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IQRA UNIVERSITY

ACTIVE & PASSIVE VOICE


PRESENTED BY

GROUP (7)
GROUP MEMBERS:
Muhammad Arif
Raheel Muneeb Khan
Sana Ansari
Syed Maktoom Hassan
Qazi Muhammad
Mushtaq

Objectiv
e

Define Active & Passive voice.


Transitive & Intransitive.
When we use Active & Passive Voice.
Reason to use Active & Passive Voice.
Convert an Active Voice Sentence in to

Passive Voice Sentence.


Convert a Passive Voice Sentence in to
Active Voice Sentence.
Personal and Impersonal Passive.
Passive of two objects sentences.
Modals and its types.

Why do we need
to use Active &
Passive Voice
When the subject is more Important.
When we dont know the subject.
When we want to hide the subject.

Active Voice
Active voice used to show
that
the subject of the
sentence perform an action
and
the object receive an
Example:
action.
They are taking

tea.
Performer
(subject)

Action Receiver
(Verb)

(Object)

Passive Voice
Passive voice used to show
that
the subject of the
sentence receive an action
and
the object perform an
Example:
action.
Tea is taken by

them
Receiver Action
(Object)

(Verb)

Performer
(subject)

TRANSITIVE
VERBS
When your verb & object answering

what, whom.
Where you cant stop. You need to go
ahead.
Transitive verbs are not complete by
it self.
Where verbs directly link with the
object.

INTRANSITIVE VERBS

Where you dont need to go out.


Intransitive verbs are complete by it self
Where your verb/object not answering

What,Whom
Intransitive verbs can not change in
passive voice.

For Example:
She is beautiful lady.
Ali was swimming.
We mat a Romantic Army cornel .
They slept well.
I like Cricket.

Example:
Boy cleans teeth.

(Active Voice)

Teeth is cleaned by Boy.


Voice)

(Passive

Example:
A brave Boy is holding the OX.

(Active Voice)

The OX is being held by a brave boy.


Voice)

(Passive

Example:
Co.Akhter has killed an enemy.

(Active Voice)

An enemy has been killed by Co.Akhter.


(Passive Voice)

Example:
Mr.Red hanged to Mr. White.

(Active

Voice)

Mr. White was hanged by Mr.Red.


(Passive Voice)

Example:
The teacher teaches the students.

(Active

Voice)

The students are taught by the teacher.


(Passive Voice)

Any Question
Please.????

Raheel Muneeb Khan

Reasons to Use the Active Voice


Most writers prefer to use active voice

because it is more direct.


Compare

Active: Arif practiced

presentation in front of mirror.


Passive: Presentation was
practiced by Arif in front of
mirror.

Reasons to Use the Active Voice


The active voice is less awkward and clearly

states relationship between subject and action.


Compare
Passive: Your request for funding has been

denied by the review committee.


Active: The review committee denied your
request for funding.

The active voice sentence pattern propels the

reader forward through your writing thus


avoiding weak prose.

WHY DO WE USE THE PASSIVE............


We use the passive because we

do not know who performed the


action.
Ex: Hamid meer has been
targetted.
We use the passive because we
do not want to say who
performed the action. Ex: The
pizza was eaten last night.
We also use it when we think
what happened is more
important than who performed
the action. Ex: The treasure was
found.

When to Use Passive


Voice

In general, the passive voice is less direct,


less forceful, and less concise than the active
voice.

Use the passive voice in the following


situations:

Use passive voice when you do not


know or do not want to reveal the
performer of an action.

Use passive voice when you want to


emphasize the receiver of an action.

Examples
Awkward Passive: My bicycle was

repainted by John.
Deliberate Passive: My bicycle was
repainted. (The performer is not
mentioned and the emphasis is on the
bicycle.)

Sometimes a statement in passive is more polite than

active voice, as the following example shows:


Example: A mistake was made.

In this case, I focus on the fact that a mistake was

made, but I do not blame anyone (e.g. You have made a


mistake.).

1.3. Verbs not used in the passive


Intransitive verbs: die or arrive.
Transitive verbs: stative verbs: have, fit,

lack, resemble, suit.

They have a nice house. (BUT NOT A nice house is


had by them).
My shoes dont fit me (BUT NOT Im not fitted by
my shoes)

- Prepositional verbs: agree with, walk into


Everybody agreed with me (BUT NOT I was agreed
with by everybody)

Only transitive verbs (those that take objects) can be


transformed into passive constructions. Furthermore, active
sentences containing certain verbs cannot be transformed
into passive structures. To have is the most important of
these verbs. We can say "He has a new car," but we cannot
say "A new car is had by him." We can say "Josefina lacked
finesse," but we cannot say "Finesse was lacked." Here is a
brief list of such verbs*:

resemble

look like

equal

agree with

mean

contain

hold

comprise

lack

suit

fit

become

Active
Voice,
Passive
Active Voice, Passive
Voice
Voice

Now lets go to
Now lets go to
work!
work!

Sana Saleem
Ansari

RULES FOR PASSIVE VOICE FOR


ALL TENSES
The places of subject and object
in sentence are interchanged.
Past participle (3rd form of verb)
will be used only (as main verb).
Auxiliary verb for each tense is
different.
We always use by to introduce
the passive object.

SIMPLE PRESENT TENSE


ACTIVE VOICE:
1

Construction: Subject + V + Object


Example: Rimsha takes attendance.

PASSIVE VOICE:

Construction: Subject + is/am/are


+V +
3
by + Object
Example: Attendance is taken by Rimsha.
Negative: Attendance is not taken by
Rimsha.
Interrogative: Is attendance taken by
Rimsha?

PRESENT CONTINUOUS
TENSE
ACTIVE VOICE:
Construction: Subject + is/am/are +Ving + Object
Example: Col. Sir is exploring my mistakes.

PASSIVE VOICE:
Construction: Subject + is/am/are + being + V3 + by +
Object
Example: My mistakes are being explored by Col. Sir.
Negative: My mistakes are not being explored by Col. Sir.
Interrogative: Are my mistakes being explored by Col. Sir?

PRESENT PERFECT
TENSE
ACTIVE VOICE:
Construction: Subject + has/have
+ V + Object
3
Example: The painter has painted my house.

PASSIVE VOICE:
Construction: Subject + has/have3+ been + V + by +
Object
Example: My house has been painted by the painter.
Negative: My house has not been painted by the painter.
Interrogative: Has my house been painted by the painter?

SIMPLE PAST TENSE


ACTIVE VOICE:
Construction: Subject
2 + V + Object
Example: They took the breakfast.

PASSIVE VOICE:
Construction: Subject + was/were
+ V + by
3
+ Object
Example: The breakfast was taken by them.
Negative: The breakfast was not taken by
them.
Interrogative: Was the breakfast taken by

PAST CONTINUOUS
TENSE

ACTIVE VOICE:

Construction: Subject + was/were


+ V + Object
ing
Example: I was completing the assignment.

PASSIVE VOICE:
Construction: Subject + was/were3+ being +V + by +
Object
Example: The assignment was being completed by me.
Negative: The assignment was not being completed by me.
Interrogative: Was the assignment being completed by me?

PAST PERFECT
TENSE
ACTIVE VOICE:
Construction: Subject +3 had +V + Object
Example: The boy had washed that car.

PASSIVE VOICE:
Construction: Subject + had +3 been + V + by + Object
Example: That car had been washed by the boy.
Negative: That car had not been washed by the boy.
Interrogative: Had that car been washed by the boy?

Note:
The following tenses can not be changed into
passive voice;

Present Perfect Continuous


Tense
Past Perfect Continuous Tense
Future Continuous Tense
Future Perfect Continuous Tense

Syed Maktoom
Hassan

Form of the passive


Future Simple
Tense:
verb:
Affirmative
Active :

SUBJECT + WILL + V1 + OBJECT

Passive : SUBJECT + WILL BE+ PAST


PARTICIPLE+BY+ OBJECT

She will buy a car.


A car will be bought by her.

Negative:
Active : SUBJECT + WILL + NOT + V1 + OBJECT
Passive : SUBJECT + WILL NOT BE+ V3+BY+ OBJECT
She will not buy a car.
A car will not be bought by her.
Interrogative:
Active : WILL + SUBJECT + V1 + OBJECT?
Passive : WILL + SUBJECT + BE + V3+BY+ OBJECT?
Will she buy a car?
Will a car be bought by her?

Future Perfect Tense:


Affirmative
Active : SUBJECT + WILL HAVE +
V3 + OBJECT
Passive : SUBJECT + WILL HAVE BEEN+
V3+BY+ OBJECT

He will have made a mistake.


A mistake will have been made by him.

mistake.
A mistake will not have been
made by him.
Interrogative:
Active : WILL + SUBJECT +have + V3 +
OBJECT?
Passive : WILL + SUBJECT + have + been +
V3+BY+ OBJECT?

Will he have made a


mistake?
Will a mistake have been
made by him?

Passive of imperative sentences


Commands: let + subject +be (not) +past
participle
Example:Active : Shut the door.
Passive : Let the door be shut.

Requests:Example:-

Active : Kindly help him.


Passive : You are requested to help him.

Personal and
Impersonal
Passive

PERSONAL PASSIVE
Simply means that the object of the active

sentence becomes the subject of the passive


sentence. So every verb that needs an object
(transitive verb) can form a personal passive.

Example:
They build houses. Houses are built.

Impersonal Passive
It is not as common in English as in some other

languages (e.g. German, Latin). In English,


Impersonal Passive is only possible with verbs of
perception (e.g. say, think, know).

Example:
*They say that women live longer than men.
It is said that women live longer than men.

Passive Sentences with two objects


A verb can have two possible passive
voices when it takes two objects:
a direct object
an indirect object.

Normally, it is the indirect object (the


first object that appears first in an
active sentence) which becomes the
subject of the passive sentence. We
can however also use the direct
object as the subject.

Active:The salesman showed him a new


computer

Or
The salesman showed a new computer
to him
Passive:Hewas showna new
computer.
Passive:A new computerwas

Qazi Muhammad
Mushtaq

Objectives
What Are Modals
Different Modals
Uses and functions of modals
Use in active and passive voice

Modal Verbs
A modal verb (also modal, modal auxiliary

verb, modal auxiliary) is a type of auxiliary


verb that is used to indicate modality that is
Ability, Possibility
Permission, and
Suggestions
Necessity
Offers

Some of Common Modal verbs

Can,

May, Might

Must,

Should ,

Shall, Will

Would,

Can
Uses/Functions of Can
Express ability
Permissions
Requests
Offers
Seeking Suggestions
Possibility

Examples
1.Nathasha Can play Piano(Ability)
2.Can I use your pen? (Permission)
3.

Can you keep me informed(Requests)

4 .Can I get a taxi for you?(offer)


5. What can I get for his birthday? what do you think Alex(suggestion)
6. Sleeping in makeup can damage your skin(Possibility)

Active voice
voice
She can play a violin.
her
Can you put the TV on.
Can I get a taxi for you?
me for you?

Passive
Violin can played by

Can TV be put on by you


Can a taxi be get by

May, Might
Uses and Functions of May & Might

Possibility

Permission(may only not might)

Examples
Raheel may/might be working late tonight
You may/might telephone here

Active Voice
Passive Voice
I may buy the Ferrari
bought by
Guests might play chess
played by guests.

The Ferrari may be

Chess might be

Must
Uses/Functions
Certainty
Necessity
Express a wish
Examples
You will be leaving university soon..you must think about
your future(necessity)
She isnt answering the phone, she must be
out(Certainity)
I must buy a newspaper. I want to see the racing
results(Wish)

Active Voice
Passive Voice
He must have started job.
started by
(Necessity)
She must be driving car thats
her
why she isnt answering
answering
raheels phone(Certainity)
phone(Certainity)

Job must have been


him.
car must be driven by
thats why she
raheels

Could
Uses/Functions of could

Ability in the past

Permission in the present & past

Suggestion

Possibilty
Examples
In those days we had a car, so we could travel easily(ability)
Could we borrow your ladder please?(permission in the present)
In 1920s you could drive a car without taking a test
You could win a million pounds(Possibilty)
You could invite a few friends around(suggestion)

Active Voice
Could be borrow your ladder
please?
In 1920s you could drive
a car without taking a test
You could win a million of
pounds.
We had a car in those days so
we could travel easily.
You could invite a few friends.

Passive Voice
Could your ladder be

borrowed by us please.
A car could be driven by you

without taking a test in


1920s.
Million of pounds could be
won by you.
In those days we had a car so
we could travel easily.

Few friends could be invited


around by you.

Should & Ought to


Both should & ought mean same
Uses/Functions
Best thing or right thing to do in a situation
Suggestion

you are not very well. perhaps you should/ought to


see a
doctor(Best thing to do)
Where should/ought to we go for our picnic?

Active voice
Voice
Students should study all

lessons.

Students should not study


all lessons

Should students study all

lessons?
You should have studied

the book

Passive
All lessons should be studied
by
students.
All lessons should not be
studied by students.
Should all lessons be
studied by students?
The book should have been
studied by you.

You should not have

studied the book

The book should have not


been studied by you.