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GENERAL ELECTRIC

BRAYTON CYCLE
Used for gas turbines

GENERAL ELECTRIC

BRAYTON CYCLE

IDEAL

ACTUAL

BRAYTON CYCLE
Used for gas turbines
Gas turbines operate on an open cycle

There are 4 devices in


an ideal Brayton cycle.
These are :
1 compressor
1 turbine
2 heat exchangers.
These devices are
steady-flow devices.
1st law of thermo :
q-w=hexit-hinlet

12
(isentropic)
s1=s2

23
(P=constant)
qin-w=h
0
qin=h
3-h2

constant
specific heats
T2 P2

T1 P1

k 1
k

P
3
P4

k 1
k

Cold air-standart
assumptions

qin=cp(T3-T2)

34
(isentropic)
s3=s4

41
(P=constant)
qout-w=h
qout=h0 4-h1

constant
specific heats
T3 P3

T4 P4

k 1
k

P2

P
1

Cold air-standart
assumptions
k 1
k

qout=cp(T4-T1)

THERMAL EFFICIENCY OF THE CYCLE

th,Brayton

Cp (T4 T1 )
w net
q out

1
1
q in
q in
C P (T3 T2 )

th,Brayton 1
rp Pressure ratio

1
rp(k 1)/k

P2 P3

P1 P4

V3
V2
V1
r Compressin ratio
V2
rc Cutoff ratio

th,Brayton 1
rp

1
rp(k 1)/k

th,Brayton

rp first wnet later wnet

wnet A larger mass flow rate is needed A larger system is needed.


Therefore, a gas turbine should be designed considering both efficiency
and net work output.

(Tmax=T3=Gas temp. at turbine inlet)

th,Brayton

T3=900 0C T3=1200 0C th,Brayton increases 26%.


Hovewer, T3 can not be increased above a certain value. Why ?
Turbine blades can not withstand high temperatures.
As a result of the significant advances such as ceramic coating
and cooling the blades with the air from the compressor, in
recent years, T3 has been increased up to 1425 0C and th,Brayton
increased above 30%.

A TURBINE BLADE WITH COOLING HOLES

Gas turbines :
are reliable
are easy to operate (one operator could be enough)
require less maintanence
light weighted
have high back work ratio (wcompressor/wturbine). More
than half of the power generated by turbine is spent by
compressor
Therefore, a larger turbine is needed to to produce a
prodefined net power output.
In steam power plants back work ratio is very small.
Why is back work ratio is high in gas turbines and low in
steam power plants ?
Because air (gas) is compressed in the compressor of a
gas turbine (v ) and liquid water is compressed in the
pump of a steam power plant (v ).
Reversible steady-flow work = w rev v dP

Gas turbines are used in :

1.Electric power generation (alone)

Electricity is prodominantly generated by large steam power plants,


because of higher efficiencies of steam power plants.
Gas-turbines are mostly utilized in the power generation to cover
emergencies and peak periods.
Because they are relatively cheap and response time is very short.

2.Electric power generation (together with steam power plants)


On the high temperature side of a Dual Cycle

3.Aircraft propulsion generation


Light weight

4.Marine propulsion generation (with Diesel engines)

At low speeds and cruise operation Diesel engines generate propulsion,


because of higher efficiencies of Diesel engines.
Only when high speed is needed, gas turbines are used, because of low
efficiencies of gas-turbines.

GAS TURBINES FOR ELECTRIC POWER GENERATION

ALSTOM-GT24

Fuel

Natural gas

Gross Electrical output

188 MW

Gross Electrical efficiency

36.9 %

Gross Heat rate

9756 kJ/kWh

Turbine speed

3600 rpm

Compressor pressure ratio

32:1

Exhaust gas flow

445 kg/s

Exhaust gas temperature

612 C

GAS TURBINES FOR ELECTRIC POWER GENERATION

SIEMENS (5 MWe)

SIEMENS (6,75 MWe)

GAS TURBINES FOR ELECTRIC POWER GENERATION

SIEMENS (17 MWe)

GAS TURBINES FOR ELECTRIC POWER GENERATION

SIEMENS (30 MWe)

GAS TURBINES FOR ELECTRIC POWER GENERATION

SIEMENS (43 MWe)

Company : Arjo Wiggins, France


Sector : Pulp and paper industry
Turbine : SIEMENS, 1xGTX100,
HRSG
Purpose : Cogeneration

SIEMENS (43 MWe)

Simple cycle extension with 52 MW electrical output and


process steam for the local industry.

ENERJSA (ADANA)

120 MWe power


2 gas turbines (each 40 MW) + 1 steam turbine (40 MW)
Cogeneration+Combined Cycle
Electricity+Steam are directly supplied to SASA
Extra electricity is sold to other consumers via interconnecte
system.
Main fuel is nafta.
Secondary fuel is diesel.
When available, natural gas will be used as the fuel.

GAS TURBINES FOR MARINES

SIEMENS

GAS TURBINES FOR MARINES

General Electric LM2500


Marine Gas Turbine Engine

GAS TURBINES FOR MARINES

ROLLS-ROYCE

Example 8-5
A stationary power plant operating on an ideal
Brayton cycle has a pressure ratio of 8. The gas
temperature is 300 K at the compressor inlet and
1300 K at the turbine inlet. Utilizing the airstandart assuptions and accounting for the variation
of specif heats with temperature, determine
a. gas temperature at the exit of the compressor
b. back work ratio
c. thermal efficiency
a)
1 2 : (Isentropic process + Ideal gas), Account for the variation of specific
heats with temperature
h1= 300.19 kJ/kg
T1= 300 K Tablo A-17
Pr1= 1.386
Pr 2

P2
Pr 1 8 1.386 11 .09 Tablo A-17 T2= 540 K
h2= 544.35 kJ/kg
P1

b)
3 4 : (Isentropic process + Ideal gas), Account for the
variation of specific heats with temperature
T3= 1300 K
Pr 4

Tablo A-17

h3= 1395.97 kJ/kg


Pr3 = 330.9

P4
Pr 3 1 / 8 330.9 41.36
P3

Tablo A-17

T4= 770 K
h4= 789.11 kJ/kg

c)
wcomp,in= h2-h1 =(544.35-300.19) kJ/kg = 244.16 kJ/kg

wturb,out= h3-h4 =(1395.97-789.11) kJ/kg = 606.86 kJ/kg


Back work ratio = rbw

w comp,in
w turb,out

244.16 kJ / kg
0.402
606.86 kJ / kg

d)
qin= h3-h2= 1395.97-544.35=851.62 kJ/kg

Under cold-air-standard
assumptions (constant specific
wnet= wout-win= 606.86-244.16=362.7 kJ/kg heats) :
w
362.7
1
1
th 1 ( k 1 ) / k 1 ( 1.41 ) / 1.4 0.448
th net
0.426 ( 42.6%)
rp
8
q in
851.62

DEVIATION OF ACTUAL GAS-TURBINE CYCLES


FROM IDEAL BRAYTON CYCLE

Actual gas-turbine cycle differes from


the ideal Brayton cycle. Because :
1. Heat addition and rejection can not be
achieved at P=const.
2. Actual compressor will consume more
work than the ideal (isentropic)
compressor due to int. irrever.
3. Turbine will produce less work than
the ideal (isentropic) turbine due to
int. irrever.
Deviation of actual compressor and turbine from the ideal ones
can be accurately accounted for utilizing adiabatic (isentropic)
efficiencies of the compressor and turbine :

comp

w s h 2s - h1

w a h 2a - h1

tur

w a h1 - h 2a

w s h1 - h 2s

Example 8-6 : Assuming a compressor efficiency of 80 percent


and a turbine efficiency of 85 percent, determine;
a) the back work ratio,
b) the thermal efficiency,
c) the turbine exit temperature of the gas-turbine power plant
discussed in Example 8-5.

h1 = 300.19 kJ/kg
h2 = 544.35 kJ/kg
h3 = 1395.97 kJ/kg
h4 = 789.11 kJ/kg
wcomp,in= 244.16 kJ/kg
wturb,out= 606.86 kJ/kg

a)
Compressor : Wa

Ws - 244.16

305.20 kJ/kg
c
0.80

Turbine : Wa T Ws 0.85 * 606.86 515.83 kJ/kg


Back work ratio : rbw

Wcomp,in
Wturb,out

305.20
0.592
515.83

b)

1 2a :

wcomp,in=h2a-h1
2 3 :

h2a=h1+ wcomp,in
h2a=300.19+305.20=605.39 kJ/kg
T2a=598 K

qin=h3- h2a =1395.97-605.39=790.58 kJ/kg


Net work output & thermal efficiency :

wnet=wout- win =515.83-305.20=210.63 kJ/kg


Wnet 210.63
th

0.266
q in
790.58

c)

q34a-w34a=h3-h4a

h4a=h3-wturb,a
h4a=1395.97-515.83
h4a=880.14 kJ/kg

Tablo A-17

T4a=853 K

h1

300.19 kJ/kg

300.19 kJ/kg

h2

544.35 kJ/kg

605.39 kJ/kg

h3

1395.97 kJ/kg

1395.97 kJ/kg

h4

789.11 kJ/kg

880.14 kJ/kg

wcomp,in

244.16 kJ/kg

305.20 kJ/kg

wturb,out

606.86 kJ/kg

515.83 kJ/kg

wnet

362.7 kJ/kg

210.63 kJ/kg

qin

851.62 kJ/kg

790.58 kJ/kg