Organising the essay

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Scope of presentation
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Background Composition Types of essay In depth

Background

Instructions – to explain, describe, explore, etc – text type Topics – subject matters, aspects to cover Point of view – arguments, data, samples, etc – to be pros or cons

Background
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One topic One or more paragraphs State the aim at the beginning For you to say ideas about the subject For you to present ideas you learned with your own way If you quote one’s idea, state the reference

Background
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English essay is linear – start at the beginning and finish at the end Every part contributing the main line of argument without reducing or repeating the idea The argument should be clearly expressed The idea to be presented in orderly fashion One paragraph one idea and directly leads to the next para Paragraphs are tied together with introduction and a conclusion

Composition

Introductio n
Body Conclusion

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Introduction general statements about the subject to provide a background to your essay to attract the reader’s attention to explain why you are writing the essay It may include a definition of terms in the context of the essay, etc.

Composition

Introductio n
Body Conclusion

Introduction It should include a statement of the specific subdivisions of the topic and/or indication of how the topic is going to be tackled in order to specifically address the question It should introduce the central idea or the main purpose of the writing. It should address the question.

Composition

Body
One or more paragraphs of ideas and arguments Each paragraph develops a subdivision of the topic The paragraphs of the essay contain the main ideas and arguments of the essay together with illustrations or examples The paragraphs are linked in order to connect the ideas The purpose of the essay must be made clear and the reader must be able to follow its development.

Introduction

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Body
Conclusion

Composition

Conclusion
Should recall the issues raised in the introduction and draw together the points made in the main body Explain the overall significance of the conclusions. What general points can be drawn from the essay as a whole? Clearly signal to the reader that the essay is finished Leave a clear impression that the purpose of the essay has been achieved, and that the question has been answered.

Introduction Body

Conclusion

Types of essay
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The descriptive essay The argumentative essay Compare and contrast essays

Types of essay
The descriptive essay  Description of object or place  Describing a sequence of events  Describing a process  Describing and explaining

Types of essay
The argumentative essay  The balanced view  The persuasive essay  The to what extent essay

Types of essay
Compare and contrast essays  The contrast essay  The compare essay  The compare and contrast essays

In depth

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Descriptive essay

7. 8. 9.

Description of object or place require you to state the appearance of something, or to state the major characteristics of it Note the word state i.e. you are not asked to comment on the subject or to give your personal opinion of it Instructions / Questions are often introduced by: Describe .... Narrate... Tell....

In depth
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Descriptive essay Description of object or place Plan

Introduction major aspects of the subject..

description of aspect A

description of aspect B etc.

Conclusion

Examples
1. An octopus appears to be just a huge head with eight long, fearful arms. Its head is soft and rubberlike. Its eyes stick out on stalks so that it can see in all directions. Its mouth is on the underside of its body and has powerful jaws shaped like a beak. The long arms, or tentacles, have double rows of suckers. These can fasten onto objects with such suction

Examples
2. The liver is the largest organ in the body. It weighs a little more than three pounds in an adult. It is wedge-shaped and is situated under the diaphragm, mostly on the left side of the body, where it is protected by the lower ribs. Somewhat like an intricate chemical factory, the liver takes the particles of glucose (which come from digested starches and sugars) and changes them into another kind of carbohydrate called glycogen , which it then stores. When the body needs sugar, the liver turns the glycogen into glucose

Examples
3. The Léclanché cell consists of a leakproof jacket containing a porous pot in which there is a paste of manganese dioxide and carbon granules surrounding a carbon rod . The top can be sealed with pitch. A zinc rod stands in a solution of ammonium chloride, and is connected to the carbon rod via a circuit and a light bulb. The zinc dissolves in the solution, setting up an electromotive force. The ammonium ions migrate to the carbon anode and form ammonia (which dissolves in the water), and hydrogen ions. Torch dry

Examples
4. A 12-volt car battery has six two-volt cells connected in series. The cells have anodes of brown lead oxide and cathodes of porous grey lead immersed in sulphuric acid. An electric current flows if the electrodes are connected through a conductor. When the battery supplies current the sulphuric acid converts the anode to lead sulphate, thus reducing the strength of the acid. This process is reversed during recharging. Each cell of the battery is made of several anodes and cathodes separated by porous insulators. The cells are housed in a hard rubber case and the various cells are interconnected

Descriptive essay
2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

Language Position Structure Colour Composition Size / Weight Shape Function

Language
A is

Position

adjacent to alongside below beyond facing (diagonally) parallel to underneath opposite in the middle of on the right of on the left of near close to touching behind in front of under on top of above below level with diagonally above vertically below

B

Structure
is nailed screwed fixed fastened linked welded tied connected attached to Y by
Z

consists X contains includes held in place secured supported suspended joined mounted placed pivoted

of Y and Z

by to on Y

is

Color
dark light pale bright dull

X

is

green. blue. red. yellow.

Composition
metal. steel. alluminium. an alloy of A and B. cloth. silk. china. wood. plastic. glass.

X

is

made of

Size and Weight
long X is 6 cm high wide X is 6 cm in length height width diameter

6 Kg

weight

The

length height width diameter

6 cm of X is X has a

length width height diameter

6 cm. of

weight

6 Kg.

weight

6 Kg.

Shape
square round rectangular triangular semi-circular conical spherical hexagonal octagonal oval circular irregular cubical cylindrical pyramidal spherical tubular spiral hemispherical conical X in shape is is shaped like a square circle rectangle triangle semi-circle hexagon octagon

X

is

bulbous tapering concave convex diamond-shaped kidney-shaped U-shaped star-shaped bell-shaped dome-shaped mushroom-shaped X-shaped crescent-shaped egg-shaped pear-shaped Y-shaped

in shape.

X

is

in shape

X

is

.

Function
metal. steel. alluminium. an alloy of A and B. made of cloth. silk. china. wood. plastic. glass.

X

is

The

Thermometer tripod

is used for

measuring the temperature. holding the beaker,

Properties
light tough soft elastic malleable flexible soluble a good conductor of electricity/heat corrosion resistant combustible transparent X is smooth heavy brittle hard plastic ductile rigid insoluble a bad conductor of electricity/heat not corrosion resistant non-combustible

Descriptive essay
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5. 6. 7.

Describing a sequence of events. Describing a sequence of events is simply telling a story State clearly when events happened or how one event caused another. Questions may be introduced by: Give an account of..., Trace..., Examine developments in...

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