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ADVANCED/MODERN

INDUSTRIAL
ELECTRONICS
Project 20 : INPUT
DEVICES
BY:
NORLAILI BT SAAD
(KGK150005)
NUR AINI SYAKIMAH BT
AHMAD SHUYUTI
(KGZ150001)

AGENDA

Introduction to Sensors, Transducers


& Transmitters
Temperature Sensors
Pressure Sensors
Position Sensors
Motion Sensors
Flow Sensors
Level Sensors
Density & Viscosity Sensors
pH Sensors, Humidity Sensors & Gas
Detectors

INTRODUCTION
In order for an electronic circuit or system to
perform any useful task or function it needs to be
able to communicate with the real world whether
this is by reading an input signal from an ON/OFF
switch or by activating some form of output device
to illuminate a single light.

An electronic system or circuit must be able to do


something and SENSORS and TRANSDUCERS are
the perfect components for doing this.

TRANSDUCERS
A transducer is a device that converts one form of energy
into another form for some specific purpose.
Transducers can be categorized as:
Active
Transducer
Operates without the
need for a source of
external power.

Examples:
microphones, speakers,
headsets, light bulbs,
antennas

Passive
Transduce
rs
Draw power from an
external source in order
to work
(Battery,power supply)
Examples:
amplifiers, oscillators,
tape recorders, radio
receivers and
transmitters

EXAMPLES OF TRANSDUCERS

The following are commonly used transducers:


Accelerometer: Converts acceleration into variable electric current.
Amplifier: Converts alternating electric currents or voltages into
currents or voltages having greater amplitude.
Capacitor (variable): Allows regulation of circuit characteristics on
the basis of rotational displacement.
Piezoelectric cell: Converts mechanical vibration into electric current,
and vice versa.
Potentiometer: Allows regulation of electric current based on
rotational displacement.
Pressure-sensitive device: Allows regulation of electric current based
on physical pressure on a surface.

TRANSDUCER VS TRANSMITTER
Transducer and transmitter are virtually the
same thing,the main difference being the
kind of electrical signal each sends.
A transducer send a signal in volts (V) or
milivolts(mV) and a transmitter sends a
signal in miliamps (mA).
Combined sensor/transducer device is
typically called a transmitter, at least in
industrial settings. Laboratory equipment
manufacturers are likely to refer to the
combined device as a transducer.

SENSORS
A sensor acquires a physical quantity and converts it
into a signal which suitable for processing .
(e.g. optical, electrical, mechanical)
Nowadays common sensors convert measurement of
physical phenomena into an electrical signal .

TYPES OF SENSOR
SENSORS

ANALOGUE

DIGITAL

OUTPUT SIGNAL

VOLTAGE
mV,mA

DISCRETE DIGITAL
0-1, ON/OFF,0-5V

MEASURED QUANTITY

TEMPERATURE, SPEED, PRESSURE,


DISPLACEMENT, STRAIN ETC

ACCURACY

LOW

HIGH

Analog Sensors

The temperature of a liquid can be


measured using a thermometer or
thermocouple which continuously
responds to temperature changes as
the liquid is heated up or cooled down.

Digital Sensors

The speed of the rotating shaft is


measured by using a digital
LED/Opto-detector sensor. The disc
which is fixed to a rotating shaft , has
a number of transparent slots within
its design. As the disc rotates with the
speed of the shaft, each slot passes
by the sensor in turn producing an
output pulse representing a logic 1
or logic 0 level.These pulses are
sent to a register of counter and
finally to an output display to show the
speed or revolutions of the shaft.

ACTUATORS
Hardware devices that convert a
controller command signal into a change
in a physical parameter.
The change is usually mechanical.
(eg:position or velocity)
An actuator is usually activated by low
level command signal,so an amplifier
maybe required to provide sufficient
power to drive the actuator.

Types Of Actuators
1. Electrical Actuators
Electric motors-DC servomotors,stepper
motors
Solenoids
2. Hydraulic Actuators
Use hydraulic fluid to amplify the controller
command signal
3. Pneumatic Actuators
Use compressed air as the driving force

Common Sensors
and Transducer
There are many different types of
sensors and transducers available
in the marketplace, and the choice
of which one to use really depends
upon the quantity being measured
or controlled, with the more
common types given in the table 1.

TEMPERATURE SENSOR
The most commonly used type of all the
sensors are those which detect
Temperature or heat.
Temperature Sensors measure the amount of
heat energy or even coldness that is generated
by an object or system, allowing us to sense or
detect any physical change to that temperature
producing either an analogue or digital output.
There are many different types of Temperature
Sensor available and all have different
characteristics depending upon their actual
application.

BASIC PHYSICAL TYPES


A temperature consists of two basic physical types :
Contact Temperature Sensor Types These types of
temperature sensor are required to be in physical contact
with the object being sensed and use conduction to
monitor changes in temperature. They can be used to
detect solids, liquids or gases over a wide range of
temperatures.
Non-contact Temperature Sensor Types These types
of temperature sensor use convection and radiation to
monitor changes in temperature. They can be used to
detect liquids and gases that emit radiant energy as heat
rises and cold settles to the bottom in convection currents
or detect the radiant energy being transmitted from an
object in the form of infra-red radiation (the sun).

Thermostat

Thermostat is a contact type


electro-mechanical temperature
sensor or switch, that basically
consists of two different metals such
as nickel, copper, tungsten or
aluminium etc, that are bonded
together to form a Bi-metallic
strip.
The different linear expansion rates
of the two dissimilar metals
produces a mechanical bending
movement when the strip is
subjected to heat.
The bi-metallic strip can be used
itself as an electrical switch or as a
mechanical way of operating an
electrical switch in thermostatic
controls and are used extensively to
control hot water heating elements
in boilers, furnaces, hot water
storage tanks as well as in vehicle
radiator cooling systems.

Thermistor

A thermistor is a special type of


resistor which changes its
physical resistance when
exposed to changes in
temperature.
Thermistors are generally made
from ceramic materials such as
oxides of nickel, manganese or
cobalt coated in glass which makes
them easily damaged.
Thermistors are passive resistive
devices (need to pass a current
through it to produce a measurable
voltage output).
Then thermistors are generally
connected in series with a suitable
biasing resistor to form a potential
divider network and the choice of
resistor gives a voltage output at
some pre-determined temperature
point or value.
Advantages:Low cost,high
resistance.

Thermocouple

Resistive Temperature
Detectors (RTD)

RTDs are precision temperature


sensors made from high-purity
conducting metals such as platinum,
copper or nickel wound into a coil
and whose electrical resistance
changes as a function of
temperature, similar to that of the
thermistor.
RTD have positive temperature
coefficients (PTC) but unlike the
thermistor their output is extremely
linear producing very accurate
measurements of temperature.
Advantages:Wide temperature
range,high output,

Thermocouple is the most


commonly used type of all the
temperature sensor types.
Thermocouples are thermoelectric
sensors that basically consists of two
junctions of dissimilar metals, such
as copper and constantan that are
welded or crimped together. One
junction is kept at a constant
temperature called the reference
(Cold) junction, while the other the
measuring (Hot) junction. When the
two junctions are at different
temperatures, a voltage is developed
across the junction which is used to
measure the temperature sensor.
Advantages: Simple, easy to use,
their speed of response to changes
in temperature, small size.

PRESSURE SENSORS
Used to detect pressure of
fluids or gasses.
Many types:
Strain gauge
Piezoelectric
Bellow

Each sensor has a pressure


range that it works in.
Most have analog outputs
that need amplification
Some have built-in
amplifiers for direct
connection into
microcontroller

Strain Gauge

A strain gauge consists of a grid of very fine wire that is bonded


to a surface.
When the surface moves due to changes in pressure, the
resistance of the wire changes.
The strain gauge must be connected in a circuit such as a
Wheatstone bridge so that the change in resistance can be
converted to a change in voltage.
Types of strain gauge:
i. piezoresistive or semiconductor gauge
ii. carbon-resistive gauge
iii. bonded-metallic-wire
iv. foil-resistance gauges

Load Cell

Force (pressure) sensor that uses strain gauges which are


mounted in specific patterns to provide a meaningful value
of the change in pressure or weight.
Used to measure tension, compression and shear
Common uses for load cells include:
i. mechanical testing
ii. ongoing system monitoring
iii. industrial scales and weighing

Categories of load cells:

bending beam load cell


shear beam load cell

Other Types of Pressure Sensors


Bourdon Tube
Radially formed tubes with
an oval cross-section.
The
pressure
of
the
measuring medium acts
on the inside of the tube
and produces a motion in
the non-clamped end of
the tube.
This motion is the measure
of the pressure and is
indicated
via
the
movement.

Diaphragm

Designed to measure
lower pressures (330 psi
and vacuums to 29.9 in
Hg)

Differential

Measures the difference


between two pressures,
one connected to each
side of the sensor.
Used to measure many
properties, such as
pressure drops across oil
filters or air filters, fluid
levels (by comparing the
pressure above and
below the liquid) or flow
rates (by measuring the
change in pressure
across a restriction)

Other Types of Pressure Sensors


Pressure Transducers
& Transmitters

Bellows

Made
of
a
sealed
chamber
that
has
multiple ridges that are
compressed slightly when
the
sensor
is
manufactured.
When pressure is applied
to the chamber, the
chamber
will
try
to
expand and open the
pleats.
Uses a spring to oppose
the movement of the
bellows and provides a
means to adjust the
amount of travel the
chamber will have when
pressure is applied.

Pressure transducer is a
device
that
can
be
threaded directly into a
hydraulic or pneumatic
line
and
read
the
pressure of the system.
Available
in
pressure
ranges from 0-50 psi
through 0-1500 psi.
Typical output for this
type of sensor is rated
like the load cell at 2
mV/V with exciter voltage
of 10 volts.
Easy to interface with
input
modules
for
programmable
logic
controllers (PLCs).

Industrial Scales &


Weighing Scales

Load cell sensors can be


used in industrial scales
and weighing systems.

Other Types of Pressure


Variable
Sensors
Piezoelectric
Capacitance
Reluctance /
Inductance

When pressure is
applied
to
the
crystal, it will deform
and produce a small
voltage.
Op amps are used to
produce a usable
signal.

Use
a
thin
diaphragm,
as
one plate of a
capacitor,
exposed to the
process pressure
on one side and
to a reference
pressure on the
other.
Changes
in
pressure cause
it to deflect and
change
the
capacitance.

When the pressure


moves
the
diaphragm,
the
core will move and
change
the
amount
of
inductance in the
coil of wire.
When the amount
of
inductance
changes,
the
amount
of
inductive
reactance
also
changes.
If the coil is placed
in an ac circuit,
the
change
of
inductance can be
used to change
the voltage drop
across
the
inductor.

Ultralow
Pressure Sensor
Useful in detecting
extreme
lowpressure readings.
e.g., when a small
fan is used to
exhaust gas from
a small industrial
furnace, the total
amount
of
pressure is usually
less than 1 psi
above
atmospheric
pressure.
Uses
a
rubber
diaphragm that is
very sensitive.

POSITION SENSORS

a) A ball-screw mechanism
thatconvertsrotary motion
intolinear motion. (b) A rack and
pinion mechanism used
toconvertrotary motion intolinear
motion, or toconvertlinear
motioninto rotary motion.

Types of Position Sensors


Linear Potentiometer

Rotary Potentiometer

Types of Position Sensors


Magnetostrictive-Type Position
Sensor

Proximity Switches

Types of Position Sensors:


Hall Effect Sensors
Developed by
Edwin Hall in 1879;
and hence the
name Hall effect

Hall Effect Sensor Sensing a Shaft Speed

Used to:
provide noncontact
means to detect
and measure
magnetic field
http://farm1.static.flickr.com/62/227729006_fab88c1668.jpg?v=0

How they work


Presence of magnetic field
deflects electrons flowing
through conductive
material

Depiction principle of the Hall


Effect

As electrons move to one


end of conductive material:
Potential is developed in
direction perpendicular to
gross current flow
Potential indicates strength of
magnetic field
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/a/ab/Hall_eff
ect_A.png

Hall Effect Sensor Types


Linear Hall Effect Sensors
Output is proportional to magnetic field strength

Hall Effect Digital Switches


Presence of magnetic field above threshold turns
switch on
Presence of magnetic field below threshold turns
switch off

Hall Effect Digital Latches


North field turns latch on
South field turns latch off

Types of Position
Sensors: LVDT
The two secondary coils are
connected in the opposite
phase. When the core is in the
middle there is no output
voltage.
Moving the core from the central
position unbalances the
secondaries, developing an
output.
Applications:
To measure linear displacement,
e.g. for measuring tube lengths
in a steel plant,
applied in linear
servomechanisms, etc.

Vout

displacement

Types of Position Sensors: Optical


Encoders
These are optical devices to
measure angular displacement
and angular velocity.
A disk of an optical encoder is
connected to the rotating
shaft.
The disk has patterns (holes).
On one side of the disk there is
a light source and on the other
photo-detectors. When the
disk rotates the light is going
through the holes and the
photo-detectors generate
series of pulses.
There are two types of optical
encoders: incremental and
absolute.

The incremental encoder provides a pulse


each time the shaft has rotated a defined
distance.
The disc of an absolute encoder has several
concentric tracks, with each track having an
independent light source and photo detector.
With this arrangement a unique binary or
Gray coded number can be produced for
every shaft position.

Types of Position Sensors:


Resolver
Resolvers are used in
accurate servo and robot
systems to measure angular
displacement. Their signal
can be differentiated to
obtain the velocity.
The rotor is connected with
the rotating object and
contains a primary coil
supplied by an alternating
current from a source
voltage vref. The stator
consists of two windings
separated by 90o, with
induced voltages

V01= K vref sin


V02= K vref sin

MOTION SENSORS
(ACCELEROMETERS)
Used to measure the vibration on machines and structure
for machine health monitoring
Seismic mass accelerometer: a seismic mass is
connected to the object undergoing acceleration through
a spring and a damper;
Piezoelectric accelerometers: a microscopic crystal
structure is mounted on a mass undergoing acceleration;
the piezo crystal is stressed by acceleration forces thus
producing a voltage

MOTION SENSORS (TACHOMETERS)


Used to measure the angular speed of a rotating shaft
As simple as DC or AC generator
Determine the speed of rotation by the amount of voltage
produced or the frequency of the output signal
Magnitude of the voltage and the frequency generated will
increase proportionally with the speed of the shaft rotation.

Used in industries:
Determining the speed of motor shafts on conveyor, screw
shaft of plastic injection molding, rollers in large rolling mills.

Types of tachometers:
i. DC generator tachometer
ii.Drag cup tachometer

FLOW SENSORS
Sensors to sense the flowrate of fluid (liquid or gas)
Two classification of flow sensors: intrusive or
nonintrusive
Applications:
Measuring the flow of cooling water to a large machine or
process
To indicate when a filter is becoming clogged
To accurately measure the flow of gases or fluids that are used
in processes also used in biomedical applications
To monitor the flow of each several chemicals to make
fiberglass resin
In reactive-injection moulding
Beverage manufacturing

Types of Flow Sensors

Positive
Displacement

Mass Flow Meter


Nonelectrical Flow
Meter

LEVEL SENSOR
Used to determine the amount of product in holding tanks
and process tanks.
Categories of level sensors:
The sensor that determines the level at a single point is
called a point-contact sensor
The sensor that measures the level from minimum to
maximum is called a continuous level sensor.

Types of Level Sensors:


Point-Contact Level Sensors

Types of Level Sensors:


Continuous-Level Sensors

DENSITY AND VISCOSITY SENSORS


Liquid Density Sensors

Viscosity Sensors

pH SENSORS, HUMIDITY
SENSORS & GAS DETECTORS
Ph Sensors

Humidity Sensors

To measure the acidity


or basicity (alkaline)
of the solution.

Important for water


quality standards and
treatment.
Used in industries in
water
treatment
process before the
water from the plant
is discharger to the
river.
Consists of probe and
signal conditioner

To detect the relative


humidity.
Industries:
Semiconductor
industries (clean
room)
Environmental
control
in
computer rooms
Painting
applications
Injection molding
and extruding
Uses
temperature
measurement devices
Used
in
feedback
system
for
dehumidifiers
or
humidifiers

Gas Detectors

To measure amount of
gas
Gas
used
for
processes such as O2,
N2, CO2
Dangerous gas such
ammonia, chlorine or
hydrogen cyanide for
safety reason
Uses mass flow meter
devices
Uses a sealed sensing
head
and
signal
conditioner signal
that can be used as
an indicator or alarm