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Design of Pelton

turbines

When to use a Pelton


turbine

Energy conversion in a
Pelton turbine
Outlet

Outlet of
the runner

Inlet of
Outlet of
the runner the needle

Inlet of
the needle

c2
2

Main dimensions for the


Pelton runner

The ideal Pelton runner


Absolute velocity from nozzle:

c1 2 g H n

c1

c1
1
2 g Hn

Circumferential speed:

c1u 1
u1
2 g Hn
2 2

u1 0.5

Euler`s turbine equation:

h 2(u1 c1u u 2 c 2 u )
c1u 1

cu 2 0

h 2 (u1 c1u u 2 c 2u ) 2 (0,5 1.0 0,5 0) 1

The real Pelton runner

For a real Pelton runner there will always be loss


We will therefore set the hydraulic efficiency to:

h 0.96
The absolute velocity from the nozzle will be:

0.99 c1u 0.995


C1u can be set to 1,0 when dimensioning the turbine.
This gives us:

h 2(u1 c1u u 2 c 2 u )

n
0,96
u1

0,48
2 c1u 2 1,0

From continuity equation:

d
Q z
c1u
4
2
s

4Q
ds
z c1u
Where:
Z
Q
C1u

=
=
=

number of nozzles
flow rate
2 g Hn

The size of the bucket


and number of nozzles
B
3.1 3.4
ds
Rules of thumb:
B = 3,1 ds
B = 3,2 ds
B = 3,3 ds
B > 3,3 ds

1 nozzle
2 nozzles
4-5 nozzles
6 nozzles

Number of buckets
z 17

empirical

Number of buckets

Runner diameter
Rules of thumb:
D = 10 ds
D = 15 ds
D < 9,5 ds
D > 15 ds

Hn < 500 m
Hn = 1300 m

must be avoided because water


will be lost
is for very high head Pelton

Speed number
Qz
d s2
d s2
Q
c1u
4
4

c1u 1,0
u1 0,5

2 g Hn

2 u1
1

2 g Hn D 2 g Hn D 2 g Hn D

1 d s2 z
Q z
D
4

ds

z
4

For the diameter:


and one nozzle:

ds

D = 10 ds
z=1

z 1 1

0,09
4
10 4

The maximum speed number for a Pelton


turbine with one nozzle is = 0,09

For the diameter:


and six nozzle:

ds

D = 10 ds
z=6

z 1 6

0,22
4
10 4

The maximum speed number for a Pelton


turbine today is = 0,22

Dimensioning of a
Pelton turbine
1.

The flow rate and head are given


*H = 1130 m
*Q = 28,5 m3/s
*P = 288 MW

2.

Choose reduced values


c1u = 1
u1 = 0,48

3.

c1u = 149 m/s


u1 = 71 m/s

Choose the number of nozzles


z=5

4.

Calculate ds from continuity for one nozzle


ds

4Q
0,22 m
z c1u

5.

Choose the bucket width


B = 3,3 ds= 0,73 m

6.

Find the diameter by interpolation


D
0,005 H n 8 13,65
ds

D 13,65 d s 3,0 m

D/ds
15

10
400

1400

Hn [m]

7.

Calculate the speed:


u1

D 2 n D

2
60
2

u 60
n 1
452 rpm
D

8.

Choose the number of poles on the generator:


The speed of the runner is given by the generator and
the net frequency:
n

3000
[rpm]
Zp

where Zp=number of poles on the generator


The number of poles will be:
Zp

3000
6,64 7
n

9.

Recalculate the speed:


n

10.

3000
428,6 [rpm]
Zp

Recalculate the diameter:


u1

11.

D 2 n D

2
60
2

Choose the number of buckets


z = 22

u1 60
3,16 m
n

12.

Diameter of the turbine housing (for vertical turbines)

D Hou sin g D K B 9,4 m


K
9

8
1

13.

Calculate the height from the runner to the water level


at the outlet (for vertical turbines)

Height 3.5 B D 3,1 m

Given values:

Chosen values:

Calculated values:

*Q = 28,5 m3/s
*H = 1130 m

c1u = 1
u1 = 0,48
z=5
B = 0,73 m
z = 22
Zp = 7

ds = 0,22 m
n = 428,6 rpm
D = 3, 16 m
Height = 3,1 m
Dhousing= 9,4 m
*P = 288 MW

*Q = 28,5 m3/s
*H = 1130 m
*P = 288 MW

GE Hydro

Jostedal, Sogn og Fjordane

*Q = 28,5 m3/s
*H = 1130 m
*P = 288 MW

GE Hydro

Jostedal, Sogn og Fjordane

Example
Khimti Power Plant
1. The flow rate and head are given
*H = 660 m
*Q = 2,15 m3/s
*P = 12 MW

2. Choose reduced values


c1u = 1
u1 = 0,48

c1u = 114 m/s


u1 = 54,6 m/s

3. Choose the number of nozzles


z=1

Example
Khimti Power Plant
4. Calculate ds from continuity for one
nozzle
ds

4Q
0,15 m
z c1u

5. Choose the bucket width


B = 3,2 ds= 0, 5 m

6. Find the diameter by interpolation


D
0,005 H n 8 11,3
ds

D 11,3 d s 1,7 m
D/ds
15

10
400

1400

Hn [m]

7. Calculate the speed:


D 2 n D
u1

2
60
2

u1 60
613 rpm
D

8. Choose the number of poles on the


generator:
The speed of the runner is given by
the generator and the net frequency:
3000
n
[rpm]
Zp

where Zp=number of poles on the


generator
The number of poles will be:

3000
Zp
4,9 5
n

9. Recalculate the speed:

3000
n
600 [rpm]
Zp
10. Recalculate the diameter:

u1

D 2 n D

2
60
2

u1 60
1,74 m
n

11. Choose the number of buckets


z = 22