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NUTRITION

Members:
Albis, Jerson
Atienza, Ma. Lourdes
Basa, Eugene Carlo
Basit, Marian Kristel
Bautista, Honey Grace
Bayan, Krysstian Angelo

HISTORY OF NUTRITION
400 B.C.
Foods were often used as cosmetics or as
medicines in the treatment of wounds.
Hippocrates, the "Father of Medicine", said to
his students, "Let thy food be thy medicine
and thy medicine be thy food"

1500
Scientist and artist Leonardo da Vinci
compared the process of metabolism in the
body to the burning of a candle.

1747
Dr. James Lind, a physician in the British
Navy, performed the first scientific experiment
in nutrition.

1770
Antoine Lavoisier, the Father of Nutrition and
Chemistry, discovered the actual process by
which food is metabolized.

Early 1800
It was discovered that foods are composed
primarily of four elements: carbon, nitrogen,
hydrogen and oxygen.

1840
Justus Liebig of Germany, a pioneer in early
plant growth studies, was the first to point out
the chemical makeup of carbohydrates, fats
and proteins.

1897
Christiaan Eijkman, a Dutchman working with
natives in Java, observed that some of the
natives developed a disease called Beriberi.

1912
E.V. McCollum, while working for the U.S.
Department of Agriculture at the University of
Wisconsin, developed an approach that
opened the way to the widespread discovery
of nutrients.
Dr. Casmir Funk was the first to coin the term
vitamins as vital factors in the diet. He wrote
about these unidentified substances present
in food, which could prevent the diseases of
scurvy, beriberi and pellagra.

1930
William Rose discovered the essential amino
acids, the building blocks of protein.

1940
The water soluble B and C vitamins were
identified.
Russell Marker perfected a method of
synthesizing the female hormone
progesterone from a component of wild yams
called diosgenin.

1950
The roles of essential nutrients as part of
bodily processes have been brought to light.
For example, more became known about the
role of vitamins and minerals as components
of enzymes and hormones that work within
the body.

1968
Linus Pauling, a Nobel Prize winner in
chemistry, created the term Orthomolecular
Nutrition. Orthomolecular is, literally,
"pertaining to the right molecule".

1994-2000
The Dietary and Supplement Health and
Education Act was approved by Congress in
October of 1994 and updated in January
2000. It sets forth what can and cannot be
said about nutritional supplements without
prior FDA review.

Nutrients
are substances needed for growth,
metabolism, and for other body functions.

Macronutrients
are nutrients that provide calories or energy.
Carbohydrates
Proteins
Fats

Why do we need Carbohydrates?


Carbohydrates are the macronutrient that we
need in the largest amounts. According to the
Dietary Reference Intakes published by the
USDA, 45% - 65% of calories should come
from carbohydrate.
Carbohydrates are the bodys main source of
fuel.
Carbohydrates are easily used by the body for
energy.
All of the tissues and cells in our body can
use glucose for energy.

Carbohydrates are needed for the central


nervous system, the kidneys, the brain, the
muscles (including the heart) to function
properly.
Carbohydrates are important in intestinal
health and waste elimination.

Carbohydrates are mainly found in starchy


foods (like grain and potatoes), fruits, milk,
and yogurt.
Dietary fiber refers to certain types of
carbohydrates that our body cannot
digest.
Foods high in fiber include fruits,
vegetables, and whole grain products
Two types of carbohydrates
Simple (monosaccharide)
Complex (disaccharide, polysaccharide

Why do we need Proteins?


According to the Dietary Reference Intakes
published by the USDA 10% - 35% of calories
should come from protein.
Growth
Tissue Repair
Immune Function
Making essential hormones and enzymes
Energy when carbohydrate is not available
Preserving lean muscle mass

Protein is found in meats, poultry, fish,


meat substitutes, cheese, milk, nuts,
legumes, and in smaller quantities in
starchy foods and vegetable
When we eat these types of foods, our
body breaks down the protein that they
contain into amino acids.

Why do we need Fats


According to the Dietary Reference Intakes
published by the USDA 20% - 35% of calories
should come from fat.
Normal Growth and Development
Energy (fat is the most concentrated source of
energy)
Absorbing certain vitamins ( like vitamins A,
D, E, K, and carotenoids)
Providing cushioning for the organs
Maintaining cell membranes
Providing taste, consistency, and stability to
foods

Fat is found in meat, poultry, nuts, milk


products, butters and margarines, oils,
lard, fish, grain products and salad
dressings.
There are three main types of fat:
Saturated Fats
Unsaturated Fats
Trans Fats

Micronutrients
Small amount of nutrients your body needs for
survival
Commonly referred as vitamins and
minerals

Vitamins
Vitamin A
also called as retinol
helps your eyes adjust to light changes
also has antioxidant properties that neutralize free
radicals in the body
Vitamin A deficiency cause night blindness, eye
inflammation, diarrhea
Overconsumption can cause nausea, irritability
and blurred vision

Vitamin B1
also known as thiamin
helps your body by converting blood sugar into
energy
A lack of Vitamin B can cause beriberi

Vitamin B2
also called riboflavin
with other vitamins in the B complex to process
calories from carbohydrates, protein and fat
This vitamin is needed for growth and red cell
production and promotes healthy skin and good
vision
Riboflavin deficiency can cause eye sensitivity to
light, skin rash and cracks at the corners of the
mouth

Vitamin B3
also calles niacin
the digestive system function and promotes a
normal appetite and healthy skin and nerves
Vitamin B3 deficiency causes muscular weakness,
inability to eat, indigestion and skin problems
also causes pellagra

Vitamin B5
also called Panththenic acid
helps break down carbohydrates, proteins and fats
for energy

Vitamin B9
also known as folic acid
is important for the production and maintenance of
new cells
both adults and children need folic acid to make
normal red blood cells and to prevent anemia
Folate deficiency can cause diarrhea, anemia, loss
of appetite, weight loss, sore tongue

Vitamin B12
also known as cobalamin
keeps your central nervous system healthy
the only natural sources of vitamin B12 are animal
products
B12 deficiency can cause pernicious anemia

Vitamin C
also known as ascorbic acid
helps to heal wounds, prevent cell damage,
promote healthy gums and teeth and strengthen
the immune system

Vitamin D
important in helping the body absorb and use
calcium from food and supplements
also prevents osteoporosis
when you are exposed to the sun rays, your body
converts a cholesterol compound in the skin to
vitamin D
Too little vitamin D can lead to weakened bones
and an increased risk of fractures

Vitamin E
acts as a powerful antioxidant by neutralizing free
radicals in the body that cause tissue and cellular
damage

Vitamin K
necessary for blood clotting
Vitamin K deficiency may cause bleeding gums
and skin that is easily bruised

Minerals
Copper
works with iron to help the body form red blood
cells
Oyster, whole grains, beans, nuts, potatoes. Dark
leafy greens

Zinc
it is needed for the bodys defensive or immune
system to properly work. It plays a role in cells
division, cell growth, wound healing and
breakdown of carbohydrates
During pregnancy, infancy and childhood, the body
needs zinc to grow and develop properly
nuts, whole grains, legumes and yeast

Manganese
promotes bone formation and energy production
helps your body metabolize macronutrients

Sodium
responsible for maintaining proper fluid balance in
your body

Magnesium
helps your heart maintain its normal rhythm
converts glucose into energy

Iron
Helps your body produce red blood cells and
lymphocytes

Iodine
helps thyroid gland develop and function

Chloride
helps regulate water and electrolytes within your
cells

Food Fortification (R.A. 8976)


An act establishing the Philippine Food
Fortification Program and for other purposes.

Objectives:
1. To provide the basis for the need for a food
fortification program in the Philippines: The
Micronutrient Malnutrition Problem
2. To discuss various types of food fortification
strategies
3. To provide an update on the current
situation of food fortification in the
Philippines

Fortification as defined by Codex


Alimentarius
the addition of one or more essential nutrients
to food, whether or not it is normally contained
in the food, for the purpose of preventing or
correcting a demonstrated deficiencyof one or
more nutrients in the population or specific
population groups

Vitamin A, Vitamin A Deficiency (VAD) and its


Consequences
Vitamin A - an essential nutrient as retinol needed by
the body for normal sight, growth, reproduction and
immune competence
Vitamin A deficiency - a condition characterized by
depleted liver stores & low blood levels of vitamin A
due to prolonged insufficient dietary intake of vit. A
followed by poor absorption or utilization of vit. A in
the body
VAD affects childrens proper growth, resistance
to infection, and chances of survival (23 to 35%
increased child mortality), severe deficiency results to
blindness, night blindness and bitots spot

Iron and Iron Deficiency Anemia (IDA) and


its consequences
Iron - an essential mineral and is part of
hemoglobin, the red protein in red blood cells
that carries oxygen from the lungs to the cells
Iron Deficiency Anemia - condition where
there is lack of iron in the body resulting to
low hemoglobin concentration of the blood
IDA results in premature delivery, increased
maternal mortality, reduce ability to fight
infection and transmittable diseases and low
productivity

Iodine and Iodine Deficiency Disorders


(IDD)
Iodine -a mineral and a component of the
thyroid hormones
Thyroid hormones - needed for the brain
and nervous system to develop & function
normally
Iodine Deficiency Disorders refers to a
group of clinical entities caused by
inadequacy of dietary iodine for the thyroid
hormone resulting into various condition e.g.
goiter, cretinism, mental retardation, loss of IQ
points