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Unit I
Dr. Rashmi Uddanwadiker



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• Socrates, born 2400 years ago, taught that to
understand the world around us study our own
• As scientists who seek knowledge of the
mechanics within their own bodies, and those of
other living creatures, lets share something of
Socrates' inward inquiry.
• But, we do not share the public abuse that he
suffered, and which led him, as an old man of 70,
to be tried, convicted, and executed for "impiety
and corrupting the youth of Athens."

4 4 . Biomechanics estimates the response of Bio-structure to the applied forces.What is Biomechanics ? The study of deformations of Bio-structures and its motions when subjected to static and dynamic loads.

• External forces upon a system are quantified using sophisticated measuring devices.Introduction • Newly developed discipline of science. • Internal forces which result from muscle activity are assessed using implant measuring devices.Biomechanics is the science that examines forces acting upon and within a biological structure and effects produced by such forces. 5 . • Definition by Hay(1973).

• Possible results of these forces are: – Movement of segments of interest – Deformation of biological material – Biological changes in the tissues on which they act. 6 .

2. 3. ligaments. factors influencing performance. tendons. load and overload of specified structures of living systems. cartilage and bone. • Biomechanical research addresses different areas like studies on 1. the functioning of muscles.• Hatze stated in (1971) Biomechanics is a science which studies structures and functions of biological system using the knowledge and methods of mechanics. 7 .

D Scientific Revolution 1600 A.C. 8 .D Italian Renaissance 1450 A.D The Gait Century 1800 A.D The 20th century 1900 A.C.D-1600 A.D-1730 A.1900 A.-1450A.D-1800 A.D. Middle Ages 200B.Historical Highlights • • • • • • • Antiquity 650B.D..-200 B.D…………. Enlightenment 1730 A.C.

• Pythagorus (582 BC) experimented with shapes and numbers which resulted in famous theorem . was the best tool for the pursuit of knowledge.The Scientific Legacy of Antiquity • Greek Sculpture illustrated the dynamics of movement and knowledge of surface anatomy. a system of pure ideas. • Plato(427-347 BC) believed that mathematics. • He regarded the universe and human body as musical instrument whose string required balance and tension to produce harmony. 9 .

• He wrote the first book called "De Motu Animalium" .On the Movement of Animals. water and earth. air. Aristotle (384-322 BC) might be considered the first biomechanician.• Indeed. 10 . • Aristotle had a remarkable talent for observation and was fascinated by anatomy and structure of living things. • Aristotle’s universe consisted of four observable elements: fire.

identifying numerous organs.• Herophilos (300 BC) initiated the foundation of modern anatomy by creating a sytematic approach to dissection. • Archimedes (287-212 BC) described the principle of water displacement (while bathing). • He performed surgeries and dissections and published some 500 medical treatises. • Was killed at spot by roman soldier for he was absorbed in geometrical figures and shouted “keep off” • Galen (129-201 AD) was the first sports physician and team doctor in history. • He revived the belief that brain is the seat of intelligence and not heart as suggested by Aristotle. 11 .

12 . • Knowledge and Myth were separated • Mechanical and Mathematical Paradigms were developed • First biomechanical analysis of human body was performed.Relevance to Biomechanics • The relevance of antiquity to biomechanics lies in three major aspect.

• Medicine existed but human locomotion was discouraged. Augustine discouraged the scientific enquiry • He explained that knowledge of God is the only type of knowledge.Middle ages • Arab scholars saved the scientific investigations of antiquity from disappearing • By translating the works from Greek to Arabic. • St. 13 .

Relevance to Bio-Mechanics • The relevance of the middle ages to the development is minimal. 14 . • The development was discouraged and put to sleep for more than 1200 years.

helicopters etc. 15 . • He described parallelogram of forces. Ball and socket joints at shoulders and hip joint.The Italian Renaissance • Leonardo the Vinci (1452-1519) was a military and civil Engineer. • He made parachutes.

Shoulder joint in Da Vinci’s study 16 .

• Picture of eye and brain which combines Greek and Arab views 17 .

• Performed human dissections to re-evaluate the anatomy of muscles. • He challenged Galen’s anatomy.• Vesalius (1514-1564) received his formal training in medicine. • He believed the muscles to be composed of ligaments and tendons which are divided into great number of fibres. 18 .

Human skeleton from Vesalius’s book 19 .

• The foundation for modern anatomy and physiology were laid. • Movement and muscle action were studied.Relevance to Biomechanics • Scientific work was revived. 20 .

• Santorio(1561-1636) colleague of Galileo. was the first to apply mechanics to medicine. • Galileo studied the biomechanics of human jump. effect of changing the structures of biological materials. Issac newton (1642-1727) tried to understand the nature by the way of scientific analysis. • For 30 years. • He laid the foundation for metabolism. 21 . gait analysis of horses and insects. he spent much of his time suspended from a steelyard weighing himself and his solid and liquid inputs and outputs.Scientific revolution • Galileo Galilei(1564-1642). Johannes Kepler (1571-1630).

Santorio in his balance 22 .

• By observing the habits of a fly zooming in the room while lying in the bed. • Rene Descartes (1596-1650) serving as a soldier in Holland. invented cartesian coordinate system. • He discovered the circulation of blood. • He became first cardiac biomechanist. • He applied theory of mechanics to heart and described its function as a pump. • And later died of stroke.• William Harvey (1578-1657) studied the motion of heart. 23 .

• He prepared Borelli’s table. He formulated hypothesis which included: • The trajectory of jump is parabolic and a jump during running is longer and higher. 24 . the movement of Animals: illustrating the models of muscular construction. • Muscle contraction does not consist of simple tension of the fibres similar to that exerted on a rope raising a weight. • He integrated physics and physiology.• Giovanni Borelli’s (1608-1679) investigations of mechanics of human body led him to be known as father of Biomechanics.

25 . • The Newtonian Mechanics were established providing a complete theory for mechanical analysis.Relevance to Biomechanics • Experiment and Theory were introduced as complimentary elements in scientific investigations.

The Enlightment
• Newton’s laws were analysed.
• Discarded by few and appreciated by few.
• 40 books on Newton in English,17 in french and 3 in
• Euler is considered as ablest, most brilliant and
productive scientist and mathematician of 18 th century.
• John Hunter (1728-1793) analysed that muscles are
fitted for self motion and are the only body part so
• Robert Whytt(1714-1793) did the first demonstration of
reflex action by spinal cord.

Relevance to Biomechanics
• The concept of force was clearly understood.
• The concept of conservation of momentum
and energy started to develop.
• Mathematical consolidation of different
mechanical laws took place.
• Muscle contraction and action became an
event influenced by mechanical, biochemical
and electrical forces.

Gait century
• Jean Jacques Rousseau’s (1712-1778) novel Emile
revived the ancient idea of development of body and
intellect by physical activity.
• It was proposed that exercise during childhood could
prevent musculo-skeleton deformities in adulthood.
• Volkmann described the effect of pressure on bone
• In 1867 Van Meyer described the relation between the
architecture of bone and its function.
• Development of sports and leisure during late 18 th century
created a renewed scientific interest in human locomotion.

• Etienne Marey (1838-1904) developed modern cinecamera. 29 . • Marey suggested frame by frame analysis of movements arguing that screen portrayed images which he could not see with his own eyes. mathematicians and adventurers. • He illustrated the movements he analyzed from film recordings with scientific drawings.• Analysis of human Gait occupied physiotherapist. • Weber brothers published 150 hypotheses about human Gait which were derived from observation and theoretical considerations. engineers.

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including 2 on free walking and 1 walking with army knapsack. • Reymond laid the foundation of electromyography. 3 full cartridge pouches and 88 rifles on shoulder arm position.• Braune and Fischer’s publication contained mathematical analysis of of human gait. • Engineering principles were introduced to understand the bone physiology. 31 .

Relevance to Biomechanics • Measuring methods were developed to quantify kinematics and kinetics of movement and applied to human Gait analysis. 32 . • Measuring methods were developed to quantify electrical current during muscular activity. • Engineering principles were applied to biological and biomechanical analysis.

• Financial support for medical and healthcare research. • Increased popularity. social and financial recognition of sports in society.The 20 century th • The 20th century was characterized by several factors which affected the development of Biomechanics: • Mechanical and technological development resulting from two world wars. 33 .

taking into consideration the worker’s environment and individual movements. 34 . • Einstein developed theory of relativity(1905). • A. • He developed theories for mechanical and structural function of human muscle. • This was an analysis of physical and physiological components of work.V. • Nicolas Bernstein’s (1896-1966) analysis of coordination and regulation of movement provided the basis for theories of motor control.• In 1920 Jules Amar published his book The Human Motor.Hill a mathematician switched off to physiology and received a Nobel Prize.

• Rudolph Laban developed a method of representing a series of complex human movements which are still used for dance choreography. • He gained recognition for his work with the model of muscle contraction and development of X ray diffraction and electron microscopy. • Huxley studied physics and worked on Radar in World war II. • Elftman estimated internal forces in muscles and joints. 35 .

• Principles of coordinations of human motion. • Applied biomechanics in work and sports. 36 . • Clinical aspect. • Techniques of motion studies.• In 1967 first international seminar on biomechanics was held with the discussions on following topics.

37 . exercise and sport. of which biomechanics is a substantial part. now has a prestigious international prize. • The first Prize was awarded in 1996 in Atlanta. • This award to a biomechanist is an indication of increasing importance of this science and biomechanical research performed world wide.• Research dealing with movement. • The IOC.Olympic prize. • It is awarded every two years in connection with Olympic Games.

Relevance to biomechanics • Biomechanics developed as a discipline at universities. 38 . • Biomechanical research results were increasingly used in practical. • Biomechanics became a player in multidisciplinary attempt to understand human and animal movements. medical and industrial applications.

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• the study and knowledge of biological function from an application of mechanical principles 40 .Biomechanics • The study of mechanics in the human body • The study of the effects of internal and external forces on the human body in movement and rest Mechanical principles applied to the study of biological functions. • The application of mechanical laws to living structures.

Segment Names Skeleton – Head – Neck – Trunk Upper Extremity Lower Extremity -Arm -Thigh -Forearm -Leg or Shank -Hand -Foot -Fingers -Toes .

• An imaginary straight line around which an object rotates is called axis. • Types of axes : They are 3 types of axes. • Plane : It is the surface which lies at right angles to axis and in which the movement take place. These terms are used to facilitate the description of movement or direction. 42 .Anatomical terminologies • Axis : It is the line about which movement takes place.

• Sagittal Frontal Vertical 43 . in a anterior-posterior direction. It is horizontal and at right angles to sagittal axes.e. Movement about frontal axes occurs in a sagittal plane. Transverse axes: It lies parallel to transverse suture of skull. b. Vertical axes: It lies parallel to line of gravity.a. Sagittal axis: It lies parallel to sagittal suture of skull. c. Movement about this axis is in a horizontal plane. i. Movement at this axes occur in a frontal plane.

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1. Movement in horizontal plane
(transverse plane):
Plane divides the body into upper and lower
Movements in transverse plane
occur parallel to ground.


Movement in frontal plane (coronal plane): the frontal plane divides the body into front and back halves.2. Movements in the frontal plane occur side to side movements such as bringing the head to each of the shoulders. 48 .

dividing it in half.3. Movements in this plane include forward and backward motions such as nodding of the head. It is the plane that divides the body or body segment into the right and left parts. 49 . Movement in vertical plane (sagittal plane): An anteroposterior Vertical plane passing through the body from front to back.

Location Terminology • • • • Medial Superior Proximal Anterior Lateral Inferior Distal Posterior .

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5. Extension: straightening or bending backward 3.Movements Terminologies 1. eg: knee) 2. Flexion: usually forward bending (occasionally backward. Adduction: movement towards the midline of the body. Circumduction: combination of above four 52 . Abduction: movement away from midline of the body 4.

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• Inversion: turning the sole of the foot inwards • Eversion: turning the sole of the foot outwards 56 .• Rotation: around the long axis of the bone • Pronation: turning the palm of the hand down • Supination: turning the palm of the hand up.

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• It is measured in degrees from the 0° position of the foot at rest on the ground with the body in a standing position. Dorsiflexion •Turning upward of the foot or toes or of the hand or fingers 59 .Plantar flexion •A toe-down motion of the foot at the ankle.

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Weight (W) • There are 3 orders or classes of levers. • Fulcrum (F). 61 .• LEVER: It is a rigid bar that rotate around on axis • Forces applied to levers will produce either equilibrium or movement such as rotation or translation. Effort (E).

the weight is situated anteriorly in the face and the effort is supplied by contraction of posterior neck muscles. 62 . • the efforts and the weight arms may be equal. • Skull represents lever. atlanto-occipital joints represents fulcrum. or may exceed the other in length.Ist Order Lever • Here fulcrum is in between the effort and weight. Ex: Nodding movements of head.

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thus known as lever of power. • It helps in taking mechanical advantage. • Fulcrum is metatarsophalangeal joints • weight of the body is transmitted to ankle joint by talus.2nd Order Lever • The weight is in between fulcrum and effort. • Ex: Rising of heels to stand on toes • Tarsal and metatarsal bones are stabilized to form lever. • Effort is applied by combination of calf muscles. and the effort’s arm must therefore always exceed the weight’s arm. 64 .

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• It serves as mechanical disadvantage. • Ex: When lever is forearm. • fulcrum is Shoulder joint • effort is supplied by contraction of brachialis muscle and • weight is some object held in hand.3rd Order Lever • Effort is in between fulcrum and weight. and weight arm must therefore exceed the effort arm. 66 .

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the entire mass may be assumed to be concentrated. for certain purposes. CoM (COG) is the point around which the body’s mass is equally distributed in all directions.• Center of Gravity is the point at which the entire mass or weight of the body may be considered to be concentrated. • Simply. 70 . • Center of Mass is the point in a body or system of bodies at which.

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the location of the COG is dependent on the location of the limbs. • Intersection of three planes locates COG. 72 .Location of COG in Humans • Since the human body is not rigid.

. 73 .• People adjust their stance to maintain balance.

Example • Calculate the force the biceps muscle must exert to hold the forearm and its load and compare this force with the weight of the forearm plus its load. 74 .

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7=7. 76 .• • • • Taking moments about elbow FB=470 N Ratio of FB/Weight of book and hand=470/63.38 • This means that the biceps muscle is exerting a force 7.38 times the weight supported.

77 . • If this angle changes.Interpretation • In the above example of the biceps muscle. • In addition. • The force the biceps muscle can exert depends upon its length. the force exerted by the biceps muscle also changes. it is smaller when it is shorter than when it is stretched. the length of the biceps muscle changes. the angle between the forearm and upper arm is 90°.

• Also Calculate the magnitude and direction of the force exerted by the vertebrae on the spine at the indicated pivot point. • Calculate the magnitude of the force in the back muscles that is needed to support the upper body plus the box and compare this with his weight.0 kg and the mass of the box is 30.0 kg.• Consider the person lifting a heavy box with his back. • The mass of the upper body is 55. 78 .

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67 angle= 38 • FV= 4.6 times greater than it would be if the person were standing erect 80 . FVx=3.66/0.2 kN Resolving the forces FVy=2.8335= 5.59 • This force is about 5.66kN • Ratio of FV /(W ub +W box)= 4.• • • • Taking moments about pivot point FB=4.87.

• A person working at a drafting board may hold her head as shown in Figure. • Calculate the direction and magnitude of the force supplied by the upper vertebrae FV to hold the head stationary. assuming that this force acts along a line through the center of mass as do the weight and muscle force. 81 . requiring muscle action to support the head.

• θ = 59º 82 .• F V = 97 N.

its center of mass is not directly over the principal point of support (the atlanto-occipital joint). as in Figure. • (a) Calculate the force exerted by these muscles using the information in the figure. • The muscles at the back of the neck should therefore exert a force to keep the head erect. (b) What is the force exerted by the pivot on the head? 83 . • That is why your head falls forward when you fall asleep in the class.• Even when the head is held erect.

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Example • A 75-kg man stands on his toes by exerting an upward force through the Achilles tendon. as in Figure. • (a) What is the force in the Achilles tendon if he stands on one foot? • (b) Calculate the force at the pivot of the simplified lever system shown—that force is representative of forces in the ankle joint. 85 .

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What force should the upper leg muscle exert to lift the child at a constant speed? 87 .• A father lifts his child as shown in Figure.

Examples of COM 88 .

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which hand would you recommend that a person put a cane in.• How does your stability change with the use of crutches? How does the BoS change? • Using concepts from this lecture. 90 . given that his right knee is injured and he cannot fully put his weight on that limb.

Properties • which describe the material Material properties: • which describes its general behavior ex: E. M. Ex: strength to weight ratio. flexibility Chemical properties: • Properties describing the chemistry of a material Ex: composition. colour Structural properties: • Properties of a sample which includes size and shape. 92 . µ Physical properties: • properties related to physics ex: mass.P.

Fibreglass laminate. composite fibres. • Ex. Metals Orthrotopy: • A property due to which material exhibits different properties in three mutually perpendicular directions. Wood.Isotropy: • A term indicating equal physical and material properties in all direction • Ex. silicon. cancellous bone 93 . cortical bone Anisotropy: • A variation in material property with respect to direction Ex.

• Deformation in the plastic range is non-linear.Type of behavior Linear • A material in which some specified influence (such as stress. 94 . electric -field. or magnetization) which is proportional to the influence. but return to the original shape when the force is removed. but remain in one piece. Non linear • Output is not proportional to input Elasticity • the ability to temporarily change shape. Plasticity • the ability to permanently change shape in response to the force. electric polarization. or magnetic field) produces a response (such as strain.

• Ex: amorphous polymers. or movement of neighbouring portions relative to one another.Viscosity • Resistance of a fluid to a change in shape. ligaments. Visco-elasticity • Some materials exhibit both elasticity and viscosity when undergoing plastic deformation. • Viscosity denotes opposition to flow. tendons 95 .

Thank you 97 .