You are on page 1of 107

NERVOU

S SYSTE
M

Is the part of an animals


body that coordinates its
voluntary
and
involuntary actions and
transmits
signals
between different parts
of its body.
NERVOUS
SYSTEM

2
Main
Parts

CNS is the primary control


center for the body.
Composed of the brain
and spinal cord.
CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM

PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM

PNS consists of a
network of nerves
that connects the rest
of the body to CNS.

PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM

CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM

To collect information from


inside the body and from
the environment outside it.

PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM

CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM

The
systems
process
the
collected information and then
dispatch instructions to the rest
of the body, making it respond.

The only multicellular animals that


have no NS at all are sponges,
placozoans and mesozoans, which
have very simple body plans.

The size of the NS ranges from a


hundred cells in the simplest
worms, to around 100 billion cells
in humans.

The field of science that


focuses on the study of
the Nervous System.

NEUROSCIEN
CE

NEURON
S

These are microscopic nerve


cells that make up the brain,
spinal cord nerves.

30 000 neurons can fit on a


pinhead

Main Parts of a Neuron


1. Cell Body / Soma
2. Dendrites
3. Axons

1. Forebrain made up of cerebrum,


hypothalamus and thalamus.
2. Midbrain a small portion of the brain
that serves as a relay centre for sensory
information from the ears to the
cerebrum.
3. Hindbrain It consists of cerebellum,
pons and medulla oblongata.

3 Main Regions of the Human

PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM

Somatic Nervous
System

Sympathetic Nervous
System

Autonomic Nervous
System
Parasympathetic Nervous
System

NERVOUS SYSTEM
Central Nervous System

CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM

It is the system of the body that receives and processes all information
from all parts of the body. It consists of the brain, the spinal cord, and
neurons. It is arguably the most important system of the body.

PARTS OF THE CENTRAL


NERVOUS SYSTEM
Parts of the Central Nervous System
1. Brain - the control center of the body
2. Spinal Cord - a cylindrical shaped bundle of nerve fibers that is
connected to the brain.

HUMAN BRAIN
3 Main Regions of the Human Brain
1. Forebrain
2. Midbrain
3. Hindbrain

HUMAN BRAIN
The brain is also divided into several lobes:
1. Frontal Lobes
2. Parietal Lobes
3. Temporal Lobes
4. Occipital Lobes

SPINAL CORD

A cylindrical shaped bundle of nerve fibers that is connected to the brain

SPINAL CORD
Main Function
Transmit information from body organ and external stimuli to the brain and
vice versa

SPINAL CORD
Nerves of the spinal cord are grouped into bundles of nerve fibers that
travel in two pathways
1. Ascending nerve tracts
2. Descending nerve tracts

COMMON DISORDER IN CNS


Alzheimers Disease
Cerebral Palsy
Meningitis
Epilepsy
Multiple sclerosis
Hydrocephalus
Brain Tumor

ALZHEIMER'S DISEASE
A disease marked by the loss of cognitive ability, generally over 10-15
years, and associated with the development of abnormal tissues and
protein deposits in the cerebral cortex
This may strike as early as age 40 but is common after the age of 60.

CEREBRAL PALSY
A disorder usually caused by brain damage occurring at or before birth
and marked by muscular impairment
It sometimes involved speech and learning difficulties

MENINGITIS
Inflammation of the protective membranes covering the brain and the
spinal cord, known collectively as the meninges
Caused by infection with viruses, bacteria or other microorganisms, and
less commonly by certain drugs

EPILEPSY
Brain disorder that causes people to have recurring seizures.
Seizures happen when neurons, in the brain send out the wrong signals

HYDROCEPHALUS
Excessive accumulation of fluid in the brain.
Causes
Complications of premature birth like intraventicular hemorrhage
Meningitis
Tumors
Traumatic head injury
Subarachnoid hemorrhage blocking the exit from the ventricles to the
cisterns and eliminating the cisterns themselves

BRAIN TUMOR
Abnormal growth of tissue in the brain
It can be cancerous and very rapidly spread to other areas of the body
through the bloodstream

NEXT,

HAROLD POGI

BHOSXZ.L4ISZH4 MAPAGMAHAL?
(WALANG TITIBAG, BUMANGA GIBA)

Peripheral Nervous
System

PERIPHERAL
NERVOUS SYSTEM

PERIPHERAL NERVOUS
Consisting of nerves which arise from the brain(cranial nerves) and from
the spinal cord(spinal nerves)
Part of the nerve network that connects the central nervous system to the
different organs and glands of the body.
Made up of 12 pairs of nerves originating from the brain(cranial nerves)
and 31 pairs of nerves originating from the spinal cord(spinal nerves)

DIVISIONS OF THE PERIPHERAL


NERVOUS SYSTEM

1.Somatic system
-connects the brain and spinal cord
to voluntary muscles(or skeletal
muscles)

* Sensory Organs -> Brain


Sensory Organs: eyes (vision), ears (audition & vestibular), body surface
(somatosensation), tongue (taste), nostrils (smell)
* Brain -> Muscles (Motor System)

SOMATIC SYSTEM NERVES


A) SENSORY (input) ONLY:
e.g., 1 = olfaction (smell from nose)
2 = optic (from eyes)
8 = audition and vestibular input
B) MOTOR (output)
e.g., 4 = Trochlear Nerve (rotates eyeballs)
C) MOTOR and SENSORY:
e.g., 5 (Trigeminal) = movement
sensation on face

(e.g., chewing) and

AUTONOMIC NERVOUS
SYSTEM (ANS)

AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM


(ANS)
-is part of the peripheral nervous system that acts as the control
system that functions largely below the level of consciousness to control
visceral functions.

FUNCTIONS OF ANS
-In general, ANS functions can be divided into sensory (afferent) and
motor (efferent) subsystems. Within both, there are inhibitory and
excitatory synapses between neurons.
-Within the brain, the ANS is located in the medulla oblongata in the
lower brainstem. The medulla's major ANS functions include respiration,
cardiac regulation, vasomotor activity and certain reflex actions.

FUNCTIONS OF ANS
-The hypothalamus, just above the brain stem, acts as an integrator for
autonomic functions, receiving ANS regulatory input from the limbic system
to do so.

ANS SUB-SYSTEMS
The ANS is divided into three main sub-systems: the parasympathetic
nervous system (PSNS) and the sympathetic nervous system (SNS), and
the enteric nervous system (ENS).

PARASYMPATHETIC NERVOUS
SYSTEM
(PSNS)
-The ANS is responsible for regulation of internal organs and glands,
which occurs unconsciously. To be specific, the parasympathetic system is
responsible for stimulation of "rest-and-digest" or "feed and breed"
activities that occur when the body is at rest.

ANATOMY OF PSNS
-The parasympathetic division
(craniosacral outflow) consists of
cell bodies from one of two
locations: the brainstem (Cranial
Nerves III, VII, IX, X) or the sacral
spinal cord (S2, S3, S4).

SYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM


(SNS)
-The sympathetic nervous system (SNS) together with the
parasympathetic nervous system comprises the autonomic nervous
system. Its general action is to mobilize the body in a fight-or-flight
response. It is, however, constantly active at a basic level to maintain
homeostasis.

ANATOMY OF SNS
-The sympathetic division
(thoracolumbar outflow) consists of
cell bodies in the lateral horn of the
spinal cord (intermediolateral cell
columns) from T1 to L2/3. These cell
bodies are GVE (general visceral
efferent) neurons and are the
preganglionic neurons.

Functions of Autonomic Nerves


Organ

Sympathetic Nerve

Parasympathetic Nerve

Eye

Widens the pupil of the eye

Narrows the pupil of the eye

Heart

Strengthens and accelerates


heartbeat

Weakens and slows heartbeat

Blood vessels

Narrows the blood vessels

Relaxes the wall and thus


widens the blood vessels

Base of hair

Makes hair stand

Makes hair lie flat

Sweat glands

Increases secretion

Decreases secretion

Salivary glands

Decrease secretion

Increases secretion

Food tube

Slows down peristalsis

Accelerates peristalsis

Urinary Bladder

Dilates the bladder

Constricts the bladder

ENTERIC NERVOUS SYSTEM (ENS)


-The enteric nervous system (ENS) or intrinsic nervous system is one of
the main divisions of the nervous system and consists of a mesh-like
system of neurons that governs the function of the gastrointestinal system.

COMMON DISORDERS IN PNS


Shingles an acute infection of the peripheral nervous system caused by
the herpes zoster. This virus that causes chickenpox and after a person
recovers the virus overcomes a weakened immune system, leaves the
ganglion and travel down the sensory neurons of the skin by fast axonal
transport.
The result is pain, discoloration of the skin and a characteristic line of skin
blisters. The line of blisters marks the distribution of that particular
cutaneous sensory nerve belonging to the infected ganglion.

DYSAUTONOMIA
A general term used to describe a breakdown or abnormal function of the
ANS.

NEXT, BREEZY BHOSXZ 3R1KC4H


(NAG-IISA, WALANG IBA, IKAW LANG SAPAT NA!)

Reflex
Action

NERVOUS SYSTEM
NEURONS

NERVOUS SYSTEM
Central Nervous System
Brain
Spinal Cord
Peripheral Nervous System
Sensory Neurons
Motor Neurons (Somatic and Autonomic)

The
The Nervous
Nervous System
System
Central
CentralNervous
NervousSystem
System(CNS)
(CNS)

Brain
Brain

Peripheral
PeripheralNervous
NervousSystem
System(PNS)
(PNS)

Spinal
SpinalCord
Cord

Motor
MotorNeurons
Neurons

Somatic
SomaticNervous
NervousSystem
System
voluntary
movements
via
skeletal
voluntary movements via skeletalmuscles
muscles

Sympathetic
Sympathetic
-- Fight-or-Flight
Fight-or-Flightresponses
responses

Sensory
SensoryNeurons
Neurons

Autonomic
AutonomicNervous
NervousSystem
System
organs,
smooth
muscles
organs, smooth muscles

Parasympathetic
Parasympathetic
--maintenance
maintenance

DIVISIONS OF THE AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM

Action

Rest

Cells of the Nervous System

Types and Functions of Glia


1. Astrocyte (Astroglia):Star-shaped cells that provide physical and nutritional support for
neurons: 1) clean up brain "debris"; 2) transport nutrients to neurons; 3) hold neurons in place;
4) digest parts of dead neurons; 5) regulate content of extracellular space
2. Microglia:Like astrocytes, microglia digest parts of dead neurons.
3. Oligodendroglia:Provide the insulation (myelin) to neurons in the central nervous system.
4. Satellite Cells:Physical support to neurons in the peripheral nervous system.
5. Schwann Cells:Provide the insulation (myelin) to neurons in the peripheral nervous system.

The Neuron
The neuron is the basic building block of the nervous

system
They are often grouped in bundles called nerves.

Receive, integrate, and transmit information


Operate through electrical impulses
Communicate with other neurons through chemical signals

Parts of a Neuron and its Function


1. Dendrites are specialized to receive
signals from neighboring neurons
and carry them back to the cell body
Thin, bushy-like structures that receive
information from outside the neuron
Relays the information into the cell body

3. Axon: A thin, long structure that


transmits signals from the cell body to the
axon terminal.
4. Axon Terminal is the last step for
the relay of information inside the
neuron.
5. Myelin Sheath
An insulating layer around an axon. Made up
of Schwann cells

2. The Cell body (Soma)


contains the cell nucleus
The cell body relays the
information down to the
axon

6. Nodes of Ranvier
Gaps between schwann cells.
Function: Saltatory Conduction (Situation where
speed of an impulse is greatly increased by the
message jumping the gaps in an axon).

Dendrites

Axon Terminal

Soma
Myelin Sheath
Nodes of Ranvier

Axon

Axon Hillock

Three Main Types of Neurons


Sensory Neurons
Interneurons
Motor Neurons

Sensory (Afferent) vs. Motor (Efferent)

ensory (afferent) nerve

CNS
e.g., skin

Neurons that send signals from the senses, skin, muscles, and
internal organs to the CNS

motor (efferent) nerve

CNS
Neurons that transmit commands from the CNS to the
muscles, glands, and organs
Grays Anatomy 38 1999

e.g., muscle

CLASSIFICATION OF NEURONS
According to Polarity
1. Unipolar or pseudounipolar dendrite and axon emerging from the same
process
2. Bipolar axon and single dendrite on opposing ends of the soma
3. Multipolar more than two dendrites:
1. Golgi I neurons with long-projecting axonal processes, example pyramidal cells.
2. Golgi II neurons whose axonal process projects locally, example the granule cells.

NEURAL COMMUNICATION
Electrical Communication
Chemical Communication

THE ELECTRICAL PART


Action potential is an electrical current sent down the axon.
The activity within the neurons is electrical. This current causes the

neuron to fire

This is an all-or-none process

Action potentials travel down the axon like a wave of energy

HOW DO NEURONS OPERATE?


Neuron at Rest Resting Potential
Occurs when the neuron is at rest.
A condition where the outside of the membrane is positively(+) charged compared to
the inside which is negatively(-) charged.
Neuron is said to be polarized.
Neuron has a voltage difference of -70 mV

HOW IS RESTING POTENTIAL


MAINTAINED?
Ion Distribution

HOW IS RESTING POTENTIAL


MAINTAINED?
At rest, the sodium gates are closed.
Membrane is 50 times more permeable to K+ ions causing them to leak
out.
This causes outside of membrane to have an abundance of + charges
compared to inside. The inside of the membrane is negative compared to
the outside. This is helped by the (-) proteins etc.
The sodium-potassium pump pulls 2 K+ ions in for 3 Na+ ions sent out.
This further creates a charge difference!!

ACTION POTENTIAL
The mechanism by which neurons send impulses. They are comprised of
electrical signals generated at the soma and moving along the axon
toward the end opposite the soma (motor neurons)
Action potentials occur in two stages:

Depolarization

Repolarization

DEPOLARIZATION IN AN ACTION POTENTIAL


When the neuron is excited past its Threshold the following events occur:
Sodium ions (Na+) rush into the axon.
This neutralizes the negative ions inside.
The inside of the axon becomes temporarily (+) while the outside becomes
temporarily (-). The reversal of charge is known as depolarization
Nearby Sodium (Na+) channels open to continue the depolarization.

REPOLARIZATION
This is the restoring of the (+) charge on the outside of the axon and (-)
on the inside.
Potassium gates open and potassium floods out.
This generates positive charge on the outside of membrane.

Sodium Channels Close (no + charges can get inside)


The Sodium/Potassium pump rapidly moves Sodium out of the cell.
Further creates the (+) charge outside with a (-) charge inside.

REFRACTORY PERIOD
Brief period of time between the triggering of an impulse and when it is
available for another.
NO NEW action potentials can be created during this time.

SALTATORY CONDUCTION
The jumping of an impulse between the Nodes of Ranvier thus dramatically
increasing its speed.
Only occurs in axons having Myelin.
2m/s 120 m/s

ALL OR NONE RESPONSE


If an axon is stimulated above its threshold it will trigger an impulse down
its length.
The strength of the response is not dependent upon the stimulus.
An axon cannot send a mild or strong response. It either responds or does
not!!!

SYNAPTIC TRANSMISSION
The Synapse is the space between neurons
The synaptic gap or cleft

Information must be transmitted across the synapse to other neurons via


the neurotransmitters.
This is an electrochemical process

NEUROTRANSMITTER
Neurotransmitters are chemical substances that reside in the axon

terminals
They communicate to other neurons by binding to receptors on

neighboring neurons

CHEMICAL COMMUNICATION
The communication between neurons is chemical

Neurotransmitter are either neutralized by an enzyme or taken back up

by the neuron that released it in reuptake.


At least 50 different types of neurotransmitters have been identified

CHEMICAL COMMUNICATION

SYNAPTIC TRANSMISSION
The neurotransmitters are released from the vesicles and then attach to
receptors located on the postsynaptic neuron.
These neurotransmitters are in contact with the dendrite of the
postsynaptic neuron only briefly.
The chemical is almost immediately destroyed or reabsorbed

NEUROTRANSMITTER
At least 50 different types of neurotransmitters have been identified

Acetylcholine
GABA
Serotonin
Dopamine
Norepinephrine
Endorphins

ACETYLCHOLINE
Activates motor neurons controlling skeletal muscles
Contributes to the regulation of attention, arousal and memory

EXAMPLES OF NEUROTRANSMITTERS

Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is involved in experiences of anxiety,


alcohol abuse, seizure disorders, and sleep disorders

Serotonin is involved in sleep and mood regulation and appetite (appetite


for carbohydrates)

DOPAMINE
Involved in movement, thought processes, emotion, feelings of reward
and pleasure
Implicated in schizophrenia, attention deficit disorder, and drug abuse

NOREPINEPHRINE
Involved in arousal reactions (increasing heart rate, respiration, sweating,
and dilation of pupils)
May also be involved in hunger, eating, and sexual activity

DRUGS IMPACT ON THE BRAIN

Common drugs can alter the amount of a


neurotransmitter released at the synapses

Some drugs can mimic/facilitate the action of the


neurotransmitters while others can block the action of the
neurotransmitter.

AGONISTS VERSUS
ANTAGONISTS
Agonists mimic or facilitate the actions of a
neurotransmitter

Antagonists oppose/block the actions of a


neurotransmitter

MOTOR NEURON DISEASE


The motor neuron diseases (MNDs) are a group of progressive neurological disorders that destroy
motor neurons, the cells that control essential voluntary muscle activity such as speaking, walking,
breathing, and swallowing. Normally, messages from nerve cells in the brain (calledupper motor
neurons) are transmitted to nerve cells in the brain stem and spinal cord (calledlower motor
neurons) and from them to particular muscles. Upper motor neurons direct the lower motor
neurons to produce movements such as walking or chewing. Lower motor neurons control
movement in the arms, legs, chest, face, throat, and tongue. Spinal motor neurons are also called
anterior horn cells. Upper motor neurons are also called corticospinal neurons.
When there are disruptions in the signals between the lowest motor neurons and the muscle, the
muscles do not work properly; the muscles gradually weaken and may begin wasting away and
develop uncontrollable twitching (called fasciculations). When there are disruptions in the signals
between the upper motor neurons and the lower motor neurons, the limb muscles develop
stiffness (calledspasticity), movements become slow and effortful, and tendon reflexes such as
knee and ankle jerks become overactive. Over time, the ability to control voluntary movement
can be lost.

WHO IS AT RISK?
MNDs occur in adults and children. In children, particularly in inherited or
familial forms of the disease, symptoms can be present at birth or appear
before the child learns to walk. In adults, MNDs occur more commonly in
men than in women, with symptoms appearing after age 40.

CLASSIFICATION OF MND
1. Inherited

Autosomal Dominant
Autosomal Recessive

2. Degeneration

amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)


Primary lateral sclerosis
progressive muscular atrophy
progressive bulbar palsy

HOW ARE MND DIAGNOSED?


Electromyography (EMG)
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
Muscle or nerve biopsy
Transcranial magnetic stimulation

BHOXSZ.PH4UL0H_KHW4TR0H
IS HERE TO REPORT,

Central
Nervous
System

REFLEXES
AND ITS PROCESSES

FUNCTIONAL CLASSIFICATION
OF NEURONS
Sensory (afferent) neurons
Carry impulses from the sensory receptors

Cutaneous sense organs

Motor (efferent) neurons


Carry impulses from the central nervous system

Copyright 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

FUNCTIONAL CLASSIFICATION
OF NEURONS
Interneurons (association neurons)
Found in neural pathways in the central nervous system
Connect sensory and motor neurons

Copyright 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

NEURON CLASSIFICATION

Figure 7.6
Copyright 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

THE REFLEX ARC


Reflex rapid, predictable, and involuntary responses to stimuli
Reflex arc direct route from a sensory neuron, to an interneuron, to an
effector

Figure 7.11a
Copyright 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

SIMPLE REFLEX ARC

Figure 7.11bc
Copyright 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

TYPES OF REFLEXES AND


REGULATION
Autonomic reflexes

Smooth muscle regulation


Heart and blood pressure regulation
Regulation of glands
Digestive system regulation

Somatic reflexes
Activation of skeletal muscles

Copyright 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

AUTONOMIC REFLEXES
Abdominal Reflex
Stimulus: light stroking of the abdomen
Response: Contraction of the abdominal muscles that pull navel towards
stimulus
Spinal Segment: T7 - T12

Copyright 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

SOMATIC REFLEXES
Biceps Reflex
Stimulus: tap to tendon of biceps brachii muscle
Response: Flexion at elbow
Spinal Segment: C5, C6

Copyright 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

SOMATIC REFLEXES
Triceps Reflex
Stimulus: Tap to tendon of triceps brachii muscle
Response: Extension at elbow
Spinal Segment: C6, C7

Copyright 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

SOMATIC REFLEXES
Patellar Reflex
Stimulus: tap to patellar tendon
Response: extension at knee
Spinal Segment: L2-L4

Copyright 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

SOMATIC REFLEXES
Ankle-jerk Reflex
Stimulus: Tap to calcaneal tendon
Response: extension (plantar flexion) at ankle
Spinal Segment: S1-S2

Copyright 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Grade

GRADING
Description

Absent

2+ or ++

"Normal"

3+ or +++

Hyperactive without
clonus

4+ or ++++

Hyperactive with clonus