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9.1

FORCE ON A MOVING CHARGE

INDUCTANCE

In an electric field the definition of the electric field intensity shows us that the force on a charged particle is

The force is in the same direction as the electric field intensity (for a positive charge) and is directly proportional to

both E and Q. If the charge is in motion, the force at any point in its trajectory is then given by (1).

A charged particle in motion in a magnetic field of flux density B is found experimentally to experience a force

whose magnitude is proportional to the product of the magnitudes of the charge Q, its velocity v, and the flux

density B, and to the sine of the angle between the vectors v and B. The direction of the force is perpendicular to

both v and B and is given by a unit vector in the direction of v B. The force may therefore be expressed as

The force on a moving particle due to combined electric and magnetic fields

is obtained easily by superposition,

This equation is known as the Lorentz force equation, and its solution is required in determining electron orbits in the

magnetron, proton paths in the cyclotron, plasma characteristics in a magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) generator, or, in general,

charged-particle motion in combined electric and magnetic fields.

The force on a charged particle moving through a steady magnetic field may be written as the differential force

exerted on a differential element of charge,

One simple result is obtained by applying (7) or (10) to a straight conductor in a uniform magnetic field,

element at point 1 was found to be

as

we obtain the force between two differential current elements,

circuits is obtained by integrating twice:

Although the force is zero, the torque is generally not equal to zero.

We now define the product of the loop current and the vector area of the

loop as the differential magnetic dipole moment dm, with units of Am2. Thus

constant throughout it, it follows that the torque on a planar loop of any size or

shape in a uniform magnetic field is given by the same expression,

next define the permeability :

where we assume that the boundary may carry a

surface current K whose component normal to the

plane of the closed path is K. Thus

the corresponding relationship between the mmf

and the magnetic field intensity,

we see that the magnetic flux density will be the analog of the current

density,

the cross section of a magnetic circuit:

magnetomotive force to the total flux; thus

the work necessary to bring the prerequisite point charges from infinity

to their final resting places. The general expression for energy is

In spite of the fact that these results are valid only for linear media, we may use them to

calculate the forces on nonlinear magnetic materials if we focus our attention on the linear

media (usually air) which may surround them. For example, suppose that we have a long

solenoid with a silicon-steel core. A coil containing n turns/m with a current I surrounds it.

The magnetic field intensity in the core is therefore nI A t/m, and the magnetic flux density

can be obtained from the magnetization curve for silicon steel. Let us call this value Bst .

total flux linkages to the current which they link,

Let us apply (49) in a straightforward way to calculate the inductance per meter length of a coaxial cable of

inner radius a and outer radius b. We may take the expression for total flux developed as Eq. (42) in Chap. 8,

An equivalent definition for inductance may be made using an energy point of view,

M12 , in terms of mutual flux linkages,

where 12 signifies the flux produced by I1 which links the path of the filamentary current I2 ,

and N2 is the number of turns in circuit 2. The mutual inductance, therefore, depends on the

magnetic interaction between two currents. With either current alone, the total energy stored

in the magnetic field can be found in terms of a single inductance, or self-inductance; with

both currents having nonzero values, the total energy is a function of the two self-inductances

and the mutual inductance.

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