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Definitions

Solvent is the liquid in which the solute is dissolved

an aqueous solution has water as solvent

A saturated solution is one where the concentration is

at a maximum - no more solute is able to dissolve.

A solution is composed of a solvent which is the

dissolving medium and a solute which is the

substance dissolved.

In a solution there is an even distribution of the

molecules or ions of the solute throughout the

solvent.

expressed in a variety of ways

(qualitatively and quantitatively).

Formerly, the concentration of a solution

can be expressed in four ways:

Molarity(M): moles solute / Liter solution

Mass percent: (mass solute / mass of

solution) * 100

Molality (m) - moles solute / Kg solvent

Mole Fraction(cA) - moles solute / total moles

solution

Qualitative Expressions of

Concentration

A solution can be qualitatively described as

dilute: a solution that contains a small

proportion of solute relative to solvent, or

concentrated: a solution that contains a

large proportion of solute relative to

solvent.

A solution can be semi-quantitatively described as

Unsaturated: a solution in which more solute will

dissolve, or

Saturated: a solution in which no more solute will

dissolve.

The solubility of a solute is the amount of solute

that will dissolve in a given amount of solvent to

produce a saturated solution.

as it is sometimes called)

We need two pieces of information to calculate the

percent by mass of a solute in a solution:

The mass of the solute in the solution.

The mass of the solution.

Use the following equation to calculate percent by

mass:

Molality

solute dissolved in exactly one kilogram of

solvent. (Note that molality is spelled with two

"l"'s and represented by a lower case m.)

We need two pieces of information to

calculate the molality of a solute in a solution:

The moles of solute present in the solution.

The mass of solvent (in kilograms) in the

solution.

To calculate molality we use the equation:

Molarity

exactly one liter of a solution. (Note that molarity is

spelled with an "r" and is represented by a capital M.)

We need two pieces of information to calculate the

molarity of a solute in a solution:

The moles of solute present in the solution.

The volume of solution (in liters) containing the

solute.

To calculate molarity we use the equation:

one mole of a solute dissolved in, and

made up to 1 litre with solvent.

Mole:

A counting unit

Similar to a dozen, except instead of 12, its 602

billion trillion 602,000,000,000,000,000,000,000

6.02 X 1023 (in scientific notation)

A Mole of Particles Contains 6.02 x 1023 particles

1 mole C= 6.02 x 1023 C atoms

1 mole H2O = 6.02 x 1023 H2O molecules

1 mole NaCl = 6.02 x 1023 NaCl molecules

The mole is the SI base unit that measures an

amount of substance.

One mole contains Avogadro's number

(approximately 6.0231023) (number of atoms or

molecules).

following formula:

solution= Required mol/l solution X Molecular

mass of substance

Example

Make a solution of 50 ml of sodium chloride, 0.15

mol/l:

Required mol/l concentration= 0.15

Molecular mass of NaCl= 58.44

Therefore 50 ml NaCl, 0.15 mol/l contains:

0.15X 58.44 X 50 = 0.438 g of the

chemical

.

1000

substance dissolved in 50 ml of solvent.

1 mol/l

mol/l:

Required mol/l concentration= 1

Molecular mass of NaCl= 58.44

Therefore 1 lit NaCl, 1 mol/l contains:

1 X 58.44= 58.44 g of the chemical dissolved

in 1 litre of solvent.

0.15 mol/l (physiological saline)

mol/l solution:

By the following formula:

Mol/l solution =

g% (w/v) solution X 10

Examples:

To convert a 4% w/v NaOH solution into a mol/l

solution:

Gram % solution = 4

Molecular mass of NaOH= 40

Conversion to mol/l= 4X10 = 1

40

Therefore 4% w/v NaOH is equivalent to NaOH, 1

mol/l solution.

into a mol/l solution

mol/l solution:

By the following formula:

mol/l solution= Normality of solution

Valence of substance

Examples:

Convert 0.1 N (N/10) HCl into a mol/l solution:

Normality of solution= 0.1

Valence of HCl= 1

Conversion to mol/l= 0.1/1= 0.1

Therefore 0.1 N HCl is equivalent to HCl, 0.1mol/l

solution.

solution (valence =2)

In the laboratory it is frequently necessary to dilute

solutions and body fluids to reduce its concentrations.

Diluting solutions:

A weaker solution can be made from a stronger

solution by using the following formula:

Volume (ml) of stronger solution required= R X V

O

Where: R= concentration of solution required

V= volume of solution required.

O= strength of original solution.

Examples:

To make 500 ml of NaOH, 0.25 mol/l

from a 0.4 mol/l solution:

C= 0.25 mol/l, V= 500 ml, S=0.4 mol/l ml

of stronger solution required:

0.25 x 500 = 312.5 ml

0.4

Therefore, measure 312.5 ml NaOH,

0.4 mol/l and make up to 500 ml with

distilled water.

Example 1

benzoic acid from glucose 100 mmol/l

solution :

C= 3 mmol/l V= 100 ml S= 100 mmol/l

ml of stronger solution required= 3 x 100 = 3

100

Therefore, measure 3 ml of glucose, 100

mmol/l and make up to 100 ml with 1 g/l

benzoic acid.

Example 2

H2SO4 which has an approximate concentration of 18

mol/l:

C= 0.33 mol/l, V= 500 ml S= 18 mol/l

ml of stronger solution required= 0.33 x 500 = 9.2

18

Therefore, measure 9.2 ml conc. H2SO4, and slowly add

it to about 250 ml of distilled water in a volumetric flask.

Make up to 500 ml with DW.

1.0 mol/l solution:

dilutions

To prepare a dilution or series of dilutions of a body

fluid:

Examples: To make 8 ml of 1 in 20 dilution of blood:

Therefore, to prepare 8 ml of a 1in 20 dilution, add

0.4 ml of blood to 7.6 ml of diluting fluid.

2- To make 4 ml of a 1 in 2 dilution of serum in

physiological saline:

Volume of serum required= 4/2 = 2 ml

Therefore, to prepare 4 ml of a 1in 2 dilution, add 2 ml

Examples:

1- Calculate the dilution of blood when using 50 l of

blood and 950 l of diluting fluid:

Total volume of body fluid and diluting fluid=

50+950=1000 l

Therefore, dilution of blood: 1000/50= 20

i. e. 1 in 20 dilution.

2- Calculate the dilution of urine using 0.5 ml of urine

and 8.5 ml of diluting fluid (physiological saline):

Total volume of urine and diluting fluid= 8.5+0.5=9

ml

Therefore, dilution of urine: 9.0/0.5= 18

i. e. 1 in 18 dilution.

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