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VERBAL AND VISUAL

SUPPORT IN
PRESENTATIONS
GROUP 3: TARON OLIVER AND ILLIA ANTONENKO

CLARITY
• Clarity: Quality of being transparent and easily
understood.
• Material supporting idea should help make it less
incomprehensible.
• Clarity helps improve fluency of the topic.

INTEREST
• Supporting material should be interesting (engage
audience) and makes presentation more lively.
• Interest keeps the audience entertained.
• Choose material meaningful to audience (help them
connect)

PROOF
• Evidence that backs your claim establishing the truth of a
statement.
• Besides adding clarity and interest, add supporting material
• Supporting Material: Can provide evidence for claims &
make presentation more convincing.

DEFINITIONS
• Presentation’s vocabulary
should be at level of
audience & be easily interpreted.
• Use of unclear terms may result in you losing
audience’s attention.
• The explanation of definitions is imperative (prevents
confusion)
• Words can be defined by denotation (specific
meaning), connotation (associated meaning),
etymology (origin of the word), or negation (stating

EXAMPLES
• Examples are brief illustrations that back up a point.
• Examples also help clarify point that may not have
been clear to audience.
• In many cases you don’t need to look outside of
personal experience for examples to back up a point.
• When used to prove a point, examples are most
effective when several are given together.

STORIES
Stories illustrate a point by describing an incident in some
detail.

• Almost everyone loves to hear a story. It adds more interest
and, when well chosen, it can drive home a point better than
logic and reasoning alone.
• Some stories come in three categories: fictional, hypothetical,
and factual.
1. Fictional stories allow you to create material that perfectly illustrates the point you want
to make.
2. Hypothetical stories are the “imagine yourself” and “What would you do if” stories.
3. Factual stories can also add interest and clarity.

STATISTICS
• Statistics are #’s used represent an idea.
• Most statistics are collections of examples reduced to numerical form
• Statistics are especially strong proof because they are firmly
grounded in fact and show that the speaker is well informed.
• Poorly used statistics can spoil a presentation.

COMPARISONS
• Comparisons can make a point by showing how one idea
resembles another.

• Some comparisons called analogies are figurative.
• They compare items from an unfamiliar area with items from
a familiar one.
• Other comparisons are literal, linking similar items from two
categories.

QUOTATIONS

• Quotations use words of others used to help you make a point
more effectively than you could on your own.
• Some quotations add clarity and impact.

CITING YOUR SOURCES
• Whether you are quoting someone or using a statistic, it’s proper to cite
the source.
• Showing your ideas are based on authoritative sources boosts your
credibility.
• Cite sources that have credibility with your audience
• Restate the point of long citations.

TYPES OF VISUAL AIDS
• Objects and Models: Objects can add interest, clarity, and proof to your
topic.
• Photographs: Photographs can be most effective means of illustrating a
variety of images that need literal representation
• Lists and tables: they are effective means of highlighting key facts and
figures. They are especially effective when you list steps, highlight features,
or compare related facts
• Diagrams: Diagrams are abstract, two-dimensional drawings that show the
important properties of objects without being completely representational

PIE CHARTS
• Illustrates component percentages of a
single item. Frequently they are used to
show how much money is spent.
• Can also be used to illustrate the
allocation of resources.

COLUMN CHARTS
• Compares value of several items: productivity of several employees,
relative amount of advertising money spent on different media.
• Simple charts reflect changes in a single item over time.

PICTOGRAMS
• Artistic variations of bar, column, or pie charts. This makes them useful
in presentations aimed at lay audiences such as the general public.
• They are often not mathematically exact, which makes them less
suited for reports that require precise data.

TYPES OF VISUAL AIDS CONT..
• Graphs: show the correlation between two quantities.
They are ideally suited to showing trends, such as
growth or decline in sales over time.
• Can also represent a large amount of data without
becoming cluttered.

• Video: There are times when video support is a plus. If
illustrating action, video may do the job better than
any other medium.

MEDIA FOR PRESENTING VISUAL AIDS
• Chalk and Dry-Erase Boards: can be useful for recording info
that comes up on the spot (i.e. brainstorming ideas, tally of
audience responses to questions)
• Flip Charts and Poster Board: Flip charts consist of large pad
of paper attached to an easel. You can reveal visuals on a flip
chart one at a time by turning the pages.
• Major advantage: They are relatively simple to prepare and easy to
use

DIFFERENT VISUAL AIDS
• Computer Displays: Can present a wealth of material: text photos, charts,
graphs, and videos.
• Handouts: provide permanent record of your ideas (i.e. Intricate features of a
product, names & phone #’s, or “do’s and don'ts's”)
• Ideas are easier to recall when your listeners have a printed record of them.
• Enable you to give your audience more details than you want to talk about in your
presentation.

PRESENTATION SOFTWARE
• Content: A common mistake is to spend more time on design of a
presentation than content.
• Presentation Software (Microsoft PowerPoint, Apple Keynote, Prezi) allows
anyone with a computer to create and deliver a professional-looking
presentation with text and visuals.

• Advantages: Helps speaker in many ways by enabling them to
generate customized materials on an as needed basis.
• Poorly conceived messages: If the structure of your presentation isn’t
clear, listeners wont understand your message or believe what you say.

PRESENTATION SOFTWARE CONT…

• Overly complex presentations: Just because you can use
presentation software to create elaborate computer
productions doesn’t mean you always should use it.
• A digital display may dazzle your audience, but the spectacle
might actually draw attention away from you and your
message.
• Another danger of overly elaborate presentations is the
possibility they will make material more confusing than it would
have been if presented in a simpler way.

GUIDELINES FOR USING VISUAL AIDS
• Selection: choose visual exhibits carefully.
• Have a reason for visual aid. If your image does not
explain a point better than words alone, don’t use it.
• Keep slide shows brief. Less is more. The chances of
listeners recalling your points is inversely proportional
to the number of slides you show

GUIDELINES FOR USING VISUAL AIDS
CONT…
• Design. Confusing or sloppy exhibits are counterproductive.
• Keep visual simple, use only a few words
• Use only horizontal printing
• Label all items
• Display a visual only while discussing it
• Make sure your visuals will work in the meeting room
• Practice