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LINGUISTICS

Language Theory and
Language Teaching

History of English Language
Indo-European Family of
Language

INDIA N RIG-VEDA (1OO HYMNS 1500 BC) VEDIC SANSKRIT SUTRAS BRAHMANAS ARANYAKAS Dogmatic Commentarie s Meditation UPANISHADS Philosophical Speculations Rules concerning aspects of life .

) MAHABHARATA CLASSICAL SANSKRIT PRAKRITS RAMAYANA PALI .C.INDIA N VEDIC SANSKRIT PANINI (4TH CENTURY B.

IRANIA N IRANIAN EASTERN WESTERN AVESTAN OLD PERSIAN Records of Achievement of Darius and Xerxes AVESTA Sacred Book of Zoroasterism MODERN PERSIAN SHAHNAMAH Persian Epic .

ARMANIA N CAUCASUS MOUNTAIN THRACE MACEDONIA THRACOPHRYGIANS MACEDONIANS ASIA MINOR TROJANS .

HELLEN IC PERICLES (495429 BC) DRAMATISTS AESCHYLUS EURIPIDES SOPHOCLES HELLENIC ATTIC .

ITALIC LATIN ROMANIC LANGAUGES FRENCH SPANISH ITALIAN SPAIN GAUL BRITAIN .

BALTOSLAVIC BALTIC PRUSSIAN GERMAN LETTIC –LATVIA LITHUANIAN-LITHUANIA BALTO-SLAVIC SLAVIC EAST SLAVIC – RUSSIAN WEST SLAVIC— POLAND SOUTH SLAVIC— HUNGARY AND ROMANIA .

CELTIC WELSH = WALES CORNISH = CORNWELL BRETON = ENGLISH .

4 MACRO SKILLS LISTENING SPEAKING READING WRITING .

4 COMMUNICATIVE COMPETENCIES GRAMMATICAL DISCOURSE SOCIOCULTURAL/SOCIOLING UISTIC STRATEGIC .

4 CUEING SYSTEMS PHONOLOGY MORPHOLOGY SEMANTICS SYNTAX .

4 COMMUNICATIVE COMPETENCIES If a student shows skill in pronouncing the vowel sounds correctly If a student utters “bookish” because he doesn’t know how to pertain to a person who is only good at theory but not in practice If a student can monitor his words and his actions based on the norms of a particular place If a student can use the language beyond sentential level .

4 CUEING SYSTEMS If a student can verbalize written symbols If a student can list the synonyms of a given word If a student can provide proper affixation If a student can analyze the .

PHONOLOGY The Parts of the Speech Mechanism The Sounds of English Voicing Manner of Articulation Point of Articulation .

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17. 12. 20. 15. 16.VOICING MANNER POINT •S •TS •NG •M •W •DZ •K •B •P •F 11. 18. 13. 14. 19. SH ZH G T D N L R Z V .

MORPHOLOGY MORPHEME FREE MAJOR BOUND MINOR INFLECTIONAL DERIVATIONA L .

MORPHOLOGY BOUND OR FREE •TEACH •UN •JUMP •MIS •WRITE •EN •BI •TYPE INFLECTIONAL OR DERIVATIONAL •JUMPER •WRITER •WRITTEN •TAKEN •COUNTER •WALKED •WALKER .

SEMANTICS SYNONYMY ANTONYMY HYPONYMY Homophone Homograph Homographic Homophone .

Lead (to be in a forefront) and lead (element) 6. Read (present) and read (past) 7.HOMOGRAPH. HOMOPHONE. Bare (nude) and bear (animal) . OR HOMOGRAPHIC HOMOPHONE •Bear (the animal) and bear (to carry) •Wind (moving air) and wind (to mend) •Stares (to look) and stairs (ladder) •Back (body part) and back (return) 5.

CLAUSE.SYNTAX PHRASE. SENTENCE Run! The man is The man inside the very big house on the street .

PHRASE STRUCTURE RULES •The very pretty nurse inside the very big house is writing a very short note on a white sheet. •The very pretty nurse inside the very big house on the narrow street has written a very short note on .

SENTENCE MOODS Declarative (Indicative) Interrogative Imperative Exclamatory* Subjunctive* .

The dependent and the main clause are in the present tense because this type of conditional expresses a .Zero Conditional This refers to a conditional sentence that states a simple implication.

First Conditional This type of conditional sentence expresses a situation that concerns a hypothetical but possible future event. The dependent clause is in the present tense while the .

The dependent clause is in the simple past tense while the main clause is in the conditional mood (would + base form of the .Second Conditional This conditional sentence expresses a hypothetical situation that is unlikely to happen.

Third Conditional This conditional sentence connotes a situation that is impossible to happen because it already transpired in the past. . and the main clause must be in the conditional perfect mood (would + have + past participial form of the verb). she would have harvested more for the feast. The dependent clause must be in the past perfect tense. If Ezinma had planted more cassava during spring.

•Despite the rain. •The carwash was held by the Cub scouts despite the rain. the Cub .SENTENCE Theme and Rheme •The Cub Scouts held the carwash despite the rain.

LANGUAGE TEACHING .

SWEET. VIETOR (IPA) •1941 MICHAEL WEST (Reading Approach) •1945 Audiolingual (USA) OSA (UK) .•Classical Greek and Medieval Latin – Teaching people to use foreign languages • Direct approaches to convey from and meaning • Aural and Oral Techniques •Renaissance – Printing Press – Johan Amos Comenius (1631) • • • • Use of imitation Repetition Limited vocabulary Practice reading and speaking •1860’s KARL PLOETZ (Grammar Translation) •1880 FRANCOIS GOUIN (Direct Method) •1886 PASSY.

describes grammatical constructions used in a language Pedagogical.TYPES OF GRAMMAR Descriptive.specifically designed for teaching a foreign language Prescriptive-governs socially correct use of language .

LANGUAGE TEACHING Competence-Based Language Teaching (CBLT) Notional-Functional Syllabi Content-Based Syllabi Task-Based Syllabi .

APPROACH METHOD TECHNIQUE .

REFERENCES The Cambridge Encyclopedia of Language by David Crystal Teaching English as a Second or Foreign Language by Marian Celce-Murcia The Grammar Book by .