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- GT2005-68276 AEROTHERMODYNAMIC DESIGN AND NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF RADIAL INFLOW TURBINE IMPELLER FOR A 100kW MICROTURBINE
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BRAYTON CYCLE

Used for gas turbines

GENERAL ELECTRIC

BRAYTON CYCLE

IDEAL

ACTUAL

BRAYTON CYCLE

Used for gas turbines

Gas turbines operate on an open cycle

an ideal Brayton cycle.

These are :

1 compressor

1 turbine

2 heat exchangers.

These devices are

steady-flow devices.

1st law of thermo :

q-w=hexit-hinlet

12

(isentropic)

s1=s2

23

(P=constant)

qin-w=h

0

qin=h

3-h2

constant

specific heats

T2 P2

T1 P1

k 1

k

P

3

P4

k 1

k

Cold air-standart

assumptions

qin=cp(T3-T2)

34

(isentropic)

s3=s4

41

(P=constant)

qout-w=h

qout=h0 4-h1

constant

specific heats

T3 P3

T4 P4

k 1

k

P2

P

1

Cold air-standart

assumptions

k 1

k

qout=cp(T4-T1)

th,Brayton

Cp (T4 T1 )

w net

q out

1

1

q in

q in

C P (T3 T2 )

th,Brayton 1

rp Pressure ratio

1

rp(k 1)/k

P2 P3

P1 P4

V3

V2

V1

r Compressin ratio

V2

rc Cutoff ratio

th,Brayton 1

rp

1

rp(k 1)/k

th,Brayton

Therefore, a gas turbine should be designed considering both efficiency

and net work output.

th,Brayton

Hovewer, T3 can not be increased above a certain value. Why ?

Turbine blades can not withstand high temperatures.

As a result of the significant advances such as ceramic coating

and cooling the blades with the air from the compressor, in

recent years, T3 has been increased up to 1425 0C and th,Brayton

increased above 30%.

Gas turbines :

are reliable

are easy to operate (one operator could be enough)

require less maintanence

light weighted

have high back work ratio (wcompressor/wturbine). More

than half of the power generated by turbine is spent by

compressor

Therefore, a larger turbine is needed to to produce a

prodefined net power output.

In steam power plants back work ratio is very small.

Why is back work ratio is high in gas turbines and low in

steam power plants ?

Because air (gas) is compressed in the compressor of a

gas turbine (v ) and liquid water is compressed in the

pump of a steam power plant (v ).

Reversible steady-flow work = w rev v dP

because of higher efficiencies of steam power plants.

Gas-turbines are mostly utilized in the power generation to cover

emergencies and peak periods.

Because they are relatively cheap and response time is very short.

On the high temperature side of a Dual Cycle

Light weight

because of higher efficiencies of Diesel engines.

Only when high speed is needed, gas turbines are used, because of low

efficiencies of gas-turbines.

ALSTOM-GT24

Fuel

Natural gas

188 MW

36.9 %

9756 kJ/kWh

Turbine speed

3600 rpm

32:1

445 kg/s

612 C

SIEMENS (5 MWe)

Sector : Pulp and paper industry

Turbine : SIEMENS, 1xGTX100,

HRSG

Purpose : Cogeneration

process steam for the local industry.

ENERJSA (ADANA)

2 gas turbines (each 40 MW) + 1 steam turbine (40 MW)

Cogeneration+Combined Cycle

Electricity+Steam are directly supplied to SASA

Extra electricity is sold to other consumers via interconnecte

system.

Main fuel is nafta.

Secondary fuel is diesel.

When available, natural gas will be used as the fuel.

SIEMENS

Marine Gas Turbine Engine

ROLLS-ROYCE

Example 8-5

A stationary power plant operating on an ideal

Brayton cycle has a pressure ratio of 8. The gas

temperature is 300 K at the compressor inlet and

1300 K at the turbine inlet. Utilizing the airstandart assuptions and accounting for the variation

of specif heats with temperature, determine

a. gas temperature at the exit of the compressor

b. back work ratio

c. thermal efficiency

a)

1 2 : (Isentropic process + Ideal gas), Account for the variation of specific

heats with temperature

h1= 300.19 kJ/kg

T1= 300 K Tablo A-17

Pr1= 1.386

Pr 2

P2

Pr 1 8 1.386 11 .09 Tablo A-17 T2= 540 K

h2= 544.35 kJ/kg

P1

b)

3 4 : (Isentropic process + Ideal gas), Account for the

variation of specific heats with temperature

T3= 1300 K

Pr 4

Tablo A-17

Pr3 = 330.9

P4

Pr 3 1 / 8 330.9 41.36

P3

Tablo A-17

T4= 770 K

h4= 789.11 kJ/kg

c)

wcomp,in= h2-h1 =(544.35-300.19) kJ/kg = 244.16 kJ/kg

Back work ratio = rbw

w comp,in

w turb,out

244.16 kJ / kg

0.402

606.86 kJ / kg

d)

qin= h3-h2= 1395.97-544.35=851.62 kJ/kg

Under cold-air-standard

assumptions (constant specific

wnet= wout-win= 606.86-244.16=362.7 kJ/kg heats) :

w

362.7

1

1

th 1 ( k 1 ) / k 1 ( 1.41 ) / 1.4 0.448

th net

0.426 ( 42.6%)

rp

8

q in

851.62

FROM IDEAL BRAYTON CYCLE

the ideal Brayton cycle. Because :

1. Heat addition and rejection can not be

achieved at P=const.

2. Actual compressor will consume more

work than the ideal (isentropic)

compressor due to int. irrever.

3. Turbine will produce less work than

the ideal (isentropic) turbine due to

int. irrever.

Deviation of actual compressor and turbine from the ideal ones

can be accurately accounted for utilizing adiabatic (isentropic)

efficiencies of the compressor and turbine :

comp

w s h 2s - h1

w a h 2a - h1

tur

w a h1 - h 2a

w s h1 - h 2s

and a turbine efficiency of 85 percent, determine;

a) the back work ratio,

b) the thermal efficiency,

c) the turbine exit temperature of the gas-turbine power plant

discussed in Example 8-5.

h1 = 300.19 kJ/kg

h2 = 544.35 kJ/kg

h3 = 1395.97 kJ/kg

h4 = 789.11 kJ/kg

wcomp,in= 244.16 kJ/kg

wturb,out= 606.86 kJ/kg

a)

Compressor : Wa

Ws - 244.16

305.20 kJ/kg

c

0.80

Back work ratio : rbw

Wcomp,in

Wturb,out

305.20

0.592

515.83

b)

1 2a :

wcomp,in=h2a-h1

2 3 :

h2a=h1+ wcomp,in

h2a=300.19+305.20=605.39 kJ/kg

T2a=598 K

Net work output & thermal efficiency :

Wnet 210.63

th

0.266

q in

790.58

c)

q34a-w34a=h3-h4a

h4a=h3-wturb,a

h4a=1395.97-515.83

h4a=880.14 kJ/kg

Tablo A-17

T4a=853 K

h1

300.19 kJ/kg

300.19 kJ/kg

h2

544.35 kJ/kg

605.39 kJ/kg

h3

1395.97 kJ/kg

1395.97 kJ/kg

h4

789.11 kJ/kg

880.14 kJ/kg

wcomp,in

244.16 kJ/kg

305.20 kJ/kg

wturb,out

606.86 kJ/kg

515.83 kJ/kg

wnet

362.7 kJ/kg

210.63 kJ/kg

qin

851.62 kJ/kg

790.58 kJ/kg

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