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The History of Computing:

1940 to Present
Matthew Jones

1940s
1941: Konrad Zuse builds the worlds first
program-controlled calculator, the Z3.
1946: ENIAC, first electronic, digital,
reprogrammable computer, turned on.
1947: Brittain, Bardeen, and Shockley
invent the transistor, igniting the
microprocessor revolution.

The Turing Test


Developed in 1950 by Alan Turing.
Attempts to determine if a computer can

produce humanlike output.


States that if a human has a conversation
between himself and a person, and
himself and a computer, and cannot tell
the difference, the computer can perform
humanlike conversation.
Forms the basis for Artificial Intelligence.

1950s
1951: EDVAC, first binary digital computer,
turned on.
1956: Reynold Johnson developes the
first hard disk.

1960s
1961: First operating system, CTSS, is
developed.
1962: First computer game developed.
1964: First computer mouse developed.

Moores Law
Published by Gordon E. Moore in 1965.
States that the number of transistors one
can place on silicon for minimum cost
doubles every two years.
Subsequently, the speed of processors will
double every two years.

Datapoint 2200
Developed by Computer Terminal
Corporation in 1970.
Originally designed to interface with
several mainframes.
Enterprising companies realized it
functioned well on its own, and used it as
a standalone computer.
First resemblance of a home computer.

1970s
1970: Development of Unix started.
1971: Gary Starkweather modifies a Xerox
copier and creates the first laser printer.
1971: Intel releases the worlds first
commercial microprocessor, the 4004.
1977: There is no reason anyone would
want a computer in their home.
1979: The compact disc is invented.

Honeywell v. Sperry Rand


Suit-countersuit attempting to determine if
Sperry Rand could keep the patent on the
digital computer it had since ENIAC.
Eventually determined the patent, infirm,
and placed the invention of the computer
in public domain.

1980 1990
1981: Microsoft buys exclusive rights to

DOS operating system.


1984: Apple Computer markets the
Macintosh, the first successful home
computer.
1985: CD-ROM produced by Sony and
Phillips jointly.
1990: Microsoft releases Windows 3.0, the
first true multitasking operating system.

1991 Present
1991: Linus Torvalds releases the LINUX

operating system.
1993: Intel releases the Pentium.
1993: Doom releases. First consideration
of the PC as a gaming platform.
As of 2004, a chip of silicon measuring
0.02 inches holds about the same data as
the ENIAC, which was the size of a large
room.

References

Gordon Moore Photo: VIP Host System. 2004. <www.viphostsystem.com/glossario/moore.jpg


>
<www.viphostsystem.com/glossario/moore.jpg>
Intel Pentium Photo: Know-Library.net <
http://www.know-library.net/images/thumb/9/91/180px-Pentium133-vorn.jpg>
http://www.know-library.net/images/thumb/9/91/180px-Pentium133-vorn.jpg>
Konrad Zuse Photo: Lee, J. A. N. 1994. <http://
ei.cs.vt.edu/~history/Zuse.GIF>
>
<http://ei.cs.vt.edu/~history/Zuse.GIF
ENIAC Photo: Lindsay, Don. 1997. <http://www.don-lindsay-archive.org/talk/eniac.jpg
>
<http://www.don-lindsay-archive.org/talk/eniac.jpg>
EDVAC Photo: <http://
http://lieuxdits.free.fr/edvac.jpg
lieuxdits.free.fr/edvac.jpg>
>
<
Alan Turing Photo: Russell, Stuart, and Peter Norvig. AI: A Modern Approach. Jan. 30, 2003.
http://aima.cs.berkeley.edu/graphics/turing.jpg
Early Mouse Photo: Wikipedia Foundation. <
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/2/2d/Firstmouseunderside.jpg>
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/2/2d/Firstmouseunderside.jpg>
Datapoint 2200 Photo: Old-Computers.com. <
http://old-computers.com/museum/photos/ctc_datapoint-2200_1.jpg>
http://old-computers.com/museum/photos/ctc_datapoint-2200_1.jpg>
Gary Starkweather Photo: Fluxgold, Howard. Laser printer inventor aims for paperless newspaper. 2003. <
http://www.sfu.ca/mediapr/files/starkweather.g.jpg
>
http://www.sfu.ca/mediapr/files/starkweather.g.jpg>
4004 Microprocessor Photo: Davidson, Michael W. Intel 4004 Microprocessor. 2007. <
http://micro.magnet.fsu.edu/micro/gallery/computers/4004.jpg>
http://micro.magnet.fsu.edu/micro/gallery/computers/4004.jpg>
Apple Macintosh Photo: History of Microcomputers. 2002. <
http://www.fortunecity.com/marina/reach/435/mac.jpg>
http://www.fortunecity.com/marina/reach/435/mac.jpg>
Linus Torvalds Photo: <http://
www.granneman.com/images/linus_torvalds.jpg>
>
<http://www.granneman.com/images/linus_torvalds.jpg
1971: Microprocessor taken from: White, Stephen. A Brief History of Computing. Copyright 1996. Accessed
on January 25, 2007. <http://trillian.randomstuff.org.uk/~stephen/history/>
"Timeline of computing." Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia.
Encyclopedia. 5 Jan 2007, 17:10 UTC. Wikimedia Foundation, Inc.
25 Jan 2007 <http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Timeline_of_computing&oldid=98674580>.
"Moore's Law." Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia.
Encyclopedia. 25 Jan 2007, 16:32 UTC. Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. 25 Jan
2007 <http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Moore%27s_Law&oldid=103165746>.