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Solutions

Definitions

A solution is a homogeneous mixture


Solvent is the liquid in which the solute is dissolved
an aqueous solution has water as solvent
A saturated solution is one where the concentration is
at a maximum - no more solute is able to dissolve.
A solution is composed of a solvent which is the
dissolving medium and a solute which is the
substance dissolved.
In a solution there is an even distribution of the
molecules or ions of the solute throughout the
solvent.

The concentration of a solution can be


expressed in a variety of ways
(qualitatively and quantitatively).
Formerly, the concentration of a solution
can be expressed in four ways:
Molarity(M): moles solute / Liter solution
Mass percent: (mass solute / mass of
solution) * 100
Molality (m) - moles solute / Kg solvent
Mole Fraction(cA) - moles solute / total moles
solution

Qualitative Expressions of
Concentration
A solution can be qualitatively described as
dilute: a solution that contains a small
proportion of solute relative to solvent, or
concentrated: a solution that contains a
large proportion of solute relative to
solvent.

Semi-Quantitative Expressions of Concentration


A solution can be semi-quantitatively described as
Unsaturated: a solution in which more solute will
dissolve, or
Saturated: a solution in which no more solute will
dissolve.
The solubility of a solute is the amount of solute
that will dissolve in a given amount of solvent to
produce a saturated solution.

Percent Composition (by mass)

We can consider percent by mass (or weight percent,


as it is sometimes called)
We need two pieces of information to calculate the
percent by mass of a solute in a solution:
The mass of the solute in the solution.
The mass of the solution.
Use the following equation to calculate percent by
mass:

Molality

Molality, m, tells us the number of moles of


solute dissolved in exactly one kilogram of
solvent. (Note that molality is spelled with two
"l"'s and represented by a lower case m.)
We need two pieces of information to
calculate the molality of a solute in a solution:
The moles of solute present in the solution.
The mass of solvent (in kilograms) in the
solution.
To calculate molality we use the equation:

Molarity

Molarity tells us the number of moles of solute in


exactly one liter of a solution. (Note that molarity is
spelled with an "r" and is represented by a capital M.)
We need two pieces of information to calculate the
molarity of a solute in a solution:
The moles of solute present in the solution.
The volume of solution (in liters) containing the
solute.
To calculate molarity we use the equation:

Mole per liter solutions

A mole per litre (mol/l) solution contains


one mole of a solute dissolved in, and
made up to 1 litre with solvent.

Mole:

A counting unit
Similar to a dozen, except instead of 12, its 602
billion trillion 602,000,000,000,000,000,000,000
6.02 X 1023 (in scientific notation)
A Mole of Particles Contains 6.02 x 1023 particles
1 mole C= 6.02 x 1023 C atoms
1 mole H2O = 6.02 x 1023 H2O molecules
1 mole NaCl = 6.02 x 1023 NaCl molecules
The mole is the SI base unit that measures an
amount of substance.
One mole contains Avogadro's number
(approximately 6.0231023) (number of atoms or
molecules).

Preparation of mol/l solution

To preparation a mol/l solution, use the


following formula:

Number of grams to be dissolved in 1 litre of


solution= Required mol/l solution X Molecular
mass of substance

Example
Make a solution of 50 ml of sodium chloride, 0.15
mol/l:
Required mol/l concentration= 0.15
Molecular mass of NaCl= 58.44
Therefore 50 ml NaCl, 0.15 mol/l contains:
0.15X 58.44 X 50 = 0.438 g of the
chemical
.
1000
substance dissolved in 50 ml of solvent.

Make liter of sodium chloride (NaCl),


1 mol/l

To make 1 litre of sodium chloride (NaCl), 1


mol/l:
Required mol/l concentration= 1
Molecular mass of NaCl= 58.44
Therefore 1 lit NaCl, 1 mol/l contains:
1 X 58.44= 58.44 g of the chemical dissolved
in 1 litre of solvent.

To make 1 litre of sodium chloride,


0.15 mol/l (physiological saline)

Conversion a percentage solution into a


mol/l solution:
By the following formula:
Mol/l solution =
g% (w/v) solution X 10

Molecular mass of the substance


Examples:
To convert a 4% w/v NaOH solution into a mol/l
solution:
Gram % solution = 4
Molecular mass of NaOH= 40
Conversion to mol/l= 4X10 = 1

40
Therefore 4% w/v NaOH is equivalent to NaOH, 1
mol/l solution.

Convert a 0.9% w/v NaCl solution


into a mol/l solution

Conversion of a normal solution into a


mol/l solution:
By the following formula:
mol/l solution= Normality of solution
Valence of substance
Examples:
Convert 0.1 N (N/10) HCl into a mol/l solution:
Normality of solution= 0.1
Valence of HCl= 1
Conversion to mol/l= 0.1/1= 0.1
Therefore 0.1 N HCl is equivalent to HCl, 0.1mol/l
solution.

To convert 1 N Na2CO3 into a mol/l


solution (valence =2)

How to dilute solutions and body fluids


In the laboratory it is frequently necessary to dilute
solutions and body fluids to reduce its concentrations.

Diluting solutions:
A weaker solution can be made from a stronger
solution by using the following formula:
Volume (ml) of stronger solution required= R X V
O
Where: R= concentration of solution required
V= volume of solution required.
O= strength of original solution.

Examples:
To make 500 ml of NaOH, 0.25 mol/l
from a 0.4 mol/l solution:
C= 0.25 mol/l, V= 500 ml, S=0.4 mol/l ml
of stronger solution required:
0.25 x 500 = 312.5 ml
0.4
Therefore, measure 312.5 ml NaOH,
0.4 mol/l and make up to 500 ml with
distilled water.

Example 1

Make 100 ml glucose, 3 mmol/l in 1 g/l


benzoic acid from glucose 100 mmol/l
solution :
C= 3 mmol/l V= 100 ml S= 100 mmol/l
ml of stronger solution required= 3 x 100 = 3
100
Therefore, measure 3 ml of glucose, 100
mmol/l and make up to 100 ml with 1 g/l
benzoic acid.

Example 2

To make 500 ml H2SO4, 0.33 mol/l from concentrated


H2SO4 which has an approximate concentration of 18
mol/l:
C= 0.33 mol/l, V= 500 ml S= 18 mol/l
ml of stronger solution required= 0.33 x 500 = 9.2
18
Therefore, measure 9.2 ml conc. H2SO4, and slowly add
it to about 250 ml of distilled water in a volumetric flask.
Make up to 500 ml with DW.

Make 1 litre of HCl, 0.01 mol/l from a


1.0 mol/l solution:

Diluting body fluids and calculating


dilutions
To prepare a dilution or series of dilutions of a body
fluid:
Examples: To make 8 ml of 1 in 20 dilution of blood:

Volume of blood required= 8/20 = 0.4 ml


Therefore, to prepare 8 ml of a 1in 20 dilution, add
0.4 ml of blood to 7.6 ml of diluting fluid.
2- To make 4 ml of a 1 in 2 dilution of serum in
physiological saline:
Volume of serum required= 4/2 = 2 ml
Therefore, to prepare 4 ml of a 1in 2 dilution, add 2 ml

of serum to 2 ml of physiological saline.

To calculate the dilution of a body fluid


Examples:
1- Calculate the dilution of blood when using 50 l of
blood and 950 l of diluting fluid:
Total volume of body fluid and diluting fluid=
50+950=1000 l
Therefore, dilution of blood: 1000/50= 20
i. e. 1 in 20 dilution.
2- Calculate the dilution of urine using 0.5 ml of urine
and 8.5 ml of diluting fluid (physiological saline):
Total volume of urine and diluting fluid= 8.5+0.5=9
ml
Therefore, dilution of urine: 9.0/0.5= 18
i. e. 1 in 18 dilution.