preferable
Limiting drawdown
Large tubing diameter in case of high rates
Better well cleaning
Stable production
No liquid slugging
Small amount of produced fluid prior to sampling

Laboratory Tests
Primary tests

API
Gas specific gravity
Separator gas composition
GOR

Routine laboratory tests

Constant-Composition Expansion - CCE


Differential Liberation
Constant-Volume Depletion CVD
Separator Test

Special laboratory PVT tests

Constant Composition Expansion


CCE Test
the purposes is to determinine:
Saturation pressure (bubble-point or dew-point pressure)
Isothermal compressibility coefficients of the singlephase fluid in excess of saturation pressure
Compressibility factors of the gas phase
Total hydrocarbon volume as a function of pressure

CCE Test Procedures


pb
Vt Liquid Vt

Liqui
Liquid
Vt
d

Liqui
Liquid
Liquid
d

Vt

Gas
Liquid

Hg

Hg

Hg
Hg

First
Step

Second
Step

Third
Step

Vt

Gas
Liquid
Hg

Fourth
Step

CCE Test Data

Differential Liberation Test


The experimental data obtained from the test include:
Amount of gas in solution as a function of pressure
The shrinkage in the oil volume as a function of pressure
Properties of the evolved gas including the composition
of the liberated gas, the gas compressibility factor, and
the gas specific gravity
Density of the remaining oil as a function of pressure

Differential Liberation Expansion Test


Procedures
Gas

pb
Vo Liquid

Gas
Vo Liquid
Liquid

Vo Liquid
Gas
Liquid
Hg

Hg

Hg
Hg

Gas

First step

Hg

Differential Liberation Test Data

Separator Test Procedures scf


pb

Rsb =

Gas

STB

Gas

scf
Liquid

scf

Hg
Hg

Separator

resbbl
Stock
tank

Liquid
STB
Liquid

Bob =

resbbl
STB

Separator Test Data

CVD Test Procedures

Constant Volume Depletion


CVD Test

FORMATION VOLUME FACTOR


Volume @ kondisi reservoir / volume @ kondisi
permukaan (standar)

Sangat praktis untuk


konversi
volume dari kondisi
reservoir
ke permukaan dan
sebaliknya
Juga dapat digunakan
Bo = 1 1.4
untuk
mengkonversi unit
volume
Bw = 1 1.1
dari bbl > scf etc

Bg = 0.005teknik reservoir lanjut - RS -teknik


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0.007

MONETIZATION (VOL.
STANDARD)

$$
$

$$
$

material balance: diperlukan


konversi dari volume reservoir
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ke volume permukaan

Pressure Gradient
P grad water
= 0.433 psi/ft
P grad oil
= 0.35 psi/ft
P grad gas
= 0.08 psi/ft

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Reserve Estimation
Methods
1. Volumetric Method
Early stage of reservoir development
Geology, Geophysics, Rock and Fluid
properties
Recovery Factor (RF) assigned arbitrarily
No time dependency, No Production data

Reservoir limits for reserve classification

Structure on top of production well

BHP vs Depth

BHP vs depth (upper & lower bonds of


prediction confidence at @ 80%

Pressure- gradient method

Capillary chart that ilustrates the shift across the boundary between good
and poor quality sand

Structure map on top of porosity


Minimum cut off:
permeability = 1 md
Porosity = 2-4% (carbonate)
= 7-10%(sandstone)

Isopach map of total net sand

Net oil isopach above HKW

Isopach of total net oil sand

Perhitungan Kandungan Minyak


(OOIP) Secara Volumetric

Reserve Estimation
Methods

2.Material Balance
Later stage of development
Geological data, Rock and Fluid properties,
Production data
RF is calculated
Time dependant

DRIVE MECHANISM
SOLUTION
GAS DRIVE:
RF= 1015%
GAS CAP
GAS DRIVE
RF = 15
25%
WATER
DRIVE
RF = 20
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40%

SOLUTION GAS DRIVE

Solution Gas Drive


Crude oil under high pressure may contain large amounts of
dissolved gas. When the reservoir pressure is reduced as fluids
are withdrawn, gas comes out of the solution and displaces oil
from the reservoir to the producing wells. The efficiency of
solution gas drive depends on the amount of gas in solution, the
rock and fluid properties and the geological structure of the
reservoir.
Recoveries are low, on the order of 10-15 % of the original oil in
place (OOIP). Recovery is low, because the gas phase is more
mobile than the oil phase in the reservoir.
Solution gas drive reservoirs are usually good candidates for
water-flooding

GAS CAP DRIVE

Gas Cap Drive


The initial reservoir pressure is below the
bubble point, so there is more free gas in the
reservoir than the oil can retain in solution.
This free gas, because of density difference,
accumulates at the top of the reservoir and
forms a cap.
In gas cap drive reservoirs, wells are drilled
and completed in the oil producing layer of
the formation.
As oil production causes a reduction in
pressure, the gas in gas cap expands and
pushes oil into the well bores.

WATER DRIVE

Water Drive
Most oil or gas reservoirs have water aquifers. When this
water aquifer is continuously fed by incoming water, then
this bottom water will expand as pressure of the oil/gas zone
is reduced because of production.
The expanding water also moves and displaces oil or gas in
an upward direction from lower parts of the reservoir, so the
pore spaces vacated by oil or gas produced are filled by
water.
The oil and gas are progressively pushed by water towards
the well bore. Recovery factor may reach 50% of the original
oil in place (OOIP)

GRAVITY DRAINAGE

Gravity Drainage

Gravity drainage may be a primary producing


mechanism in thick reservoirs that have a good
vertical communication or in steeply dipping
reservoirs.
Gravity drainage is a slow process because gas
must migrate up structure or to the top of the
formation to fill the space formerly occupied by
oil.
Gas migration is fast relative to oil drainage so
those oil rates are controlled by the rate of oil
drainage.

COMBINATION DRIVE

Material Balance Method


Underground withdrawal (oil + gas + water) =
Expansion of oil
+ dissolved gas (A)
+ Expansion f gas-cap gas (B)
+ Reduction in HCPV (C)
+ water influx (D)

Material Balance Method - Basic Principle


A = Increase in HCPV due to the expansion of the oil phase (oil
+dissolved gas).
B = Increase in HCPV due to the expansion of the gas phase (free
gasin the gas cap).
C = decrease in HCPV due to the combined effects of the
expansion of the connate water and the reduction in reservoir pore
volume.
D = decrease in HCPV due to water encroachment (from aquifer)

MATERIAL BALANCE

N=

N=vol. minyak @
standar
G=vol. gas @ standar
W=vol. air @ reservoir
m=vol.gas/vol.minyak
@reservoir
Np=prod.minyak@stan
dar
Gp=prod. gas@ standa
r
Wp=prod. air @
standar
Np[ Bt ( Rp Rsi ) Bg ] (We BwWp )
mBti We=intrusi air @
Bt Bti
( Bg Bgi )
Bgi
reservoir
91 unit vol.
Bo, Bg, Bw=
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menyesuaikan

MATERIAL BALANCE
simultaneous drives

N=

Np[ Bt ( Rp Rsi ) Bg ] (We BwWp )


mBti
Bt Bti
( Bg Bgi )
Bgi

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MATERIAL BALANCE
simultaneous drives

N=

Np[ Bt ( Rp Rsi ) Bg ] (We BwWp )


mBti
Bt Bti
( Bg Bgi )
Bgi

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DDI = Depletion
Drive Index
SDI = Segregation
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Drive Index

Straight Line MBE

MBE can be modified as equations of straight lines, which can be


applied to different types of reservoirs (Havlena Odeh).

F= N (Eo + m Eg + Ef,w) + We Bw
F = summation of production terms:
Np [Bo + (Rp Rs) Bg] + Wp Bw (rb)
Eo = Oil and Dissolved gas expansion terms
[ (Bo Boi) + (Rsi Rs) Bg
Eg = Gas cap expansion term
Boi (Bg / Bgi 1)
Ef,w = rock and water compression/expansion terms
(1+m) NBoi
--------------- (cw Swc + cf) p + We Bw
(1 Swc)

MBE- Definitions of Variables


Production data
Np = Cumulative oil produced (stb)
Gp = cumulative gas produced (scf)
Wp = Cumulative water produced (stb)
Rp = Gp/Np = Cumulative produced gas-oil ratio (scf/stb)
Reservoir Data
pi = Initial mean pressure in the reservoir (psi)
p = current mean pressure in the reservoir, (psi)
Swc = connate water saturation, (fraction)
cf = Compressibility of formation (psi-1)
Fluid PVT Data
Bgi = Initial gas volume factor at pi (ft3/scf)
Bg = Gas volume factor at current pressure p (ft3/scf)
Boi = Initial oil volume factor at pi (rb/stb)
Bo = Oil volume factor at current pressure p (rb/stb)
cw = Compressibility of water (psi-1)
Bw = Formation volume factor of water at current pressure p (rb/stb)
Rsi = solution gas-oil ratio at initial pressure pi (scf/stb)
Rs = solution gas-oil ratio at current pressure p (scf/stb)

No gas cap, no water drive

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No gas cap

97

No water drive

98

No gas cap

99

No water drive

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WATER INFLUX

Np[ Bt ( Rp Rsi ) Bg ] (We BwWp )


mBti
Bt Bti
( Bg Bgi )
Bgi

DDI = Depletion Drive Index


SDI = Segregation Drive Index
WDI = Water Drive Index
DDI+SDI+WDI = 1
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WATER INFLUX
STEADY STATE
: SCHILTHUIS
MODIFIED STEADY STATE
: HURST
UNSTEADY STATE
:
VAN
EVERDINGEN & HURST

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WATER INFLUX

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WATER INFLUX

k= konstanta water influx


[bbl/day/psi]
dp= (pi-p) di batas reservoir /
aquifer [psi]
c= konstanta water influx
[bbl/day/psi
dp= (pi-p) di batas reservoiraquifer [psi]
B= konstanta
water influx
[bbl/day/ps
a = konstanta
konversi
waktu
dp= penurunan
tekanan [psi]
[f. unit waktu]
Q(t)=dimensionless water influx
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WATER INFLUX
VAN EVERDINGEN (RE/RW = 2 4)

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VAN EVERDINGEN
(RE/RW = 5 10)

Van Everdingen (re/rw = 2 4)

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RESERVE ESTIMATION
METHODS

3.Decline Curve Analysis


Later stage of development, production
rate undergoes natural decline
Mostly Production data, no Pressure data
RF is calculated
Time dependant

DECLINE CURVE OF AN OIL WELL

ADVANTAGE OF DECLINE CURVES


Decline curves are the most common means
of forecasting production. They
have many advantages:
Data is easy to obtain,
They are easy to plot,
They yield results on a time basis, and
They are easy to analyze.

EXPONENTIAL DECLINE
Exponential Deccline
the wells production data plots as a straight line on
a semilog paper. The equation is given by:

q = qi .eDt
where:
q = wells production rate at time t, STB/day
qi = wells production rate at time 0, STB/day
D = nominal exponential decline rate, 1/day
t = time, day

Hyperbolic Decline

Hyperbolic decline: plotted production shows


concaves upward data on a semilog paper.
The equation is given by:

Q = qi(1+bDi.t)-1/b
where:
q = wells production rate at time t, STB/day
qi = wells production rate at time 0, STB/day
Di = initial nominal exponential decline rate (t = 0), 1/day
b = hyperbolic exponent
t = time, day

HARMONIC DECLINE

harmonic decline: a special case of the hyperbolic decline

q = qi/(1+bDi.t)
where:
b=1
q = wells production rate at time t, STB/day
qi = wells production rate at time 0, STB/day
Di = initial nominal exponential decline rate (t = 0), 1/day
b = hyperbolic exponent = 1
t = time, day

RESERVE ESTIMATION
METHODS

4.Reservoir Simulation
can be applied at any production stage,
more reliable for matured reservoirs
Geological, Rock and Fluid properties,
Production data
More useful as reservoir management
tool

FRACT. FLOW & ITS DERIVATIVE

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FRACTIONAL FLOW EQUATION

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Front saturation and


reservoir average saturation

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TRANSITION ZONE

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2D FLUID FLOW

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DISPLACEMENT FRONT

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WELL PATTERNS

MICROSCOPIC DISPLACEMENT

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VERTICAL SWEEP EFFICIENCY

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VERTICAL SWEEP EFFICIENCY

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SWEEP EFFICIENCY

SWEEP EFFICIENCY

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AREAL & VERTICAL SWEEP EFFICIENCY

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Displacement efficiency

where S oi = initial oil saturation at start of flood


B oi = oil FVF at start of flood, bbl/STB
= average oil saturation in the flood pattern at a particular
point during the flood
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DYKSTRA PARSONS
coefficient of K variation (V)

V=
k50 = median permeability value, mD
k84.1 =permeability at 84.1%
probability

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Plot of permeability data


on log normal paper

V=

K,

mD

0.01

50

99.99

Percent of sample with higher Permeability


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Contoh perhitungan

HETEROGENITY

DYKSTRA PARSON, WOR = 1

DYKSTRA PARSON, WOR = 5

DYKSTRA PARSON, WOR = 25

DYKSTRA PARSON, WOR = 100

log normal paper, 3 cycles

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log normal paper, 3 cycles

138

contoh
Int #

Permeabilidad, k

Probabilidad

84,0

1,0

#NUM!

0,00

4,431 K84,1

11

73,0

1,0

-1,43

0,08

4,290 V:

0,7150

68,0

1,0

-1,02

0,15

4,220 H:

13

12

68,0

1,0

-0,74

0,23

4,220

62,0

1,0

-0,50

0,31

4,127

47,0

1,0

-0,29

0,38

3,850

10

38,0

1,0

-0,10

0,46

3,638

20,0

1,0

0,10

0,54

2,996

16,0

1,0

0,29

0,62

2,773

15,0

1,0

0,50

0,69

2,708

10,0

1,0

0,74

0,77

2,303

7,0

1,0

1,02

0,85

1,946

13

2,0

1,0

1,43

0,92

0,693

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Ln(k) K50

23
7

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