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ALGEBRA 2

MS. LOPEZ

Rational Expressions

Rational Expressions

Rational expressions can be written

in the form

where P and Q are both

polynomials and Q 0.

3x 2 2 x 4

4x 5

4x 3y

2

2

2 x 3 xy 4 y

3x 2

4

Simplifying a rational expression means

writing it in lowest terms or simplest form.

To do this, we need to use the

Fundamental Principle of Rational

Expressions

If P, Q, and R are polynomials, and Q and R are not 0,

PR P

QR Q

Simplifying a Rational Expression

2) Apply the Fundamental Principle of Rational

Expressions to eliminate common factors in the

numerator and denominator.

Only common FACTORS can be eliminated from the

numerator and denominator. Make sure any

expression you eliminate is a factor.

x 3 x 4 ( x 4)( x 1) x 1

2

x5

x x 20 ( x 5)( x 4)

2

Multiply the following rational expressions.

( m n)

m

(m n)( m n) m

2

( m n) m( m n )

m n m mn

2

mn

mn

Divide the following rational expression.

25

( x 3) 5 x 15 ( x 3)

5

5 x 15

5

25

2

( x 3)( x 3) 5 5

x3

5 5( x 3)

When the division cannot be completed by factoring,

polynomial long division is used and closely resembles

whole number division

sometimes used to ensure that like place values will

line up as we carry out the algorithm

(using long division)

Find the quotient of 8 x 3 27 and 2 x 3

2 x 3 8 x 27

3

2 x 3 8 x 0 x 0 x 27

3

Factors

If one number divides evenly into another, it must be a factor of the

original number

The same idea holds for

polynomials

This means that division can be used as a tool for

factoring

We need to do two things first

a. Find a more efficient method for

division

b. Find divisors that give a remainder of

zero

Synthetic Division

2 x 13 x 17 x 5

2

1 -2 -13

-17

15

10

remainder

Try it yourself

x 12 x 34 x 7

x7

3

If a polynomial P(x) is divided by a linear

factor (x-r), the remainder is identical to

P(r) the original function evaluated at r.

Use the remainder theorem to find the value of H(-5) for

H x x 3x 8 x 5 x 6

4

value of P(1/2) for

P x x 2 x 3x 2

3

We say that x=r is a root or zero of a polynomial, p(x), if

p(r)=0.

In other words, x=r is a root or zero of a polynomial if it is a

solution to the equation p(x)=0.

Theorem

P x x 3 x 4 x 12

3

Roots of mulitplicities

Roots of multiplicity

A polynomial equation of

degree n has exactly n

roots, (real and complex)

where roots of multiplicity

m are counted m times.

Algebra

The Fundamental Theorem of

Algebra

Every complex polynomial of degree n1 has at least one complex

root.

Our search for a solution will not be fruitless

or wasted, solutions for all polynomials exist.

The fundamental theorem combined with the factor

theorem enables to state the linear factorization theorem.

The Rational Roots Theorem

(RRT)

coefficients, the rational roots of P (if they exist) must be of the

form p/q, where p is a factor of the constant term and q is a

factor of the lead coefficient (p/q must be written in lowest terms)

for

3 x 14 x x 42 x 24 0

4

graph

If the degree of the polynomial is odd, the ends will point in opposite directions:

1. Positive lead coefficient: down on left, up on right (like y=x 3)

2. Negative lead coefficient: up on left, down on right (like y=-x 3)

If the degree of the polynomial is even, the ends will point in the same direction:

3. Positive lead coefficient: up on left, up on right (like y=x 2)

4. Negative lead coefficient: down on left, down on right (like y=-x 2)

Zeroes of odd multiplicity will cross through the x-axis

Zeroes of even multiplicity will bounce off the x-axis

2

f x x 3 x 2

Cross through

bounce

graph

g(x) = (x - 2) (x + 1) (x 1)

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