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EARTHQUAKE HISTORYCATASTROPHES-FAILURESEARTHQUAKE GROUND MOTIONSTRONG MOTION CHARACTERISTICS

EARTHQUAKE HISTORY

MAJOR EARTHQUAKES IN
WORLD

Chile
1960 M9.5
Alaska
1964 M9.2
Indonesia 2004 M9.0
Russian
1952 M9.0
Ecuador 1906 M8.8

5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

Alaska
1957 M8.8
Kuril Is.
1958 M8.7
Alaska
1965 M8.7
India 1950 M8.6
Argentina 1922
M8.5

MAJOR EARTHQUAKES IN
INDIA
Date

Location

Deaths

December 26, 2004

India

283,106

9.1

January 26, 2001

Gujarat

20,000

7.6/7.7

September 30, 1993

Latur,Maharashtra

9,748

6.2

October 20, 1991

Uttarkashi,Uttarakhand

>2,000

7.0

August 21, 1988

Udayapur, Nepal

~1,000

6.36.7

August 15, 1950

Arunachal Pradesh

1,526

8.6

June 26, 1941

India

7,000

8.1

January 15, 1934

NepalBihar earthquake

>10,000

8.0

April 4, 1905

Kangra

>20,000

7.8

June 12, 1897

Shillong,India

1,500

8.3

June 16, 1819

Gujarat

>1,543

8.2

EFFECTS

EFFECTS
Ground failures
1.Soil Liquefaction
2.Landslides
3.Ground subsidence
Indirect effects
1.Fire
2.Tsunami
Ground Shaking

Soil Liquefaction
Solid state to liquid
state
Loose its ability to
carry loads
Low lying areas
near water bodies

Landslides
Triggered by the
vibrations
Slope failure

Ground subsidence
Settlement of
ground due to
compaction caused
by vibratory effect
of EQ

Fire
Earthquakes
sometimes cause fire
due to broken gas
lines, contributing to
the loss of life and
economy.

Tsunami

Tsunami

Ground Shaking
Ground shakes horizontal(back and
forth) and vertical(up and down)
directions
Major damaging effect
Buildings respond differently to shaking
depending on construction styles, materials
Wood -- more flexible, holds up well
Earthen materials, unreinforced concrete -- very
vulnerable to shaking

Ground Shaking

EARTHQUAKE GROUND
MOTION
Complexity of EQ ground motion is due
to three effects
Source effect
Path effect
Local site effect

Source effect
Seismic waves generated at the time
of EQ fault movement are not of a
uniform characteristics.

Path effect
As the seismic waves pass through
the earth on their way to project site,
they are modified by media through
which they pass

Local site effect


Once the seismic waves reach the
project site, they undergo further
modifications, which are depend on
the characteristics of ground and
soil at the site

Estimation of ground motion


parameter(y)
m-measure of size of EQ
R-measure pf source to
site distance
f-suitable function

STRONG MOTION

STRONG MOTION STUDIES IN INDIA


200-RESA & 350-SRR are installed in
himalayan & sub- himalayan belt

RESA-rookee EQ school
accelerograph
SRR-structural response recorders

TERMINALOGIES IN STRONG
MOTION CHARACTERISTICS

Amplitude parameters
PHA
- largest absolute value of horizontal
acceleration recorded at the site
v/a ratio
-it can be related to frequency content of
ground motion(distribution of energy wrt
frequencies)
ad/v ratio
- it can be related to sharpness of flatness of
response spectrum
-generally 5-15

DURATION OF STRONG
MOTION
Time interval in which 90% of the
total contribution of energy of
vibration takes place
Usually time interval between 5%95% contribution

Fourier Spectra
The plot of Fourier amplitude of input time
history vs time period or frequency is known as
Fourier spectrum.
Since the Fourier analysis provides both
amplitude and phase angles, Fourier spectra
could either be a Fourier amplitude spectrum or
Fourier phase spectrum.
The Fourier amplitude spectrum provides
inputs on the frequency content of the motion
and helps to identify the predominant
frequency of motion.

Fourier Spectra

Fourier Spectra

power spectrum
Frequency contents of ground motion can also be
represented by a power spectrum or power spectral density
function.
The ordinate of power spectra is calculated as

where
G(w) - the spectral density at natural circular
frequency, w ;
Td -the duration of time history
Cn -the Fourier amplitude at natural circular
frequency w

power spectrum

Response Spectra
A plot showing the maximum response induced
by ground motion in single degree offreedom
oscillators of different fundamental time
periods having same damping is known as
response spectrum.
The maximum response could be spectral
acceleration, spectral velocity or spectral
displacement
The response spectra can be plotted with any
of the three parameters (acceleration,velocity
and displacement) vs period/frequency

Response Spectra

Response Spectra
all three
parameters can
also be
represented in a
single graph known
as tripartite plot or
Displacement
velocity
acceleration (DVA)
spectrum

SEISMIC DEMAND
DIAGRAMS
ADRS-performance based
concept
Capacity diagram(base
shear vs roof
displacement)
Super impose the
Capacity diagram and
seismic demand diagram
Intersection of these
curves provides the
estimate of displacement
demand

SPATIAL VARIATIONS
Used in spatially extended
structures(eg.long span bridges)
Spatial variations of ground motion
is modeled by the product of two
functions representing two
phenomena

SPATIAL VARIATIONS
1.Incoherence effect
-caused by changes in waveform
due to multiple reflections ,diffractions
due to heterogeneities along travel path
b/w two stations
2.Wave propagation effect
-accounting for the finite delay in
wave arrivals at a distant station due to
finite propagation velocities

MEASURES OF SEVERITY
1.Arias EQ intensity

2.RMS acceleration

MEASURES OF SEVERITY
3.Housner spectral intensity

4. EQ destructiveness potential
factor(Araya-Saragoni)

THANK YOU