You are on page 1of 50

Course material week 10

Biological Process
Technology
Environmental
Engineering Dept.
Institut Teknologi
Bandung

2013

Introduction
Biofilm
Physical

and Chemical Properties


Kinetics of Biofilm Systems

Biological Biofilm Systems


Trickling

Filter
Fludized Bed
Packed Bed

Used for removal of organic pollutants from


wastewaters
Biological treatment is popular due to:
low

cost
effective in removal of a wide range of organic
contaminants
effective in removal of colloidal organics
can remove toxic non-organic pollutants such as
heavy metals

Aerobic:

Organic matter + O2 CO2 + H2O + cell + energy

Anaerobic:

N1P

Organic matter intr. + CO2 + H2O + cell + energy


N1P

intermediates + CH4 + CO2 + energy

Acclimation period is usually required


Sensitivity of the microorganisms to shock
loading
Processes may produce by-products that are
more toxic than the initial substance
Certain industrial wastewater required
pretreatment
Temperature should not exceed 110F
(43C)

Definition
A gelatinous layer consisting of cells immobilized in
an organic polymer matrix of microbial origin

Physical Characteristics
Thickness ranges from few
microns to over 1000 microns
Surface is irregular rough
Specially heterogeneous
Consists of two compartments:
Base film
Surface film

Chemical Properties

The Extra-Cellular Polymers (EPS) give the biofilm its chemical


properties
EPS compounds are dominated by hydroxyl and carboxylic groups
( OH-, COO- )
The biofilm has a net anionic charge which influence transport of
contaminants

Kinetics of Biofilm Systems

Physical mass transport:


The rate of mass transport of substrate from the bulk liquid
across a unit area of the stagnant liquid layer to the biofilm
surface is called the flux.

Ns = KL (Sb - Ss)
where:

Ns = flux in units of mass per unit area per unit time


KL = mass transfer coefficient, length per time
Sb = substrate concentration in the bulk liquid
S = substrate concentration at the biofilm surface

Several correlations have been suggested describing the mass


transfer coefficient such as:
KL = 1.3 Sc-1/2 Re-1/2
or
K = 0.817 Sc-2/3 Re-1/2
where: = viscosity of fluid
Sc = Schmidt number ( /Pd)
Re = Reynolds number

Reaction at the Surface of the biofilm


The rate of consumption of substrate at the surface of the biofilm
is given by Monod kinetics:
qm Ss
-rs = ------------(Ks + Ss)
where:
-rs = reaction rate, mass per unit time per unit area
qm = maximum specific substrate removal rate, mass per
unit time per unit area
Ks = saturation constant, mass per unit volume
Ss = substrate concentration at the biofilm surface

Mass Transfer Within the Biofilm


Substrate transport within the biofilm occurs through the process
of diffusion which is characterized by Ficks law as the following:
Ns = -D (ds/dx)
where: D = diffusion coefficient,
area per unit time
ds/dx = concentration
gradient
Diffusion within the film:
Ns = -De (ds/dx)

Types of biofilm systems


Fixed-medium

systems

Trickling filters

Packed bed reactors

Moving-medium

systems

Rotating biological contactors

Fluidized bed reactors

Trickling filters consists of three major components;


filter media, distribution system, and underdrain system.
Microorganisms become attached to the media and form a
biological layer or fixed film. Organic matter in the wastewater
diffuses into the film, where it is metabolized. Periodically,
portions of the film slough off the media
Filter Media
The filter media provide the surface and voids
Should have the following characteristics:

Provide large surface area


Allows liquid to flow in a thin sheet
Has sufficient void spaces
Biologically inert
Chemically stable
Mechanically stable

Stone media

usually crushed granite or lime stone


size ranges between 2-4 inches
surface area ranges from 50-98 m2/m3 with around 50% voids

Plastic media
Provides large surface area
Provides large void spaces
Dumped plastic media, surface area ranges from 98-340 m 2/m3 with
void ratios of 95%
Modular plastic media, surface area ranges from 81-195 m 2/m3

Distribution system

Underdrain system

Provides uniform hydraulic loading on the filter surface


Rotational speed is usually 1 rev/10 min

Supports the media


Collects the effluent
Permits circulation of air through the bed
Made of vitrified clay (for stone media) or simple metal gratings
(for plastic media)

Configuration

Trickling filters can be employed as a single unit, units in series,


or units in parallel

Filter design parameters


Hydraulic

Loading

Flow per unit area (m3/day.m2)


Upper and lower limits should be considered
Lower limit to wet all of the media
(for plastic media limit is higher than stone
media)
higher limit to prevent flooding of filter bed

Organic loading
Is the mass application rate of organic matter per
unit volume of reactor (lb BOD/day-1000ft3)
Higher organic loading leads to excessive growth of
microorganisms
Recirculation is used to increase the hydraulic
loading while keeping organic loading constant

Biological tower/Activated sludge processes


Metcalf & Eddy 2003

Advantages:
Ideal

for remote sites or small communities due to their


simplicity and ease of operation
Can handle shock loading due to the large mass of
microorganisms present in the filter and the nature of
the biofilm
Produce dense sludge that can be easily removed by
settling

Disadvantages:
There

is no control on the effluent quality in response


to change in flow rate, organic concentration, and
temperature
Breeding of flies and other insects in the summer
months creates a nuisance condition in the vicinity

It consists of a series of circular disks of polystyrene or


polyvinyl chloride that are submerged in wastewater
and rotated slowly through it

The disk rotation alternately contacts the biomass with


the organic material and then with atmosphere for
adsorption of oxygen

Excess solids are removed by shearing forces created


by the rotation mechanism

RBC staging arrangements

Metcalf & Eddy 2003

Advantages

Short contact periods


Handles a wide
range of flows
Easily separates
biomass from waste
stream
Low operating costs
Short retention time
Low sludge
production
Excellent process
control

Disadvantages

Need for covering


units installed in
cold climate to
protect against
freezing
Shaft bearings and
mechanical drive
units require
frequent
maintenance

Description:
Fluidized

bed systems are a combination of attachedgrowth and suspended-growth systems

Bed

media consists of small particles usually sand or


granular activated carbon. Also, glass particles and
fabricated media can be used

The

bed packing material is kept in a suspension by


an upward flow of influent wastewater

The

effluent is discharged into a settling tank to


separate biomass escaping in the effluent

Upflow system
with velocity 3036 m/h
Bed of 0.4-0.5
mm sand or
activated carbon
Bed depth 3-4 m
1000 m2/m2

Metcalf & Eddy 2003

For aerobic applications, influent is aerated to


predissolve oxygen, because adding air to the bed
will discharge packing to the effluent;
Mainly for post-denitrification

Principles of the Process:


Liquid

is passed upwards through a bed of solid

particles
As

the liquid velocity is increased, the bed expands

The

particles separate and become free to more

relative to each other


The

liquid velocity required to achieve this effect

depends on the relative densities of the liquid and


the particles, as well as the size and shape of the
particles

Advantages:
Eliminate

problems of clogging

very large surface area is available for the growth


of microorganisms

Small

compact systems

Because

the microorganisms are attached to the


solid particles, wash-out of microorganisms are
eliminated

Eliminate

the need to recycle microorganisms back


to the reactor as the case of activated sludge
systems

Eliminates
Efficient

flow short-circuiting

mass transport

Disadvantages:
Requires
Large

high degree of control

accumulations of biological film on the

surface of the particles can lead to


aggregation of particles which would
adversely affect system performance

Moving-Bed Biofilm Reactor


Metcalf & Eddy 2003

Wastewater flows
upward through a sludge
blanket composed of
biological granules that
decompose organic
matter

Some of the generated


gas attaches to granules
that rise and strike
degassing baffles
releasing the gas

Free gas is collected by


special domes

The effluent passes into


a settling chamber

Advantages

Low energy
demand
Low land
requirement
Low sludge
production
Less expensive
than other
anaerobic
processes
High organic
removal eficiency

Disadvantages

Long start-up period


Requires sufficient
amount of granular
seed sludge for
faster start-up
Significant wash out
of sludge during
initial phase of
process
Lower gas yield than
other anaerobic
processes

Submerged upflow reactor packed with


synthetic media

Operated under anaerobic conditions

Recycle is desirable to dilute influent

Media used:
Sand

particles

Plastic

media

Aluminum

oxide particles

Advantages:
Cell
No

yield is low

oxygen is required

Production
Low

of energy source (CH4)

nutrient requirements

Disadvantages:
Low

growth rates

Sensitivity

to pH changes

Susceptibility

to toxicity and inhibition

Metcalf & Eddy 2003

Ringlace packing is a looped polyvinyl chloride (PVC)


material (~5 mm in diameter); 25-35 % of reactors
volume; individual strands at 40-100 mm apart; specific
surface area 120-500 m2/m2.

Metcalf & Eddy 2003

Biocarbone process is
termed the biological
aerated filter (BAF).
Over 100 facilities have
been constructed
worldwide.
3-5 mm fired clay material is used in current designs.
High DO is required (3-5 mg/L).
Generally, in the final effluent: BOD and TSS < 10 mg/L and
NH4-N 1-4 mg/L with nitrification.

Biocarbone

Metcalf & Eddy 2003

>100 installations in Europe and North


America
Bed depth 2-4 m; packing termed
Biolite, an clay material 2-4 mm.
Used for BOD removal and nitrification/
tertiary nitrification and denitrification

Metcalf & Eddy 2003


Metcalf & Eddy 2003

Upflow system
Developed in
Denmark

Bed depth 1.5-3 m; packing with polystyrene beads 2-4


mm; specific surface area 1000 m2/m2.
Used for BOD removal only/ combined BOD removal and
nitrification/ tertiary nitrification and post-denitrification.
Average effluent BOD, TSS and NH4-N concentrations of 7,
11 and 1.8 mg/L, respectively for long-term operation.

Metcalf & Eddy 2003

Metcalf & Eddy 2003

http://www.rpi.edu/dept/chem-eng/Biotech-Environ/Environmental/DENITE/bardenpho.htm
http://www.scitrav.com/wwater/waterlnk.htm

Nebel and Wright 1998

Risk of the transmission of disease


through the use of untreated
wastewater for vegetable irrigation.

Studies has shown that bacterial levels


are highest on leafy vegetables such
as lettuce and cabbage, as high as
37,000 TC per 100g or 3,600 FC per
100g

Rinsing in tap-water does not reduce


the indicators to safe levels and
outbreak of diseases such as cholera
have been associated with wastewater
irrigation of vegetables.

Outbreaks of parasites have also been


linked to this practice.

In Israel, stool samples containing Ascaris worms climbed to


35% when wastewater irrigation was used but fell to <1% after it
was banned.
In the US, a coliform level of 2.2 per 100 ml wastewater is
allowed for food crops whereas for non-edible crops and/or for
general landscape irrigation, it is 5,000 per 100 ml, and for
recreational use 23 per 100 ml.

Recycle Treated Wastewater


Reuse of treated effluent
from the Ngong Ping
Sewage Treatment Works.

http://www.epd.gov.hk/epd/english/environmentinhk/water/prob_solutions/highlights03.html

REFERENSI
Biological Biofilm Process, Dr. Alaadin A. Bukhari, Centre for
Environment and Water, Research Institute, KFUPM
(faculty.kfupm.edu.sa/.../abukhari/.../BiofilmNew_...)
Wastewater Treatment Technology, Prof. George Ayoub, Faculty of
Engineering and Architecture, American University of Beirut
(www.uest.gr/.../Treatment_Technologies.PPT)
Metcalf & Eddy, 2003