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Penuangan logam cair

Penuangan

logam

terutama

untuk

cair

dari

tungku

tungku
dengan

kapasitas yang besar tidak langsung


dimasukkan ke dalam cetakan, tetapi
biasanya dituangkan terlebih dahulu ke
dalam

ladle

(tapping

process)

dan

kemudian dituangkan ke dalam cetakan


(pouring process). Hasil dari cetakan
tersebut disebut ingot.
kusharjanto, metalurgi-unjani

Metode penuangan logam cair ke cetakan ing


1. Direct teeming
2. Tundishing
3. Uphill/trumpet
teeming
kusharjanto,
metalurgi-unjani

Penuangan logam
cair

kusharjanto, metalurgi-unjani

1. Direct
teeming

Logam
cair
dituangkan
ke
dalam cetakan dan langsung
mengenai dasar cetakan. Cara
ini
merupakan
cara
yang
termudah
tetapi
terjadi
percikan logam cair yang dapat
menyebabkan
cacat
pada
permukaan
ingot.
Dihindari
dengan memasang pelat yang
terbuat dari
baja dibagian
dasar cetakan yang nantinya
akan ikut menjadi cair.
kusharjanto, metalurgi-unjani

2. Tundishing
Kotak tundish diletakkan di antara ladle
dan cetakan, ini dapat mengurangi
kecepatan
jatuh
logam
cair
dan
menghindari percikan.
Tundish-nya bisa dibuat satu atau lebih
sehingga efisien.

kusharjanto, metalurgi-unjani

3. Uphill/trumpet
teeming
Logam
cair
dituangkan

melalui
saluran
berbentuk trompet yang berada ditengahtengah dua cetakan ingot, dimana logam cair
masuk ke dalam cetakan ingot dari bawah.

Kerugian
cara
ini
adalah
terbawanya
lining/bata tahan api akibat terkikis oleh aliran
logam cair.

kusharjanto, metalurgi-unjani

kusharjanto, metalurgi-unjani

Bentuk-bentuk cetakan ingot

kusharjanto, metalurgi-unjani

Jenis baja ingot:


1. Killed steel
2. Rimming steel
3. Balanced or semi-killed
steel

kusharjanto, metalurgi-unjani

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Terjadinya perbedaan baja ingot disebabkan


karena pada saat proses pemurnian logam cair
mengandung karbon dan besi oksida yang tidak
larut.

Selain

selama

proses

peleburan/pencairan

logam, harus dilakukan pengontrolan komposisi


paduan, perlu pula diperhatikan timbulnya gasgas yang dapat terjebak pada saat pembekuan
dalam cetakan atau pengotor-pengotor yang
belum terikat sempurna menjadi slag/terak.

Untuk

menghilangkannya

ditambahkan

deoksidan/deoxidizer seperti silikon, aluminum


atau mangan.
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Penampang ingot akibat proses


pembekuan

Proses pemanasan ingot


pada 1200 C, t= 4-8 jam

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Skematik pengolahan ingot

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15

Introduksi
Untuk
mendisain
dan
membuat
komponen yang bermanfaat, seorang
rekayasawan harus mengerti berbagai
sifat material dan dapat memilih dengan
benar material untuk aplikasi yang tepat
(the right material for
the
right
application).
application
Tetapi kadang-kadang kita tidak dapat
memilih material yang tepat atau yang
optimum, sehingga produk menjadi tidak
kompatibel dan masyarakat menjadi
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Sifat-sifat material merupakan fungsi dari:


Struktur atom
Ikatan
Struktur kristal
Ketidaksempurnaan
Jika

variasi

diketahui,

struktur

maka

tersebut

sifat-sifat

material

dapat ditentukan.
Kita

dapat

membuat

sifat-sifat

material sesuai dengan kebutuhan.


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Struktur Logam

Setiap
logam
ataupun non logam
merupakan
unsur
kimia.
Pada
temperatur
kamar
umumnya
berbentuk padatan
(Au, Fe dan Pb).
Beberapa berbentuk
gas (O dan N).
Sedikit
berbentuk
cairan (Br dan Hg).

Karakteristik
unsur

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Struktur atom
Struktur
atom
adalah
kumpulan atom yang terdiri
dari beberapa unsur kimia.
Bentuk umum untuk logam
dan
non-logam
adalah
senyawa dan larutan padat.
Senyawa:
material
yang
terdiri dari dua atau lebih
unsur yang secara kimiawi
dapat terbentuk.
Dalam
bentuk
yang
sederhana terbentuk dari
kusharjanto, metalurgi-unjani
dua unsur.

19

Relationship between:
Atoms
Molecules
Minerals
Rocks
Landforms

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Karakteristik
senyawa
yang terbentuk akan
berbeda
dari
unsurunsur pembentuknya.
Contoh pada air (H2O)
Air terbuat dari H dan
O,
dimana
keduanya
adalah gas.
H dan O adalah gas
yang berbahaya (mudah
terbakar dan beracun)
tetapi ketika bergabung
menjadi
air
sifatnya
berubah/berbeda
dari
asalnya.
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Ketika dua material bergabung


dan membentuk larutan, salah
satu akan menjadi diktator
dan
lainnya
akan
tunduk.
Diktator akan menguasai dan
melarutkannya.
Diktator material dalam larutan
biasanya adalah cairan. Material
yang terlarut bisa cair atau
padat. Contoh sederhana adalah
air garam atau air gula.
Setelah gula terlarut dalam air,
akan sulit untuk mengetahui
perbedaan air gula dan air biasa.
Air adalah diktator, secara total
menguasai gula. kusharjanto, metalurgi-unjani

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Diktator material =
SOLVENT
Material
terlarut
=
Pada
logam
berlaku
SOLUTE
padat
(solid solution).

larutan

Dengan demikian solvent dan


solute
keduanya
adalah
padatan.
Pelarutan
terjadi
pada
temperatur tinggi, di mana
kedua padatan berubah menjadi
cair.
Untuk
baja,
pada
temperatur tinggi, besi (Fe)
dapat melarutkan banyak unsurunsur khususnya karbon. Fe
menjadi diktator.kusharjanto,
Sejumlah
kecil
metalurgi-unjani

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Struktur partikel atom mirip dengan sistim tata surya


Secara umum struktur atom terdiri dari inti atau nucleus
(proton dan neutron) yang dikelilingi oleh elektron.
Proton = partikel bermuatan positif
Neutron = netral
Elektron = bermuatan negatif
Jumlah proton = jumlah elektron
Setiap kulit pada orbit elektron mengandung sejumlah
elektron, misalnya pada kulit pertama (terdekat dengan inti)
= 2 elektron, kedua = 8 elektron, ketiga = 18 elektron,
keempat = 32 elektron
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Jika kulit terluar telah terpenuhi jumlah


elektronnya, maka unsur akan menjadi
stabil dan tidak akan bereaksi dengan
unsur lain membentuk senyawa atau
molekul. Contoh: gas inert argon dan
helium
digunakan
sebagai
gas
pelindung dalam proses pengelasan,
karena tidak bereaksi dengan logam
untuk membentuk senyawa intermetalik
yang tidak diinginkan.
Jika kulit terluar belum terpenuhi
jumlah elektronnya, maka akan
berikatan dengan unsur lain untuk
membentuk senyawa atau molekul.
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Salah satu dasar untuk mengklasifikasi material


adalah ikatan kimia.
Dua jenis ikatan kimia:
1.Ikatan kuat (primary bonding): melibatkan
pembagian elektron (ikatan ion, kovalen dan
logam).
2.Ikatan
sekunder
(secondary
bonding):
melibatkan tarik menarik atom-atom yang
relatif lemah dan tidak ada pembagian atau
pertukaran elektron (ikatan van der waals).
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Sifat-sifat Tabel Periodik

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Sifat-sifat yang dimiliki oleh tabel periodik:


(dari kanan ke kiri)
1.Kekuatan
menurun)

logam

meningkat

(non-metalik

2.Radius atom meningkat


3.Potensial ionisasi menurun (energi yang
dibutuhkan untuk melepaskan elektron dati
atom)
4.Afinitas elektron menurun (energi yang
dilepaskan untuk memberikan elektron pada
atom)
5.Kelektronegatifan
menurun
kusharjanto, metalurgi-unjani
elektron menarik
sebuah atom)

(kemampuan
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Bonding

If atoms are large distance from each other, there is little


interaction.
As the distance between the atoms decreases, the energy
begins to decrease and the system becomes more stable.
Eventually, the atoms reach an optimal separation which
is the bottom of the energy curve. The separation is the
bond length. Bond energy is depth of well.
Atoms too close have repulsive energy.
Bonding occurs when two or more atoms come into close
proximity resulting in an attraction between atoms.
Bonding is attributed to interactions between the electrons.
unstable

System
Energy
Stable

Repulsive energy

Bond
Energy

Separated atoms

Distance between atoms

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Ionic Bond
When elements donate or
receive an electrons in its outer
shell a charged particle or an
ION is formed.
If the element gives up an
electron, it is then left with at
net + 1 charge, and is called a
POSITIVE ION.

Charged particles are


attracted to each other.

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Covalent Bonding

Occurs when valence


electrons are shared
Form between elements
that have too many or
require too many electrons
for Ionic Bond to form.
The nuclei is POSITIVE
(+), therefore, if electrons
(-) are shared by adjacent
nuclei, the result is a
VERY strong bond.

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Metallic Bond
Metallic elements have only 1, 2, or 3 electrons in
their outer shell.
Since fewer electrons, bond is relative loose to the
nucleus.
When valence electrons approach adjacent atoms
orbit, electrons may be "forced out of natural orbit".
Results in positive ions being formed.
These floating electrons form a "cloud" of shared
valence electrons, and electron movement can occur
freely.
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Van Der Waal Bond


Formed when an atom or
molecule
is
asymmetric,
creating a net polar moment
in the charges.
The bond is weak and is
found in neutral atoms such
as inert gases.
This type of bonding is of
little interest in metals.

More important in
polymers.

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Sifat-sifat material
Ada 4 sifat material:
1.Sifat fisik (physical properties)
2.Sifat mekanik (mechanical properties)
3.Sifat kimia (chemical properties)
4.Sifat teknologi (technological properties)

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Chemical and Physical


Properties

Chemical property the way a


substance reacts with others to form
new
substances
with
different
properties.
Involve the reactivity of elements or
compounds
Flammable
Able to rust or oxidize

Reactivity the ability of a


substance to combine chemically
with another substance.
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Chemical and Physical


Properties

Physical property a characteristic of a


substance that can be observed or
measured without changing the
composition of the substance.

Physical Properties
Shape, color, odor, texture
Melting point, boiling point, density,
strength, hardness, conductivity, etc.
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Physical Properties
Melting point the temperature at which
a solid becomes a liquid
Boiling point - the temperature at which
a liquid becomes a gas (below the
surface)
Density is calculated by dividing the
objects mass by its volume. D = m/V

Properties help determine uses


Copper is used in electrical power lines,
telephone lines, and electrical motors
because of its good electrical conductivity.
Ethylene
glycol remains a liquid at
temperatures that would normally boil or
freeze in a car radiator. (Antifreeze)
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Density of some items


Item

Chem Formula

Air
Gasoline
Water

Mixture
Mixture
H2O

Density
g/cm3
0.00129
1.9
1.00

Lead
Iron
Helium
Ice

Pb
Fe
He
H2O

11.3
7.86
0.00018
0.92

kusharjanto, metalurgi-unjani

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Chemical and Physical


Changes

Materials that stay in the same state


under normal conditions
Surgical steel
Concrete
Glass

Materials that change and combine


Gasoline
Car batteries
Human metabolism (oxidation)
Digestion, kusharjanto,
etc. metalurgi-unjani
41

Chemical and Physical


Properties

Chemical changes are changes in


composition

kusharjanto, metalurgi-unjani

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Chemical and Physical


Properties

Electrolysis the process by which


water can be broken down into
hydrogen and oxygen.
The atoms of oxygen and hydrogen are
not destroyed, but rearrange
themselves to form hydrogen and
oxygen gas. [See figure 2-22 in text.]
Burning of gasoline into C, CO2, & H2O
A change in odor or color is a good clue
that a substance is changing chemically
i.e. food burning, paint fading, etc.

kusharjanto, metalurgi-unjani

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Dimensional Change

The percent
shrinkage or
expansion of a
material

Usually expressed
as a percentage of
an original length
or volume
Examples?

Thermal change

Temperature
changes

tooth & material


changes are different

Results in leakage of
fluids between
restoration & tooth
Each material has a
different thermal
coefficient of
expansion

kusharjanto, metalurgi-unjani

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Thermal Conductivity

Materials have
different rates of
conducting heat

Metals have higher


value than plastics
or ceramics
Therefore, metals
would cause patient
to feel more
sensitivity

Enamel and dentin


are poor thermal
conductors
In deep
restorations, a
cement base will
be used as an
insulator
Gold causes the
most sensitivity

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Galvanism and Corrosion

Galvanism

Generation of
electrical currents
in mouth
Results from
presence of
dissimilar metals in
mouth
Causes pain and
tastes metallic

Corrosion

Dissolution of
materials in mouth
Results from presence
of dissimilar metals
Roughness and
pitting

Tarnish

Surface reaction of
metals to components
in saliva or foods

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Solubility and Sorption

Solubility

Susceptible to
being dissolved

Adsorption

Sorption

Adsorption plus
absorption

Natural process
where molecules of a
gas or liquid adhere
to the surface of a
solid

Absorption

Passage of a
substance into the
interior of another by
solution or
penetration

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Mechanical Properties
Mechanical properties apply to the way materials
behave when external loads and forces are applied.
Sometimes the material stretches (when loaded in
tension), bulges (when loaded in compression), or twists
(when loaded in torsion).
Anytime a load is applied to a material it will undergo
some change in shape. This change is called
deformation.
Mechanical properties indicate the strength and
deformability (change in shape) of a material.
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How a material deforms is useful in determining if it


is suitable for products and processing.
Example - if the material deforms easily it may not
have high enough strength but may process quite
easily.
It is important to find the proper characteristics of a
material to determine if it meets the requirements for
both the product and the processing.
Mechanical properties are usually determined by
carrying out tests based on standards that define the
procedure so comparisons can be made to the way a
certain material is expected to behave.
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Material
Loading

We will look at material loading in


several ways including:
tension,
compression,
shear
torsion.

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Stress
Stress or tensile strength refers to a
materials ability to resist being pulled apart .
Diagram shows a front view of a circular
member loaded in tension.
Stress is calculated by dividing the load (P)
by the cross sectional area (A)
Load ( P )
Stress ( S )
Area ( A)
P
S
A

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Problem
If a 1/2 inch diameter steel rod is used to suspend a
5000 pound load. What is the tensile stress in the
rod ?
Solution:

A = x R
= 3.14 x (0.25 in)
= 3.14 x 0.0625 in
= 0.19625 in
S = 5000 lbs. / 0.1963 in
= 25, 458.25 lbs / in
= 25, 500 psi
kusharjanto, metalurgi-unjani

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Strain
Material will change in length as a load is applied.
This is called strain and is measured by comparing
the change in length to the original length.
This change can be expressed as either a percentage
or a ratio with implied units being inches/ inch or
mm/mm
l = Extended length (lf) Original Length (lo)

l
e
x100%
l0
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Modulus of Elasticity
Modulus of Elasticity determines a materials stiffness.
Ratio of stress to strain within the elastic region.
Modulus of Elasticity (E) = Stress (S) / Strain (e)
E=S/e
As stiffness increases, slope of the line will become
steeper.
Material that stretches easily will have a "flatter"
slope.
Modulus of Elasticity is an important property in
determining how much deformation will occur under
load.
kusharjanto, metalurgi-unjani
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The diagram shown below illustrates the comparison of


some selected metals

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Up to this point we have considered only


tension.
Remember that normal stress is simply the
load divided by the cross sectional area when a
single axial load is applied.
We will now look at a few other types of
stresses and loading conditions including:
compression
bending
shear
torsion
kusharjanto, metalurgi-unjani

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Compression
The compressive strength of a material determines how much
it deforms under a compressive load.
Some materials such as concrete are strong in compression
but weak in tension.
Generally a material will respond in one of the three
following ways:

(A) Brittlekusharjanto,
Fracturemetalurgi-unjani
(B) Barreling

(C)
57 Buckling

Compression
For materials that are brittle only slight
deformation occurs prior to fracture.
With more ductile materials, failure may occur by
either barreling (when the length is less than twice
the diameter) or buckling (when the length is
greater 2.5 times the diameter).
Compressive stress can be determined by the load
divided by the cross sectional area.

kusharjanto, metalurgi-unjani

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Bending
When a member is subjected to bending, the outside
elements are placed in tension and the inside elements
are in compression.
At the center, stress is zero along the neutral axis.
The level of stress depends on the section geometry,
bending radius and loading, and the deflection depends
on the loading, section geometry and modulus of
elasticity.

kusharjanto, metalurgi-unjani

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Torsion
Torsion is stress created by twisting forces.
These forces have a moment or torque.
Example, torque is applied to a solid shaft to transmit torque
from the power source to the driven machine like a pulley, gear,
or flywheel.
Torque may also be applied by using a crank or lever (such as
a ratchet wrench driving a socket).
When torque is applied to a material, the material resists
being twisted, thus stresses are created - shear stresses.
Imagine a round bar being a column of washers. If the torque
is applied to one washer, it would slide or turn with respect to
the adjacent washer and create a shear force.
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Torsion
Strength of a material in torsion is similar to tension in
concept, however rather than using force divided by area to
find stress, torsion is force multiplied by the distance from
the end of the lever/pulley to the center of the material being
acted upon.

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Shear Stress
Shear describes the condition when parallel forces
(planes) act in opposing directions
Example - scissors cutting paper, or a hole punch
producing a hole.
Shear strength is also important in mechanical
fasteners, power transmission couplings, and many
manufacturing processes.
Shear stress is the applied force divided by the area
in shear.
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Shear Stress
Practical applications of how shear stress occurs.

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