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Doing

Resear
ch...
has never
been this
fun and

Review of Related
Literature:
Is the meat of research - the foundation of the research
manuscript and barometer of the extent of materials collected,
read, analyzed or referenced (Amorado, 2013).
Is a process of collecting, selecting and reading reference
materials including online resourcesto get relevant information
about the problem under investigation (David, 2002).
Is a synthesis the combining of often varied and
diverse ideas, forces or factors into coherent or consistent
complex of the literature on a topic (Pan, 2004).
Shows balance between the researchers ideas and concepts,
and the existing literature properly referenced by
attribution or citation.

Review of Related
Literature:
Resonation
The problem of corruption has now been more recognized
than in the past as one of the intractable conflict drivers in
the Philippines (Alejo 2010). This is further exacerbated
because conflict and post-conflict situations can provide a
very fertile ground for corruption and a host of anomalies
and irregularities that undermine peace and development
initiatives in conflict-affected countries (Adriano, 2009;
Amorado, 2008; Bolongaita, 2005; Johnston, 2010).

Review of Related
Literature:
Compare (likeness) and Contrast (difference)
Some forms of social capital networks emerge as comparable
features: bridge, liaison, star and isolate (Allen, 1976); coalition,
clique and factions (Boissevain, 1978); hub, gatekeeper and pulse
taker (Stephenson, 1998); knot and knotwork, subnet and core
group (Nardi et al., 2000); dyad, triad, sub-group and group (Prell,
2002); and spoke (Krebs, 2004). However, these forms and
structures move in contrasting fashion when it comes to their
sources of power, specifically in terms of morphological power
and interactional power (Mitchell, 1969); strong ties and weak ties
(Granovetter, 1973, 1978); strength, reciprocity, symmetricality,
multiplicity, and appropriateness of behavior (Waldstrom2001);
and betweeness and closeness (Krebs 2004).

Review of Related
Literature:
Resonate and Debunk
There are two emerging views on social capital as it relates
to the issue of corruption. On one hand, social capital is an
effective tool to combat corruption (Bjornskov, 2004). But on
the other hand, social capital is in fact a promotion of
corruption (Putnam, 2000).

Review of Related
Literature:
Converge and Diverge
Networks and associations are the foundations of social capital,
widely accepted and upheld of its value that yields to beneficial
effects - known as the social good - to society (Granovetter,
1973,1983; Boissevain, 1974; Bourdieu, 1985; Coleman, 1990;
Putnam, 1993, 2000; Zimicki, 2000; Lin, 2001; Uslaner, 2001).
However, many advanced the idea of a different kind of social
capital, one that is detrimental to society known as the social
bad that goes against the very intent of its beneficial value to
society (Henderson, 1999; Bertrand, 2000; Zimicki 2000;
McGuire, 2000; Carroll 2001; Rey et. al., 2001)

Review of Related
Literature:
Departure
Alejo echoed that many conflicts and much violence today
originate in corruption and bad governance (2012). This
focus requires expertise and a deep spirituality of integrity.
However, Kpundehs (2008) view that disregarded
corruption being caused by leadership failure as a result of
moral failing of politicians, bureaucrats and businessmen is
more useful to consider corruption as a political and
economic phenomenon.

Theoretical Framework:
A theory or proposition to which the study is
anchored upon or has found its position
One that is directly-related to the theme or
subject matter being discussed
Sets the tone and shapes the direction of the
study

Explain the function and


relationship of each of the
variable present in the
framework to the objective
of the study.

Conceptual Framework:

Graphical relationship of variables used


Descriptive survey (variable x - variable y)
Correlation study (independent - dependent)

Types of Variables:
Dependent variable (Criterion variable)
is the focus or primary interest of the researcher
subject to understand, to describe, to explain or to predict

Independent variable (Predictor variable)


is the factor that influences the dependent variable either
positively or negatively
establishes the causal relationship or association
Workforce
diversity

Organizational
effectiveness

Types of Variables:
Moderating variable
is one that has a strong contingent effect on the independentdependent variable
without it, the causal relationship will not hold true

Intervening variable
is the factor that surfaces between the time the independent variable
starts affecting the dependent variable
works in the service of the independent variable
explains how independent variable affects dependent variable

Workforce
diversity

Creative
Synergy

Managerial
Expertise

Organizational
effectiveness

Research design:
Research Type or Nature
Quantitative
Qualitative
Innovation (Capstone Project)
Creative Art
Describe the design and its
appropriateness to the study

Research design:

Research design:

Research design:

Research design:

Research design:
Traditions of Qualitative Research
Ethnography/
Anthropology

Understanding the social world of people being


studied through
immersion in their community to produce detailed
description
of people, their culture and beliefs.

Phenomenolog
y/
Ethnomethodol
ogy

Understanding the 'constructs people use in


everyday life to
make sense of their world. Uncovering meanings
contained
within conversation or text
Conversation analysis
Analyzing the way different conversations are
structured
and the meanings they contain
Discourse analysis
Examining the way knowledge is produced within
different
discourses and the performances, linguistic styles

Research design:
Traditions of Qualitative Research
Symbolic
Interactionism

Exploring behavior and social roles to understand


how people
interpret and react to their environment
Grounded theory
Developing 'emergent' theories of social action
through the identification of analytical categories
and the relationships between them
Ethogenics
Exploring the underlying structure of behavioral
acts by investigating the meaning people attach to
them

Constructivism Displaying 'multiple constructed realities' through


the shared
investigation (by researchers and participants) of
meanings and
explanations
Critical theory

Identifying ways in which material conditions

Research design:
CLASSES OF QUALITATIVE
RESEARCH
ETHNOGRAPHY
BIOGRAPHICAL
CASE STUDY
PHENOMENOLOGICAL
GROUNDED THEORY
CONTENT ANALYSIS

Research design:
Make sure to define your
research design backed
with literature

Justify why the design


best fits your study

Research design:
Quantitative

Qualitative

Focus

Design

Focus

Design

Relationship/
Influence

Correlation

Lived
experiences

Phenomenolog
y

Describing/
Factors

Descriptive
Exploratory

Describing/
Insights

Descriptive
Case Study

Impact/Effect

Experimental

Cultural/Ethnic

Ethnography

Efficiency

Data
Envelopment
Analysis

Life

Biographical

Perspective

Delphi (panel of History


experts)

Anthropological

Research Method:
Survey
Document Analysis
Interview
Observation
FGD
Data Content Analysis
Discourse Analysis

Research respondents:
Description of respondents (who)
Context or setting (where)
Sampling size (how many)
Sampling design (how were they
selected)
Address the issue of informed
consent (ethic concern)

Sampling Technique:
Simple random sampling
all elements in the population are considered and
each element has an equal chance of being chosen

Systematic sampling
every nth element in the population is chosen
starting from a random point

Stratified random sampling


population is first divided into meaningful segments
(with same attributes); thereafter subjects are drawn in
proportion to their original numbers in the population

Sampling Technique:
Cluster sampling
groups that have heterogeneous members are first
identified; then some are chosen at random

Area sampling
cluster sampling within a particular area or locality

Double sampling
same sample or a subset of the sample is studied
twice

Convenience sampling
most easily accessible members are chosen as
subjects

Sampling Technique:
Purposive sampling:
(samples are taken based on a set criteria)
Judgment sampling
respondents are selected on the basis of their
expertise in the subject investigated

Quota sampling
respondents are conveniently chosen from targeted
groups according to some predetermined number or
quota

Sampling Technique:

Describe your sampling


technique backed with strong
literature
Justify its appropriateness to
the study as method for
selecting your respondents

Sampling Size:

Depends on the size of the


population (the larger the
population, the higher the

sample size)

Depends on the objective of the


study (inferential and conclusive
studies require higher samples)
www.raosoft.com

Research instrument:
Description of the instrument
Form
Scaling
Validation and reliability issue
Interpretation table
Details of the manufacturer, calibration criteria and
recording settings (for equipment)
questionnaire
test
interview
observation schedule
checklist

Constructed
Adopted
Modified

Research instrument:
Validation of the instrument
3 expert validators
Validation package:
Form
Statement of the Problem
Survey questionnaire / checklist / guide questionnaire

NOTE: Please make sure that your adviser has reviewed


and approved your questionnaire before sending them to
your panel for validation.

Scale:

Scale:
Ordinal Scale
is used to rank the preferences or usage of various
brands of a product by individuals and to rank order
individuals, objects, or events
Legend: 1 being the most used system
0 is not used
_____ Apple
_____ Compaq
_____ Copm USA
_____ Dell computer
_____ Gateway
_____ Hewlett-packard
_____ IBM
_____ Sony
_____ Toshiba
_____ Other (specify)

Scale:
Interval Scale
is used when responses to various items that
measure a variable can be tapped on a five-point (or
any other number of points) scale
Types:
1.Likert Scale (degree of agreement or disagreement)
2.Semantic Differential Scale (attitude towards bipolar attributes)
3.Numerical Scale (same with semantic differential but uses numbers)
4.Itemized Rating Scale (same with likert scale but other than agreement
or disagreement to item statement)
5.Fixed or Constant Sum Scale (distribution of a given number of points
across various items)
Item statement

Strongly
Disagree

Disagre
e

1
2
My job offers me a chance to
test myself and my abilities

Neither
agree
nor
disagree
3

Agree

Strongly
agree

Scale:
Responsive

___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___

Unresponsive

Beautiful

___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___

Ugly

Extremely
Displeased

Extremely
Pleased

Item statement

Not at All
Interested
1

1
Somewha
t
Intereste
d
2

Moderatel
y
Intereste
d
3

1. I have the interest to change the current organizational policies


2. I have the interest to change
the current management
structure
Soap
Points
Color
Shape
Size
Texture of lather
Total points

100

Very
Much
Intereste
d
4
_____
_____

Scale:
Ratio Scale
overcomes the disadvantage of the arbitrary origin of
interval scale. It has an absolute zero point.
it measures not only the magnitude of the differences
between points on the scale but also taps the proportions in
the difference
Example:
1.How many other organizations did you work for before
joining the institution?
2.Please indicate the number of children you have in each of
the following categories:
___ below 3 years of age ___ over 6 years but under 12
___ between 3 and 6
___ 12 years and over
3. How many retail outlets do you operate? ___

Data gathering procedures:


Bullet form
Permission to conduct study
Formulation of research instrument
Validation and reliability test
Administration of research instrument
Retrieval
Tabulation
Analysis and interpretation

Modes of Data Collection:


Personal or Face-to-Face Interviews
ADVANTAGES

DISADVANTAGES

Can establish rapport and motivate


respondents
Can clarify the questions, clear
doubts, add new questions
Can read nonverbal cues
Rich data can be obtained
Can use visual aids or any material
to clarify points

Takes personal time


Costs more when a wide geographic
region is covered
Respondents may be concerned
about confidentiality of information
given
Interviewers need to be trained
Can introduce interviewer bias
Respondents can terminate the
interview at any time

Telephone Interviews
ADVANTAGES
Less costly and speedier than
personal interviews
Can reach a wide geographic area
Greater anonymity than personal
interviews

DISADVANTAGES
Nonverbal cues cannot be read
Interviews will have to be kept short
Regular updating of contact
numbers

Modes of Data Collection:


Personally Administered Questionnaire
ADVANTAGES

Can establish rapport and motivate


respondents
Can clarify the questions and clear
doubts
Less expensive when administered
to groups of respondents
Almost 100% response rate ensured
Anonymity of respondent is high

DISADVANTAGES

Organizations may be reluctant to


give up company time for the
survey with groups of employees
assembled for the purpose

Mail Questionnaire
ADVANTAGES
Anonymity is high
Wide geographic regions can be
reached Token gifts can be enclosed
to seek compliance
Respondent can take more time to
respond at convenience

DISADVANTAGES
Response rate is almost always low
Cannot clarify questions
Follow-up procedures for nonresponses are nececessary

Modes of Data Collection:


Electronic Questionnaire
ADVANTAGES

Easy to administer
Can reach globally
Very inexpensive
Fast delivery
Respondents can answer at their
convenience

DISADVANTAGES

Computer literacy is a must


Respondents must have access to
the facility
Respondents must be willing to
complete the survey

Techniques in Data Gathering:


(Qualitative)
APRIORI
Biased
consideration of
participants
responses
All positive only
All negative
only

EMERGENT
Not biased to
responses.
Considers all
answers,
thoughts and
feelings of the
participants

Type of Data Samples:

Statistical tool:
Frequency (nominal, ordinal)
Percentage (nominal, ordinal)
Central limit theorem - mean, median, mode (interval, ratio)
Standard deviation (interval, ratio)
T-test (test of difference between 2 groups nominal to interval,
ratio)
Anova /F-test (test of difference among multiple groups nominal to interval, ratio)
Chi-square (test of relationship nominal to nominal)
Fisher exact probability test (test of relationship nominal to
nominal )
Cochran Q test (test of relationship nominal to nominal)

Statistical tool:
Pearson-r (test of relationship interval, ratio)
Kendalls rank (test of relationship ordinal to ordinal)
Spearmans rank (test of relationship ordinal to ordinal)
Multiple regression (test of relationship multiple predictor
variables interval, ratio)
Time-series (trending/forecasting nominal, ordinal)
Factor analysis (nominal, ordinal)

Matching of Scales & Statistical tool:


Variates

Dependent Variable

Statistical Tool

One - nominal

One nominal

Chi-square
Cochran Q test
Fisher exact
probability

One nominal

One ordinal

Sign test
Median test
Mann-Whitney U test
Kruskal Wallis 1way analysis of
variance

One nominal

One interval

Anova

One nominal

Multiple interval

Multiple discriminant
analysis

One ordinal

One - ordinal

Spearmans rank
Kendalls rank

One ordinal

One interval

Anova

Matching of Scales & Statistical tool:


Variates

Dependent Variable

Statistical Tool

Multiple nominal

One ordinal

Friedman 2-way
analysis of variance

Multiple nominal

One interval

Anova

Multiple nominal

Multiple interval

Anova

Multiple interval

One nominal

Anova
Multiple discriminant

Multiple interval

One interval

Regression analysis
Multiple Regression
analysis

Multiple interval

Multiple nominal

Anova

Multiple interval

Multiple ordinal

Multiple discriminant
analysis

Multiple interval

Multiple interval

Multiple Regression
analysis
Canonical correlation

Qualitative Research:
Chapter 2:
Review of Related Literature
Theoretical Lens

Chapter 3:
Method
Study Design
Study Participants and Selection Process
Phases of Exploration
Role of the Researchers
Trustworthiness of the Study
Ethical Consideration

Thank You!