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STEEL

Group No. 2

Steelsarealloysofironand other
elements, primarilycarbon, widely
used in construction and other
applications because of their high
tensile strengthsand low costs.

Tensile strengthis a
measurement of theforce
required to pull
something such asrope,
wire, or a structural beam
to the point where it
breaks.

There are three typical


definitions of tensile strength:

Yield strength - Thestressa material can


withstand without permanentdeformation.
This is not a sharply defined point. Yield
strength is the stress which will cause a
permanent deformation of 0.2% of the original
dimension.
Ultimate strength - The maximum stress a
material can withstand.
Breaking strength - The stress coordinate on
thestress-strain curveat the point of rupture.

Ancient steel
was known in antiquity,
and possibly was produced
by managingbloomeries
and crucibles, or ironsmelting facilities, in which
they contained carbon.

Wootz steelis acrucible steel


characterized by a pattern of
bands, which are formed by
sheets of microcarbides
within a tempered martensite
orpearlitematrix in higher
carbon steel, or by ferrite and
pearlite banding in lower
carbon steels.

Damascus steelwas a type


ofsteelused for
manufacturing blades in
theNear Eastmade with
wootz steelimported from
Southern India.

Low-background steel
manufactured afterWorld War II
becamecontaminatedwith
radionuclidesdue to
nuclear weapons testing.
Low-background steelis any
steelproduced prior to the
detonation of the first
atomic bombsin the 1940s and
1950s.

Geiger counteris an
instrument used for
measuring
ionizing radiationused
widely in such applications
asradiation dosimetry,
radiological protection,
experimental physicsand
thenuclear industry.

Heat treatment
There are many types of
heat treatingprocesses
available to steel. The
most common are
annealing, quenching, and
tempering.

Annealing, inmetallurgyand
materials science, is a
heat treatmentthat alters
the physical and sometimes
chemical properties of a
material to increase its
ductilityand reduce its
hardness, making it more
workable.

Quenching, In
materials science, it is a
type ofheat treating, is
the rapidcoolingof a
workpiece to obtain
certainmaterial properties
.

Tempering, is a process of
heat treating, which is
used to increase the
toughnessofiron-based
alloys

OTHER TYPES OF STEEL

LONG STEEL:

As reinforcing bars and mesh in


reinforced concrete
Railroad tracks
Structural steelin modernbuildingsand
bridges
Wires
Input to reforging applications

FLAT CARBON STEEL:

Major appliances
Magnetic cores
The inside and outside body of
automobiles,trains, andships.

STAINLESS STEEL:

Cutlery
Rulers
Surgical instruments
Watches
Guns
Rail passenger vehicles
Tablets