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PROGRAM STUDI MANAJEMEN

FEB UNIKA SOEGIJAPRANATA

Carbon Trading

Trend
Penggunaan

mekanisme pasar
Pelibatan sektor bisnis
untuk lingkungan hidup
Contoh:
Pengelolaan daerah tangkapan air
dengan PES
Pengkavlingan laut
Perdagangan sertifikat membuang
limbah

Dasar Hukum Perdagangan


Sertifikat Membuang Limbah
UU

No 32/2009

Catatan: hirarki peraturan


perundangan
Karena sampai saat ini tidak ada
peraturan pelaksana di bawah UU,
perdagangan sertifikat membuang
limbah belum dapat dilakukan.

Tujuan Perdagangan
Sertifikat Membuang Limbah
Mengatasi

masalah perubahan iklim


(?) yang dapat menguntungkan
perusahaan (ada tenggat waktu
untuk menyesuaikan diri dan untung
secara finansial)

Yang

sudah dilakukan oleh Indonesia


adalah Carbon Trading

Climate Change:
Genuine Crisis
1997-2008:

10 warmest years since

1850
Sea level rises; 6 C rise 60 cm
sea level up by 2100 => ice melt
Threefold growth in emissions from
fossil fuel since 1990s.
Failure of Kyoto Protocol (1997): 38
industrialised countries cut GHG
emissions by 2012 to a level 5.2%
lower than 1990.

Carbon Trading:
Definition
A

complex system which sets itself a


simple goal: to make it cheaper for
companies and governments to
meet emissions reduction targets.

Carbon Trading: Main


forms
Cap

and trade
Offsetting

Cap and Trade


Governments

or intergovernmental bodies hand


out licence to pollute (carbon permits) to major
industries.
One polluter can trade these permits with
another who might make equivalent changes
more cheaply.
EU Emissions Trading Scheme: US$ 63 billion in
2008.
Cap: setting a legal limit on levels of
permissable pollution within a given time period
which is reduced to restrict pollution further.

Cap and Trade


Trading:

Installations exceeding
companys reduction commitments
(or a company who is able to reduce
beyond legal requirements) can sell
the surpluses to those who have
failed to clean up their act
adequately.
Perbaikan lingkungan: pemerintah
beli sertifikat agar harga sertifikat
naik

Logika Perdagangan Sertifikat


Hak Membuang Limbah

Dua buah PLTU


menghasilkan @ 1 juta
ton SO2.
Kebijakan pemerintah
turunkan emisi 25%.
MAC A: $1.000/ton; MAC
B: $500/ton
Sistem ADA: 250.000 x
MAC A dan B
Biaya A: $250 juta
Biaya B: $125 juta

Perdagangan emisi:
B turunkan 25% x 2 x 1

juta ton => 500.000 x


$500 = $250 juta
A bayar penurunan emisi
kepada B, misal sebesar:
$175 juta; sehingga
Biaya B: $75 juta

Syarat perdagangan
menguntungkan kedua
belah pihak: MAC
berbeda

Carbon Offset
Companies,

governments and individuals


finance emissions-saving project outside
the capped area.
Jenis Clean Developmental Mechanism
(CDM) dan Joint Implementation (JI)
September 2009: 1800 registered projects
and over 2600 waiting for approval US$ 55
billion by 2012.
Move reductions to where it is the cheapest
to make them; northern to sothern countries.

Carbon Offset
The

savings: how much less GHG is


presumed to be entering the
atmosphere than would have been
the case in the absence of the
project.
Problems: Imaginary commodity;
land grab; and repression of local
communities.

Problem for both


No

structural changes
I does not matter whether the
polluting activieties and reduction
are made in different continents.
Fossil fuels once taken out and
burned are irreversible.
Business as usual

Carbon calculator
http://www.nature.org/greenliving/carboncalculator/

Tugas
Analisis artikel Buka Kepada Publik
Kerjasama Emisi Karbon dengan
Norwegia (
http://www.pikiran-rakyat.com/nasi
onal/2015/04/22/324573/buka-kepada
-publik-kerjasama-emisi-karbon-den
gan-norwegia
) dalam buku saya jilid 2.
keuntungan dan kerugian Indonesia
memperoleh dana dari perdagangan